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Full text of "The magazine of American history with notes and queries"

^ 



GENEALOGY 

973.005 

M27 

1881 

v-6 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 
FORT WAYNE & ALLEN CO., \Nf>. 

REFERENCE 



G#J 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01747 7206 



GENEALOGY 

973.005 

M27 

1881 

v. 6 



1 










. 






..■.. 






THE 



MAGAZINE 

i 

OF 



AMERICAN HISTORY 



WITH 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



VOLUME VI 



A. S. BARNES & COMPANY 

NEW YORK and CHICAGO 
I88I 



<fop|irigIjteb, 1881, bg %. S. partus # Co. 



I 

i 



CONTENTS 



The Allies at Yorktown, 1781, with Appendix, by John Austin Stevens, 
Bauman's Map of the Siege of Yorktown, by the Editor, 

56, 140, 217, 297 



65, 152, 227, 304, 

7*> 233, 315, 
77, 240, 320, 



54 
376, 454 
3 8 5> 463 

68 

39 1 * 472 
399, 480 

• 78 



Notes, Queries and Replies, 

Editor's Chronicle, 

Bibliography of Verrazano, by B. F. de Costa, 
Literary Notices, ....... 

Register of Books Received, .... 

Memorial of Erastus C. Benedict, by George F. Betts 

The Journals of Washington, by Theodore F. Dwight, Librarian Department 

of State, Washington, . 81 

The Roger Morris House, Washington's Headquarters on Harlem Heights, 

1776, with appendix, by Wilson Cary Smith, 89 

The Letters of Washington, by the Editor, 107 

Washington's Journal, May to August, 1781, 108 

Letters of Washington, now for the first time published (thirty), 1754-177 7, 126 
Kaskaskia and its Parish records, by Edward G. Mason, . . . 161 

The Nancy Globe, by B. F. de Costa, 183 

Col. Christian Febiger, of the Virginia Line of the Continental Army, by 

Henry P. Johnston, 188 

Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson's Command, 17 76-1 7 7 7, with introduction 

by William L. Stone. Parts I and II, .. . . . . 204, 283 

The First Settlement in Ohio, by Mary Cone, 241 

The new Version of the Battle of Harlem Plains, by John Austin Stevens, 260 
Judge William Smith, of the Supreme Court of the Province of New York, 

with genealogical appendix, by Maturin Livingston Delafield, . . 264 
Pamphlets in the John Carter Brown Library, relating to the Revolutionary 

War, by J. C. Stockbridge, 310 

Lafayette's Last Visit to America, by Ella Rodman Church, . . . 321 
Lafayette's Virginia Campaign, 1781, by Gen. Henry B. Carrington, . 340 
Introduction to Lafayette's Letters from Magdebourg Prison, 1793, by the 

Editor, 353 

Lafayette's Letters from Prison, from the originals in the possession of Jere- 
miah Colburn, . ' . . 360, 440 

The Sortie from Fort Erie, 18 14, by George W. Holley, . . .401 

Arnold's Retreat after the Battle of Valcour, by W. C. Watson, . . 414 

William Smith, the Historian, Chief Justice of New York and Canada, with 

appendix, by Maturin L. Delafield, . . . . . . .418 

List of Newspapers in the Maryland Historical Society, compiled by John 

W. M. Lee, 469 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Portrait of Count de Grasse, steel etching, by Hall, . i 
Plan of the Siege, of Yorktown in Virginia, fac-simile from Stedman's His- 
tory, .8 

View of Moore's House, Yorktown, Va., scene of Capitulation, . . . 16 

Part of Map of the Middle British Colonies, ...... 25 

How are the Mighty Fallen. From the Freeman's Journal, 1781, . . 30 
Fac-simile of Bauman's Map of the Siege of Yorktown, 54 

Portrait of Washington, steel etching by Hall, after Trumbull, . . 81 

Washington's Book plate, 88 

View of the Roger Morris House, Washington's Headquarters on Harlem 

Heights, ... 89 

Plan of arrangements for the night of Monday, September 16th, 1776, . 97 

The arms of Roger Morris, 104 

Fac-simile of Washington's Journal, .105 

Fac-simile of Kaskaskia Parish records, . 168 

Plane projection of the Nancy Globe, . ... 184 

View of the Globe from a photograph, 187 

Portrait of Col. Christian Febiger, steel etching, by Hall, . . . .201 

Fac-simile of Map of the State of Ohio, by Rufus Putnam, 1804, . 248 

View of Fort Harmar in 1790, from a drawing by Judge Gilman, . . 255 

View of Campus Martius in 1791, from a drawing by Winthrop Sargent, . 259 
Portrait of William Smith, Judge of the Supreme Court of the Province of 

New York, steel etching, by Hall, . . . . . . .264 

The Arms of Judge William Smith, .. .. . . . . . . 274 

Portrait of the Marquis de Lafayette, steel etching by Hall, after 

Scheffer, . . . .321 

View of the Tompkins House, Staten Island, by A. Hosier, . . . 339 
Map of Lafayette's Virginia Campaign, 1781, by General Henry B. Carring- 

ton > 344 

The Arms of Lafayette, . . . . . . . . . -359 

Fac-simile of a letter of Lafayette from Magdebourg Prison, 1793, . . 360 
Plan of Fort Erie, from a Map by Gen. Totten, U. S. Engineers, . . 413 
Portrait of William Smith, the Historian, steel etching, by Hall, . , 424 



MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. VI JANUARY 1881 No. 1 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

1 78 1 

THE popular idea that the war of the revolution was a series of 
skirmishes without preconceived plan or interdependence is 
erroneous. From its beginning to its close it was conducted 
upon an intelligent system of offence and defence — methodical attack 
was answered by methodical resistance. In the earlier campaigns, 
when the American troops were but an undisciplined militia and the 
line officers of little more experience or authority than the men they 
commanded, examples may be found of the highest strategy. It is suffi- 
cient to name Washington's reduction of Boston and retreat from New 
York. Later, when the regular regiments had acquired consistency and 
permanence on the Continental establishment, the movements of the 
war displayed an equal understanding of tactical evolution. During 
the Southern campaign (1780-1781), the last active period of the war, 
which opened with the disaster of Camden, and of which the capture 
of Yorktown was the brilliant and decisive episode, the Continentals 
proved themselves the equals of the best troops in the world, whether 
tested in hostile or friendly rivalry. At Camden the Maryland and 
Delaware regiments made gallant defence against a superior force of 
English veterans, and in the rout of the army saved the honor of their 
flag. At Cowpens the Maryland light infantry led by Colonel Howard 
made reckless Tarleton feel the touch of the American bayonet. Nor 
were the Northern regiments less thoroughly drilled or less ably 
officered. This proficiency was the result of intelligent and incessant 
labor on the part of the officers. 

In the operations of the allies before New York the discipline of the 
American troops was the marvel of the French for its extreme severity ; 
not less the admiration of Rochambeau, himself the veteran of an hun- 
dred fields, for their order, their silence, their celerity on the march. 



2 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

They too had received their baptism of fire, and learned the severer 
lesson of unmurmuring obedience in the rigor of season and privation 
of raiment and of food. 

In the solution of the problem the British ministry had assumed — the 
subjection of the Colonies by conquest — the British fleet was an import- 
ant factor, enabling them to shift the scene of military operations from 
one to the other extremity of the continent. In the earlier years of the 
war this superiority had on more than one occasion baffled the enter- 
prise of the American commanders. It had compelled the evacuation 
of New York. It provided the means for Clinton's safe retreat after 
the battle of Monmouth. The French alliance in a measure compen- 
sated for this inequality. The fleet which it brought to the service of 
the American cause confined the action of the opposing squadron and 
neutralized its effective force, but until the grand movement which, in 
its combination of land and naval armament, the extent of land and 
waters traversed to reach the point of junction, and the precision of 
the final blow, is one of the finest examples of high strategy, there had 
been no concert of operation between the two arms of the French 
service and their American allies. This has been the occasion of much 
and unjust censure of the intentions and temper of France by over- 
zealous historians forgetful that her operations on the Continent were 
properly subordinate to the safety of her own islands in the West 
Indies, which were in their isolation a constant source of solicitude to 
the parent state. At last, by the unexampled exertion of the French 
ministry, a fleet was gathered of sufficient force in guns and men to 
protect their own possessions and give material aid to their allies. The 
magnificent armament of de Grasse far exceeded in strength any that 
had ever appeared on the coast of the American continent. 

The plan for the summer's campaign, originally discussed by the 
allied commanders at Wethersfield, contemplated the alternative of a 
movement to relieve the Southern States in case an attack on New 
York should not offer sufficient probabilities of success. The solution 
of the question was sudden and simple. On the same day (nth August) 
that a body of reinforcements reached Sir Henry Clinton at New York, 
a French frigate (La Concorde) arrived at Newport with despatches 
from Count de Grasse to Count de Barras, who still lay with his 
vessels in the harbor, engaging to reach the Chesapeake with his fleet 
and the military force under the Marquis de St. Simon by the close of 
August. In his letter conveying the news to Washington Count de 
Barras urged the anxiety of de Grasse that every thing should be in 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 3 

readiness to commence operations immediately on his arrival because of 
his own particular engagement with the Spaniards to be in the West 
Indies by the middle of October. It was on receipt of this news that 
Washington finally resolved upon a movement to the southward, where 
Lord Cornwallis, in his seli-confidence and utter ignorance of the pres- 
ence of a French squadron in American waters, had ventured into a 
position from which Washington, with his military eye and intimate 
knowledge of the country, saw that escape could be prevented. 

Instantly forming his plans (15th August), he despatched a courier to 
the Marquis de Lafayette, " requesting him to be in perfect readiness to 
second his views, and to prevent if possible the retreat of Cornwallis 
towards Carolina." He was also directed to halt the troops under the 
command of General Wayne, if they had not made any great march to 
join the Southern army then in the Carolinas under the command of 
Greene. Letters received the next day from Lafayette and others 
informed Washington that Lord Cornwallis had further enmeshed him- 
self in the toils that were being laid for him, and " with the troops from 
Hampton Road he had proceeded up York river and landed at York 
and Gloucester Towns," where they were throwing up works. It was 
now evident that the British commander intended to take permanent 
post in Virginia. 

The Yorktown peninsula, now to become the theatre of memorable 
war, is about twenty-five miles in length; at its neck about three miles, 
and at its foot twelve miles in width ; in shape it resembles a cleaver. 
York river and the Chesapeake bay bound it on the north and east, 
and the James, flowing by its southern shore, mingles its waters with 
those of the Chesapeake at Hampton Road. Between this and Cape 
Henry, the eastern point of the main land beyond, is Lynn Haven bay, 
an easy, sheltered and commodious harbor. Yorktown, the county seat, 
one of the most ancient of Virginia cities, lies on the York river, about 
eleven miles from its mouth. Opposite, to the northward, on the other 
side of the stream, is Gloucester, the shire town of the county of the 
same name, They are respectively about seventy miles distant from 
Richmond, the capital, and thirty-five from Portsmouth, then the chief 
seaport of the State. 

The two commanders who faced each other on this limited area 
were worthy foes. It has been too much our habit to look upon the 
sentimental side of Lafayette's character, and in our admiration for his 
devotion to liberty, a devotion antique in its purity and classic simplic- 
ity, to forget that his youthful ardor was tempered by a prudence 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 



beyond his years, and that on every field in which he was entrusted 
with supreme command he displayed military qualities of the highest 
order. Eager for fame, burning with desire to illustrate his name, 
his race, and his country by brilliant service, he had obtained in 
the spring from Washington, who, notwithstanding their disparity of 
age, trusted him as an officer not less than he valued him as a friend, 
the command of an expedition which had been directed, in concert with 
a detachment of the French fleet from Newport, to the reduction of 
Portsmouth, where the infamous Arnold was harassing the defenceless 
population of Virginia with an atrocity all his own, gratifying his 
revenge with the blood, and his avarice with the plunder of his country- 
men. The failure of the French contingent to co-operate in the move- 
ment, notwithstanding the gallant combat between the fleets of Des- 
touches and Arbuthnot off the capes of the Chesapeake frustrated the 
well-concerted scheme. The story of the dangerous situation for six 
weeks of the American forces blockaded in Annapolis by the British 
men of war and of their release by the ingenious device of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Stevens, chief of the artillery of the expedition, bravely exe- 
cuted by Commodore Nicholson, has been told from the papers of the 
former officer. Upon the failure of the expedition, the young marquis 
returning to the Head of Elk, found orders from Washington to march 
with his troops to the southward and to take the orders of General 
Greene. He refitted his troops in Baltimore, with the aid of the mer- 
chants upon his own credit, and with the hearty practical co-operation 
of the inhabitants of the patriotic city, the ladies themselves making the 
uniforms of his corps ; then moving by forced marches he occupied 
Richmond in time to preserve it from the threatened attack of General 
Phillips, who had been sent from New York to the reinforcement of 
Arnold. Notwithstanding the inferiority of his force, the Marquis 
maintained himself on the north side of James river, but was unable to 
prevent the junction at Petersburg on the 20th May of the forces lately 
under General Phillips (that officer had fallen a victim to disease a few 
days after his occupation of this post) and the troops which Cornwallis 
had brought from the Carolinas. 

Lord Cornwallis was at this period at the very summit of his repu- 
tation. He had taken part in the campaigns of '76 and y yy on Long 
Island, at Fort Washington, Germantown and Redbank, in the course 
of which he had not only familiarized himself with the nature of the 
American contest, but had measured swords as a commander with 
Washington himself. Reinforcing Sir Henry Clinton before Charleston 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 5 

in the spring of 1780 he had been left by his commander in chief on his 
return to New York in supreme command of the British forces in the 
Carolinas. His victory over Gates near Camden in the following- 
August commended him to Lord Germain as the hope of the ministry, 
who preferred his ruthless severity to the milder conduct of his wiser, 
more politic superior, and eventually entrusted to him the direction of 
the war. The wail that rose from patriotic hearts over the loss of 
Charleston and the defeat at Camden that the Southern States were lost 
to the cause of independence was justified by the rapid manner in which 
the enterprising and skilful commander immediately took advantage of 
his success. But notwithstanding their irregular and spasmodic action, 
there was abundant resolution and tough fibre in the hardy men whom 
Shelby and Sevier and Campbell led down from the mountain fastnesses 
to punish the invader and betrayer of country and home ; and the 
severe lesson administered at King's Mountain to Ferguson's ma- 
rauders taught caution to the unscrupulous foe. Later the military 
skill of Cornwallis was met by a strategy equal to his own ; and on a 
new and unfamiliar field Greene, Washington's trusted lieutenant, dis- 
played the remarkable qualities which proved him the match of the 
best of the English generals and entitle him to a place in the very front 
rank of military commanders. Joining Morgan a few days after the 
battle of the Cowpens, Greene divined the purpose. of Cornwallis to 
undertake the conquest of Virginia, and manoeuvred to defeat his plans 
or take advantage of the extended field of operations to rescue the 
Carolinas. A series of movements in which the Dan which skirts the 
Virginia frontier was crossed and recrossed by both armies terminated 
in the doubtful action at Guilford Court House. The Americans were 
temporarily discomfited, but rapidly rallied and within a few days 
turned upon the enemy. But Cornwallis not waiting for another action 
abandoned his position, and, leaving his wounded behind, retreated, 
closely pursued by Greene, whose troops were eager to renew the con- 
test. On the 28th March the British crossed Deep river at Ramsay's 
mills. Arriving a few hours later, Greene found the bridge destroyed, 
and, recognizing the folly of further pursuit, turned to the recovery of 
the Carolinas. Cornwallis, relying upon Rawdon's ability to hold the 
Southern ports, and eager to assume the extended command which the 
instructions of the ministry with the reinforcements from Clinton opened 
to him in Virginia, marched by way of Wilmington and Halifax to 
Petersburg, the assigned point of junction, where, as has been stated, he 
arrived on the 20th May, and took command of the united forces and the 



6 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

entire department of the South. Petersburg is on the southern bank of 
the lower branch of the James ; Richmond, where Lafayette had taken 
post, is on the northern bank of the upper branch of the same river, 
about twenty-five miles distant in a nearly northerly direction. It was 
at this time, in his pride and exultation, with a sufficient force, abundant 
supplies, and uninterrupted communication by water with New York 
and Charleston, both strongly held by land and naval armament, that 
Cornwallis wrote in scorn of his youthful adversary : " The boy cannot 
escape me." A boy indeed in years was Lafayette. He had not yet com- 
pleted his twenty-fourth year, but the grave Congress had commended 
him by letters to his sovereign three years previously as " wise in council, 
brave in the field, and patient in the fatigue of war." Cornwallis soon 
found that on the young shoulders, beneath which beat a heart as impet- 
uous as his own, there rested a head trained, in prudent, wary watchful- 
ness, in the great school of Washington. With all his vigor and fertility 
of resource and stratagem, the wily general could not force Lafayette to 
an engagement. Compelled to confine himself to ravaging the, country 
with his light troops, he was not even able to prevent the junction of 
Lafayette with the detachment of the Pennsylvania line, chiefly veterans, 
which Wayne brought to him by order of Washington. A series of 
strategic movements ensued, in which Lafayette manoeuvred with such 
skill that Cornwallis, deceived as to the extent of his force, evacuated 
Richmond and marched to Williamsburg, devastating the country on 
his way, but closely followed by the Americans. The force under 
Lafayette at this period amounted to 3,900 men, of whom 1,500 were 
regulars, 400 new levies, and 2,000 militia, while the army of Corn- 
wallis reached 4,000 regulars, of whom 800 were cavalry, freshly and 
admirably mounted, with TarletOn at their head. At Williamsburg 
Cornwallis received orders from Clinton to return to him a consider- 
able part of his force, and take strong post in a healthy station. On the 
4th July he began his march for Portsmouth. The same day he reached 
James Island, closely followed by Wayne. A sharp skirmish ensued on 
the 6th without serious consequences. On the 8th Cornwallis, crossing 
the James, marched to Portsmouth, while the Marquis held the com- 
manding position of Malvern Hill. 

Hardly were the British troops embarked than letters came from Sir 
Henry Clinton, who had recovered from his immediate dread of an attack 
upon New York, countermanding his former order and directing Corn- 
wallis to take and fortify stations for the secure holding of the Chesa- 
peake. Taking advantage of the vessels which Clinton had sent to him,. 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 7 

he transferred his entire force to York and Gloucester, and at once pro- 
ceeded to fortify the posts. Sir Henry Clinton had indicated Old Point 
Comfort as the proper position for the erection of works to cover a 
naval station. Mr. Bancroft says that Cornwallis' engineers, " after care- 
ful and extensive surveys, reported unanimously that a work on Point 
Comfort would not secure ships at anchor in Hampton Roads." But 
Sir Henry Clinton, in his manuscript notes to Stedman's History, com- 
ments on the movement with severity and bitterness, after explaining 
how the " narrow channel might have been still further narrowed by the 
sinking of vessels, and consequently could not be forced by an enemy's 
fleet exposed to batteries on Point Comfort, or ships placed within 
Hampton Roads. Any number of ships might have been laid either 
across from Old Point Comfort to Willowby's Point, or up the James 
River out of reach of any batteries the enemy might have on either 
shore ; had Lord Cornwallis obeyed the only order he ever received 
from Sir H. Clinton (the notes are made in the third person) to fortify 
a place of arms to cover a naval station for ships of the line, he would 
have occupied the peninsula of Old Point Comfort ; and had he done 
so the fleet he lost in York river would have been saved, and the army 
under his command succored ; for the French fleet he well knew would 
not have ventured to remain long in Lynnhaven bay, and in the other 
roadsteads they could not forbid the entrance into James river. Lord 
Cornwallis chose, however, to disobey the commander-in-chief's order 
once more, and without waiting for his approbation to remove the naval 
station to York river, alleging as a reason that " it was there alone he 
could hope to give effectual protection to line-of-battle ships." 

Lafayette was quick to perceive that the abandonment of Portsmouth 
cut off one way of British retreat to the Carolinas. Of this movement, 
made on the 6th August, Washington received advice from Lafayette 
on the 16th. Marching orders for the advance guard of the allied forces 
were issued the same day. The troops were put in motion ; King's 
ferry was crossed between the 19th and 20th — the Americans in the van, 
the French following — marching over different roads with celerity ; Phil- 
adelphia was reached in the first days of September. The march seemed 
rather one of triumph than of manoeuvre. The people thronged to wit- 
ness the unusual sight of the gay French uniforms, and hailed their 
appearance with acclamations of joy. An aureole of victory encircled 
the advancing host. The excitement in Philadelphia was intense. The 
Congress took part in the rejoicings. The house of the French minister, 
the Chevalier de la Luzerne, was besieged by enthusiastic patriots 



8 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

eager for a view of the leaders of the gallant army — approved veterans 
of many a hard fought field, gay noblemen who had left the tapes- 
tried halls of Versailles to strike one blow for the new born nation, 
long their enemy, now the ally of their generous King. Cries of Vive 
le Roi, and Vive la France, mingled with the shouts which welcomed 
the steady tramp of the war-worn Continentals. The light troops of 
the Americans halted but a day and pressed on to Chester. Rocham- 
beau followed immediately with the first division of his army. At 
Chester the joyful news was received of the arrival of the French fleet 
at the mouth of the Chesapeake. The ardor of the troops redoubled their 
energy. On the 2d September the first division crossed Christiana bridge 
and marched to Elkton. At the Head of Elk Washington, finding the 
transports insufficient for the movement of the entire army, determined 
with Rochambeau to divide the forces. The first embarkation to con- 
sist of one thousand of the American troops, including Colonel Lamb's 
regiment of artillery, the grenadiers and chasseurs of the brigade of 
Bourbonnais with the infantry of Lauzun's legion, was to be immedi- 
ately pushed forward, while the remainder of the troops was to march 
to Baltimore by land or water as circumstances admitted, and the cav- 
alry and teams to go round by land. 

These dispositions made, Washington, to use the words of his diary, 
determined to set out for the camp of the Marquis de Lafayette without 
loss of time, and accordingly, in company with the Count de Rocham- 
beau, who requested to attend him, and the Chevalier de Chastellux, 
on the 8th reached Baltimore, where he received and answered an 
address of the citizens. 

For days Baltimore had been in a fever of delight and expectation. 
The first news of the arrival of the fleet of the Count de Grasse was 
received on Tuesday, the 4th, at half past one o'clock in the afternoon, 
by the French cutter La Serpente, commanded by M. Anne de la Lanne, 
who brought dispatches for General Washington from the Admiral. 
There was an immediate impromptu gathering at Lindsay's Coffee 
House, on Fell's Point, and a feu de joi was fired in honor of the event. 
The toasts drank on the occasion are fortunately recorded. In their 
hearty spontaneity they well characterize the ardor of the occasion. 

1. "Louis XVI. 2. The United States of America. 3. The Con- 
gress. 4. Count de Grasse and his fleet. 5. General Washington and 
the allied army. 6. The King of Spain. 7. The States of Holland. 
8. The Count de Rochambeau. 9. The Marquis de Lafayette and his 
army. 10. General Greene and the Southern army. 11. The Ameri- 



' 
>I>? 




8 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

eager for a view of the leaders of the gallant army — approved veterans 
of many a hard fought field, gay noblemen who had left the tapes- 
tried halls of Versailles to strike one blow for the new born nation, 
long their enemy, now the ally of their generous King. Cries of Vive 
le Roi, and Vive la France, mingled with the shouts which welcomed 
the steady tramp of the war-worn Continentals. The light troops of 
the Americans halted but a day and pressed on to Chester. Rocham- 
beau followed immediately with the first division of his army. At 
Chester the joyful news was received of the arrival of the French fleet 
at the mouth of the Chesapeake. The ardor of the troops redoubled their 
energy. On the 2d September the first division crossed Christiana bridge 
and marched to Elkton. At the Head of Elk Washington, finding the 
transports insufficient for the movement of the entire army, determined 
with Rochambeau to divide the forces. The first embarkation to con- 
sist of one thousand of the American troops, including Colonel Lamb's 
regiment of artillery, the grenadiers and chasseurs of the brigade of 
Bourbonnais with the infantry of Lauzun's legion, was to be immedi- 
ately pushed forward, while the remainder of the troops was to march 
to Baltimore by land or water as circumstances admitted, and the cav- 
alry and teams to go round by land. 

These dispositions made, Washington, to use the. words of his diary, 
determined to set out for the camp of the Marquis de Lafayette without 
loss of time, and accordingly, in company with the Count de Rocham- 
beau, who requested to attend him, and the Chevalier de Chastellux, 
on the 8th reached Baltimore, where he received and answered an 
address of the citizens. 

For days Baltimore had been in a fever of delight and expectation. 
The first news of the arrival of the fleet of the Count de Grasse was 
received on Tuesday, the 4th, at half past one o'clock in the afternoon, 
by the French cutter La Serpente, commanded by M. Anne de la Lanne, 
who brought dispatches for General Washington from the Admiral. 
There was an immediate impromptu gathering at Lindsay's Coffee 
House, on Fell's Point, and a feu de joi was fired in honor of the event. 
The toasts drank on the occasion are fortunately recorded. In their 
hearty spontaneity they well characterize the ardor of the occasion. 

1. "Louis XVI. 2. The United States of America. 3. The Con- 
gress. 4. Count de Grasse and his fleet. 5. General Washington and 
the allied army. 6. The King of Spain. 7. The States of Holland. 
8. The Count de Rochambeau. 9. The Marquis de Lafayette and his 
army. 10. General Greene and the Southern army. 11. The Ameri- 



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THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 9 

can Ambassadors at the courts of France, Spain and Holland. 12. May 
the alliance between France and America be perpetual. 13. May trade 
and commerce flourish in America. 14. The State of Maryland." 

Not the most punctilious master of diplomatic courtesy and national 
etiquette could have more happily ordered these tributes of honor. In 
the evening the entire city was brilliantly illuminated. The records of 
the day best describe the reception of Washington: 

" Last Saturday afternoon his excellency General Washington (accom- 
panied by Adjutant-General Hand and other officers of distinction) 
arrived at the Fountain Inn in this town, on his way to Virginia. His 
excellency was received in this vicinity and escorted to his quarters by 
Captain Moore's troop of light dragoons, where he was most respect- 
fully complimented by a number of gentlemen. The Baltimore artillery 
companies gave his excellency a handsome salute, and the inhabitants in 
general seemed to vie with each other in testifying their respect and 
affection for his person and character. In the evening every part of the 
town was elegantly illuminated. Very early the next morning his excel- 
lency (with his attendants) proceeded on his journey, the object of which 
is obvious, and undoubtedly of the last importance." 

The arrival of the French officers is likewise recorded : " On Sunday 
morning the Count de Rochambeau, Major-General and commander of 
his most Christian Majesty's troops in America (under the orders of 
General Washington), with his suite, arrived in town, and after a short 
stay proceeded southward. This great officer received every mark of 
respect from the inhabitants that his short continuance here admitted. 
The same evening Brigadier-General Chatteleux, of his most 
Christian Majesty's forces, also arrived here, and the next morning set 
out for Virginia." 

The address of the citizens of Baltimore was presented on their 
behalf by a committee of gentlemen — Messrs. William Smith, Samuel 
Purviance, Jr., John Moale, John Dorsey, and James Calhoun. It 
expressed their esteem for the character of their illustrious guest, their 
respect for his services, their congratulations on the many signal suc- 
cesses that had lately attended the American arms in the Southern 
States, and on the arrival of the French fleet. 

Washington replied in the same tone of dignity and feeling. He 
accepted their congratulations with the warmest sense of gratitude and 
affection. He rejoiced in their felicity, in that it was based upon their 
good opinion of his services during a long and trying period. He 
expressed his pleasure and delight at "the happy and eventful successes 



WWl'< >ioy 






THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 9 

can Ambassadors at the courts of France, Spain and Holland. 12. May 
the alliance between France and America be perpetual. 13. May trade 
and commerce flourish in America. 14. The State of Maryland." 

Not the most punctilious master of diplomatic courtesy and national 
etiquette could have more happily ordered these tributes of honor. In 
the evening the entire city was brilliantly illuminated. The records of 
the day best describe the reception of Washington: 

" Last Saturday afternoon his excellency General Washington (accom- 
panied by Adjutant-General Hand and other officers of distinction) 
arrived at the Fountain Inn in this town, on his way to Virginia. His 
excellency was received in this vicinity and escorted to his quarters by 
Captain Moore's troop of light dragoons, where he was most respect- 
fully complimented by a number of gentlemen. The Baltimore artillery 
companies gave his excellency a handsome salute, and the inhabitants in 
general seemed to vie with each other in testifying their respect and 
affection for his person and character. In the evening every part of the 
town was elegantly illuminated. Very early the next morning his excel- 
lency (with his attendants) proceeded on his journey, the object of which 
is obvious, and undoubtedly of the last importance." 

The arrival of the French officers is likewise recorded : " On Sunday 
morning the Count de Rochambeau, Major-General and commander of 
his most Christian Majesty's troops in America (under the orders of 
General Washington), with his suite, arrived in town, and after a short 
stay proceeded southward. This great officer received every mark of 
respect from the inhabitants that his short continuance here admitted. 
The same evening Brigadier-General Chatteleux, of his most 
Christian Majesty's forces, also arrived here, and the next morning set 
out for Virginia." 

The address of the citizens of Baltimore was presented on their 
behalf by a committee of gentlemen — Messrs. William Smith, Samuel 
Purviance, Jr., John Moale, John Dorsey, and James Calhoun. It 
expressed their esteem for the character of their illustrious guest, their 
respect for his services, their congratulations on the many signal suc- 
cesses that had lately attended the American arms in the Southern 
States, and on the arrival of the French fleet. 

Washington replied in the same tone of dignity and feeling. He 
accepted their congratulations with the warmest sense of gratitude and 
affection. He rejoiced in their felicity, in that it was based upon their 
good opinion of his services during a long and trying period. He 
expressed his pleasure and delight at "the happy and eventful successes 



JO THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

of the troops in the Southern States, as they reflect glory on the Amer- 
ican arms, and particular honor on the gallant officers and men immedi- 
ately concerned in that department." He declared "the active and gen- 
erous part the allies were taking in our cause, with the late arrival of 
their formidable fleet in the bay of Chesapeake to call for our utmost 
gratitude, and with the smiles of heaven on the combined operations to 
give the happiest presage of the most pleasing events — events which, in 
their issue, may lead to an honorable and permanent peace." 

The heart of the stern soldier seemed to warm with unwonted feeling 
as he approached once more the home of his childhood, and hope 
blossomed into certainty that these scenes of his predilection were to 
be those of the triumph of his country's arms. The Fountain Inn 
where Washington lodged plays a conspicuous part in the annals of the 
city, and in the days after the revolution became, to quote the words of 
Baltimore's faithful chronicler, Colonel Scharf, " the pet of the Presi- 
dents." 

Taking advantage of the momentary respite afforded him by the 
delay at Christiana and the Head of Elk, Washington paid a short visit 
to " his own seat at Mount Vernon," distant, as he records it with mili- 
tary precision, 120 miles from the Head of Elk. According to Ban- 
croft, this distance was made on horseback by Washington, Rocham- 
beau and Chastellux, riding sixty miles a day. Certain it is from the testi- 
mony of the newspapers, as well as from Washington's own diary, that he 
received and answered the address of the Baltimore citizens in that city 
on Saturday the 8th, and he himself records that they reached Mount 
Vernon on the 9th. It was his first visit since he took command of the 
American forces — almost his first hour of repose. The imagination 
loves to dwell upon the scene : the stately mansion sheltered by ances- 
tral trees ; at the foot of the green-clad, terraced heights the broad, sil- 
very Potomac stretching far as eye can reach its bright and undulating 
course — a landscape peaceful, motionless, and silent. The dignified and 
gracious host ; the courteous, graceful guests ; " the court, the camp, 
the grove," the theme of converse ; the homely fare, moistened by wine 
of generous vintage and cheered by hospitable and patriotic toasts to 
king and to country. 

Not long the stay. On the 12th the party took to saddle again, and 
on the 14th rode into Lafayette's camp at Williamsburg. Impossible 
here to dwell upon this meeting of the young soldier, who delighted to 
call himself the son of Washington in filial affection, with his adored 
chief and the chosen generals of his King. On the 17th the necessity 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN II 

of agreeing- upon a proper plan of co-operation with the Count de 
Grasse induced Washington to visit him on board his ship, the Ville de 
Paris, which then lay with the squadron off Cape Henry. He was 
accompanied by the Count de Rochambeau, the Chevalier de Chas- 
tellux, Generals Knox and Duportail. The vessel which carried him to 
this interview with the Admiral he himself notes in his admirable diary 
was the " Queen Charlotte." 

Well might the French Admiral feel proud of his high command. 
He had sailed from the port of Brest with an immense convoy of 250 
ships, valued at thirty million of livres. The shores were lined by 
crowds of people as the fleet sailed into the offing, and spread itself like 
a forest over the sea. The Minister of Marine, M. de Castries, had come 
up in person from Versailles to wish the gallant armament God-speed, 
and, surrounded by his suite, watched the departure from the Port de 
Ric, an elevated fort commanding the roadstead. The grand armament 
was the result of his intelligent labors. It carried with it not alone 
the hopes of France, but the fortune of a continent. The breezes 
favored, and by the close of April the fleet was before Martinique and 
broke the English blockade. Capturing all the craft which fell in his 
way, and overawing the British vessels on the stations, De Grasse, on 
the 5th August, sailed from St. Domingo, stopped at the Havana for 
a supply of coin, and passing out through the Bahama channel came 
to anchor on the 30th August in Chesapeake bay. On the evening of his 
arrival off Cape Henry he was boarded by an officer whom Lafayette 
had posted at the cape to inform him of his own position and that 
of Cornwallis. Cornwallis was at York, his supplies and communica- 
tions with the sea secured by the Guadeloupe of 24 guns, several cor- 
vettes, and a large number of transports. As the Glorieux, Aigrette, 
and Diligente, cruising in advance of the French fleet, entered the 
bay, they sighted the frigate Guadeloupe anchored off Cape Henry, 
attended by the corvette Royalist. The frigate was pursued to 
the mouth of York river, the corvette was captured. The Glorieux, 
accompanied by two frigates, anchored at the mouth to complete the 
blockade ; they were next day reinforced by the Vaillant and Triton. 
The mouth of the James, four leagues south of the York, was also occu- 
pied. L'Experiment, l'Andromaque, and several corvettes were posted 
in the river to cut off all possible retreat by way of the Carolinas and 
to protect the transports which were sent up the James with the troops 
of the Marquis de Saint Sim m, a distance of about eighteen leagues 
from the harbor of Lynn Haven, where the fleet lay. The Marquis de 



12 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

Saint Simon landed at Jamestown with his corps, amounting to 3,300 
men, on the 27th, and was immediately joined by the Marquis de Lafay- 
ette, who on the 3d September proceeded to the investment of York, 
marching to Williamsburgh, fifteen miles distant, and at the same time 
throwing a body of militia to the north bank of the York river in front 
of Gloucester. The investment was now complete. The Marquis de 
Saint Simon strongly urged Lafayette to make an assault upon the 
works at Yorktown, which Cornwallis had not yet completed, but the 
youthful general resisted not only his entreaties, but persuaded the 
Count de Grasse, who was anxious to reach the West India station, 
where he was expected by the Spanish fleet, to await the arrival of 
Washington and Rochambeau. • 

The French fleet was awaiting the return of the boats and sloops 
which had carried the troops of Saint Simon up the river when at eight 
o'clock on the morning of the 5th the frigate cruising outside signaled 
twenty-seven sail to the eastward, heading for Chesapeake Bay. Little 
by little it was ascertained that the fleet signaled was that of the enemy, 
and not that of Count de Barras, which was daily expected from New- 
port harbor. It was in fact the English fleet. Sir Samuel Hood appeared 
before Sandy Hook on the 28th August with fourteen ships of the line 
and four frigates. He brought news to Admiral Graves, who was in 
command of the squadron in New York harbor, of the departure of de 
Grasse from St. Domingo for the Northern coast. The same day news 
reached New York that M. de Barras had sailed from Newport with all 
his ships and transports. Admiral Graves, taking command of the two 
squadrons, hastened to sea and made all sail for the capes of the Chesa- 
peake, hoping to prevent the junction of the two French fleets, and to 
defeat de Barras separately. To his surprise he found the vessels of 
de Grasse at anchor at the mouth of the bay. Count de Grasse immedi- 
ately gave the signal to weigh anchor. At noon the tide served to set 
sail, and the captains manoeuvred with such skill and speed that in less 
than three-quarters of an hour the line of battle was formed. The order 
of battle is given in the " Account of the Campaign of the Naval Arma- 
ment under Command of Count de Grasse, printed by his order on 
board the Ville de Paris." The Admiral commanded in person. The 
rear guard was under the orders of M. de Monteil, in the Languedoc. 

The French fleet consisted of twenty -four ships and two frigates, and 
according to M. Chevalier in his " History of the French Navy," carried 
1826 guns. The English squadron counted twenty-one ships, two of 
which — the London, on which Admiral Graves hoisted his pennant, and 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 13 

the Harfleur, commanded by Sir Samuel Hood — were three-deckers; 
they carried 1694 guns. After some preliminary manoeuvres the combat 
began at four o'clock in the afternoon, and continued for about an hour, 
with a very sharp fire on either side. The superior sailing qualities of the 
English enabled them to engage or decline action at pleasure. The French 
rear line, consisting of five vessels, could not be engaged, the English rear 
refusing the combat. The weight of metal was with the French, but this 
was more than compensated by the want of uniformity in speed, some 
of their ships not being coppered. In this may be found the true 
cause of English naval superiority in the last century over their French 
rivals. In the action of the 5th the French lost Messrs. de Boudet, Cap- 
tain commanding the Reflechi, Dup6 d'Orvant, Lieutenant and Major 
of the Blue squadron, Riamb, ensign on the Diademe, eighteen officers 
wounded, and about two hundred men killed and wounded. The Eng- 
lish were roughly handled ; five of their vessels were greatly damaged, 
and the Terrible, carrying eighty -two guns, and the sixth of the English 
line, was so badly injured that she could with difficulty be kept afloat. 
From the 6th to the 10th the French fleet manoeuvred to obtain the 
weather gauge of the enemy and compel them to a general engage- 
ment, but in vain. Setting fire to his crippled ship, Graves turned to 
the northward and made sail for New York, and de Grasse returned to 
his station at the mouth of the bay, where he was agreeably surprised 
to find the fleet of de Barras which had arrived on the evening of the 
9th — the day previous. On his way in de Grasse captured two frigates, 
the Richmond and Iris, which, according to his narrative, had been sent 
out from Chesapeake bay to cut the buoys set for his fleet and fell into 
his hands on the 1 ith. Chevalier does not agree with this, however, but 
says that the two frigates had been detached from Graves' squadron to 
communicate with Cornwallis. Balch, in his Frangais en Amerique, says 
that the frigates were captured by de Barras at the entrance to the bay, 
and that on board the Richmond were found Lord Rawdon, Greene's 
late antagonist in the Carolinas, and Colonel Doyle. This seems hardly 
probable, as de Grasse left behind him two ships, the Glorieux and the 
Digilente, at the mouth of the rivers, James and York, and two cor- 
vettes to cruise on the bay ; moreover the Diligente, on board of which 
Balch, on the authority of the Count de Deux Ponts, says that Lord Raw- 
don was a prisoner, was, as has been seen, one of the fleet of de Grasse. 
Deux Ponts states that Lord Rawdon was taken on the packet " Queen 
Charlotte ;" and in fact, Rivington, in his New York news of the 12th, 
says that Rawdon was taken " on his passage to England on board a 



14 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

South Carolina packet, in an infirm state of health." Had he been 
captured on the 9th by de Barras the news could not have reached New- 
York on the 12th, and there is besides, the positive evidence in a letter 
written by a gentleman in Northumberland county to a friend in Balti- 
more, dated the 7th ol September, announcing the arrival of de Grasse, 
which states that " Lord Rawdon, on his passage to England, was taken 
by the fleet, and is now in Virginia." The capture of Rawdon, who 
had been guilty of gross atrocities, notably in the hanging of Colonel 
Hayne, alarmed the British, who dreaded possible retaliation on his own 
person, but in the words of Rivington's Tory press already quoted, 
"the disaster was somewhat softened in the reflection that his lordship 
had become prisoner to a power ever distinguished by the most elegant 
manners and the tenderest sensibility." 

In the interval of the absence of de Grasse, the military situation 
had greatly changed and his return was awaited with impatience, 
de Barras had brought with him the heavy artillery left behind when the 
French moved from Newport to join Washington before New York, 
and with it M. de Choisy and the six hundred men left to garrison that 
post. The troops now gathered under the command of the Marquis de 
Lafayette were quite sufficient to prevent the escape of Cornwallis if 
he should venture to take the field. They were an admirable body. 
The army with which the Marquis had baffled Cornwallis in the field 
were all picked men. They were the Light Companies which Wash- 
ington, without interfering with the general ordering of the Light In- 
fantry for the campaign, had selected in February for the expedition 
to Portsmouth against Arnold. They were taken and formed into 
companies from the Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire 
lines. They were arranged in two battalions, the first under Colonel 
Vose and Major Galvan ; the second under Colonel Gimat and Major 
Thorpe. In addition, the Pennsylvania line, under the impetuous 
Wayne, the hero of Stony Point. A few days later they were joined 
by the Fourth Maryland regiment, commanded by Major Alexander 
Roxburgh, which marched from Annapolis. This regiment was com- 
pleted to its full complement, upward of six hundred rank and file, and 
was considered to be composed of the best men enlisted in the State since 
the war. Its ranks had been filled with remarkable rapidity. Steuben, 
in a letter to Greene (9th Sept., 1781), describes the spirited manner in 
which Maryland and Virginia rallied on the appearance of the French 
squadron. "The whole country," he wrote, "is flying to arms." Lafay- 
ette's total force at this period did not vary far from five thousand men. 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 1 5 

The French troops, 3,900 in number, brought by the Marquis de 
Saint Simon from St. Domingo are described as a remarkable body of 
men. A gentleman writing from Lafayette's camp says of them to his 
friend, " You have seen the British troops and troops of other nations, 
but you have not seen troops so universally well made of such an 
appearance as those General St. Simon has brought to our assistance." 
Of their commander, he says: " I pretend to see a General in the Mar- 
quis de St. Simon, an affectionate politeness in his French army." In 
the record of his service contained in the manuscript extracts from the 
French Etats de Service of the French officers who were on duty in 
America, belonging to the Pennsylvania Historical Society, he appears 
to have entered the army in 1754, been promoted Colonel in 1758, 
Brigadier in 1770, and Marechal de Camp 1st March, 1780, and it is 
noted opposite to his name 'that he is as brave a man as lives;' high 
praise in a dry record. The regiments in his command were, 1st, that 
of Tonraine, of which he had been the titular Colonel since 1775, but 
under the direct command of the Vicomte de Pondeux, Mestre de Camp. 
The Lieutenant Colonel M. de Montlezun; the Major, M. de Menonville, 
to whom as Aid Major General is owing one of the most precise journals 
of the siege. 2d, of Agenois under the command of Colonel, the Marquis 
d'Audechamp, an officer of the highest distinction, noted by the war office 
as ' full of talent, activity and firmness.' The Lieut. Colonel, the chevalier 
de Cadignan, the Major, Pandin de Beauregard. 3d, that of Royal 
Auvergne, commanded by Colonel, the Marquis de Rostaing, Lieut. 
Colonel, Claude de Lestrade; Major, Chapuy de Tourville. 4th, the 
regiment of Gatinois a dedoublement or auxiliary of the Royal Auvergne ; 
also under the orders of the Marquis de Rostaing. The troops of Tour- 
aine and Royal Auvergne were veterans of ten years service in the 
German wars of 1752 to 1762, and those of Agenois had seen some 
service. In the paper on the "Allies before New York, 1781," published 
in the January, 1880, number of the Magazine [IV., I], the uniforms of 
the French regiments which landed at Newport were described. The 
same authority then used gives those of the troops under the Marquis 
de St. Simon. The uniforms were white ; the distinguishing marks as 
follows: Royal Auvergne Avore violet lappels, violet collars and yellow 
buttons ; Gatinois, violet lappels, dark yellow collars and white buttons; 
Touraine, iron gray lappels, dark yellow collars and white buttons ; 
Agenois, pink lappels, green collars and white buttons. 

Such were the men who, to use the words of the anonymous gentle- 
man just quoted, were "to complete the gordian knot in which our 



l6 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

second Fabius, Fayette, has been entangling his lordship. But notwith- 
standing his lordship is perhaps the first officer in the British service, 
yet he may not be in possession of the sword of Alcides." 

The news of the arrival of de Grasse hastened the movement of the 
northern army. They were all at the Head of Elk on the 7th Septem- 
ber. Lieutenant-Colonel Stevens, who was in charge at Christiana 
bridge, had pushed the movement of the artillery and stores with the 
greatest energy, for which he was thanked in general orders at the close 
of the campaign. On the 9th the army divided on the plan concerted 
between Washington and Rochambeau before they left the troops. 
Lauzun's legion marched for Baltimore, which they reached on the 12th. 
So far they were accompanied by Baron Cromot du Bourg, and Baron de 
Closen, two of Rochambeau's aids left behind by him. The legion halt- 
ing for a day the impatient gentlemen pushed on through Queen Anne, 
Marlborough, Piscataway, Port Tobacco, Horse Ferry, and Boyd's 
Tavern to Williamsburg, which they reached on the 18th. They were 
warmly received by Lafayette, and made his house their headquarters. 
They found their chief had left the evening before for the fleet. 
Lauzun himself seems not to have accompanied his cavalry. His 
memoirs state that he preferred to remain with his infantry, which he 
expected would first see service, and went with them by water. He 
complains of the detestable and dangerous condition of the transports, 
some of which foundered, and of the bad weather. At Annapolis orders 
reached him from Washington to disembark. The absence of de Grasse's 
fleet caused some caution. Three days later a corvette brought up 
orders to sail. The troops were put on board again, and with contrary 
winds were ten days in reaching the mouth of the James. On his arri- 
val the legion was sent to Gloucester to join the corps under General 
Weedon, a body of Virginia militia. To these were added eight hun- 
dred French marines, and the whole body was placed by Washington 
under the command of M. de Choisy, a brilliant and competent officer, 
who took post close before the town, not, however, without some oppo- 
sition. Tarleton, with his cavalry, useless within the invested town, 
had been ordered to the Gloucester side, where Lt. Col. Dundas com- 
manded the British post. This dashing officer was not the man to 
remain idle while the cord was tightened about him. On the approach 
of the investing force he made a sally, but was met by Lauzun with his 
hussars, and after a sharp engagement, in which the Duke repulsed two 
charges, and led a third in person, the British were driven to their 
entrenchments with considerable loss, Tarleton himself unhorsed and 




sse®n 









THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN \J 

wounded. For this gallant action, which occurred on the morning of 
the 2d, Lauzun was thanked by Washington in general orders. Captain 
Dillon, serving under him, was wounded. 

The same day (the 9th) the French grenadiers and chasseurs, under 
the orders of M. de Custine (Colonel of Saintonge), the French and 
American artillery, and one battalion of the Jersey troops were embarked, 
and on the 1 ith dropped down the bay to Annapolis, where they remained 
till the 15th, and then resumed their journey. On the 12th the other 
battalion of Jersey troops, Colonel Hazen's regiment of Canadian vol- 
unteers, styled Congress's Own, embarked on the flat-bottomed boats 
which Washington had ordered to be constructed on the Hudson and 
brought down with the army overland on wagons. The Light Infantry 
under Colonel Scammel leaving at the same time were also embarked. 
A diary of one of the Connecticut officers, Lieutenant Sanderson, states 
that they reached Annapolis on the 12th, a sail of seventy miles, and 
that on the 15th the entire fleet dropped down the river two miles and 
stopped ; on the 16th fell down to Poplar Point, thirty miles. On the 
17th they were at Portsmouth, on the 18th in York river; on the 20th 
Williamsburg was reached, and the Light Infantry went into camp near 
the shore. 

The main body of the French troops and the New York Brigade, 
consisting of the first and second regiments, Colonels Goose Van 
Schaick and Philip Van Cortlandt, commanded by Brigadier- Gen- 
eral James Clinton, marched around the head waters of the bay 
to Baltimore, and thence to Annapolis. The French troops were the 
regiments of Bourbonnais and Soissonnais, Saintonge and Deux Ponts r 
under the command of the Baron de Viomenil. They marched into 
Annapolis about four thousand strong with their train of artillery on 
the 19th, and went on board the frigates, which de Grasse sent up to 
meet them, the next day. The New York brigade embarked at Fell's 
Point, Baltimore, on the evening of the 24th September. 

On the 19th the French advance guard arrived at Williamsburg. 
Their commander, the Count de Custine, accompanied by two others of 
Rochambeau's aids, Messieurs de Lauberdiere and de Vauban, and M. 
Blanchard, the Commissary-General of the French army, had preceded 
them in a swift sloop some days. They were landed on the 23d on the 
James river, and marched to the camp at Williamsburg the same eve- 
ning. The little French squadron, the Romulus, Gentille, Diligente, 
Aigrette, and the Iris and Richmond, the two recent captures pressed into 
service, were more fortunate in the weather they encountered. Sailing 



l8 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

from Annapolis at four o'clock in the afternoon of the 21st, they sighted 
the fleet at the mouth of the York at four o'clock the following day. The 
next morning they sailed up the James, and were landed at Hog's Ferry 
T on the 25th, and went into camp at a half mile distant. At four o'clock 
in the afternoon of the 26th they marched to Williamsburg. Washing- 
ton describes the landing-place as above the College Creek, the usual 
point of debarkation. This spot is distant about a mile from the town. 
The artillery was landed the same day. The disembarkation was com- 
pleted on the 26th. About this time also the third Maryland regiment, 
under the command of Colonel Adam, reached camp. 

Washington, having settled most points to his satisfaction with de 
Grasse concerning the cooperation of the fleet, reembarked at noon of 
the 1 8th on the Queen Charlotte, and set out on his return. On his 
leaving the Ville de Paris he was saluted by thirteen guns. The Queen 
Charlotte was no doubt the vessel which Count de Deux Ponts names 
as the packet on board of which Rawdon was captured. The return 
was slow, the winds were strong and contrary, and Williamsburg was 
not reached till the 22d. On landing, he learned of the arrival of 
Admiral Digby at New York with a reinforcement of six ships of the 
line, and instantly dispatched the Baron de Closen to Count de Grasse 
with the intelligence. 

On the 27th Washington issued his general orders with an Order of 
Battle for the army, which, though little known, deserves a place among 
the martial bulletins of history. 

" The American Troops comprising the right wing will be formed 
into two Lines, the Continental Forces in the front line, consisting of the 
following divisions and in the following order, viz., Muhlenbergh and 
Hazen's Brigades to form the Division on the right under the Com- 
mand of the Marquis de la Fayette, Wayne's and the Maryland 
Brigade ; the Division of the Centre for the present to be commanded 
by Baron de Steuben — Dayton's and Clinton's Brigades that on the 
Left — The Senior Continental Officer will command the Right Wing, 
and his Excellency Count Rochambeau the Left wing, of which he will 
be pleased to make his own disposition — The two companies of Dela- 
ware are for the present to be annexed to the 5th Maryland Regiment. 
Stevens' and Lawson's Brigades of Militia will form the Second Line — 
the Park of Artillery — the Corps of Sappers and Miners and the Vir- 
ginia State Regiment will be posted between the two Lines in the 
order above mentioned, commencing from the right. The whole army 
will march by the right in one column at 5 o'clock to-morrow morning 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 19 

precisely * * * General Muhlenberg's Brigade of Infantry, 
with the Artillery attached to it, preceded by Colonel Lewis' Corps of 
Riflemen and the light Dragoons, will form the advanced guard." 

In the same orders "the General-in-Chief particularly enjoins the 
troops, in case of attack, to place their principal reliance on the Bay- 
onet — that they may prove the Vanity of the Boast which the British 
make of their particular prowess in deciding Battles with that Weapon." 
He expressed his trust that " a generous Emulation will actuate the 
Allied armies ; that the French, whose National Weapon is that of close 
fight, and the troops in general that have so often used it with success, 
will distinguish themselves on every Occasion that offers — The Justice 
of the cause in which we are engaged and the Honour of the two 
Nations must inspire every breast with Sentiments that are the presage 
of Victory." 

The opening of the siege can not be better described than in the 
words Washington himself records on the 28th : 

" Having debarked all the troops and their baggage, marched and 
encamped them in front of the city, and having with some difficulty 
obtained horses and wagons sufficient to move our field artillery, intrench- 
ing tools and such other articles as were indispensably necessary, we 
commenced our march for the investiture at York. The American Con- 
tinentals and French troops formed one column on the left, the first in 
advance. The militia composed the right column, and marched by way 
of Harwood's Mill. Half a mile beyond the Half Way House the 
French and Americans separated. The former continued on the direct 
road to York by the Brick House, the latter filed off to the right for 
Munford's bridge, where a junction with the militia was to be made. 
About noon the head of each column arrived at its ground, and some 
of the enemy's picquets were driven in on the left by a corps of French 
troops advanced for the purpose, which afforded an opportunity of 
reconnoitering them on their right. The enemy's Horse on the right 
were also obliged to retire from the ground they had encamped on, and 
from whence they were employed in reconnoitering the right column. 
The line being formed, all the Troops, officers and men, lay upon their 
arms during the night." 

On the 29th Washington moved the American troops more to the 
right, and encamped on the east side of Beaver Dam creek, with a morass 
in front about cannon shot from the enemy's lines. He then spent the day 
in reconnoitering the enemy's position and determining on a plan of 
attack and approach. On the 30th he records that the " enemy abandoned 



20 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

all their exterior works and the position they had taken without the 
town, and retired within their interior works of defence in the course of 
the preceding night; immediately upon which we possessed them and 
made them on our left, with a little alteration, very serviceable to us." He 
also began the two enclosed works on Pigeon Hill between that and the 
ravine above Moore's mill. From this time till the 6th of October 
nothing occurred of importance. These days were spent in bringing for- 
ward stores and cannon from Trebell's landing on the James river, six 
miles distant, to camp, and preparing fascines and gabions for the siege, 
and in reconnoitering the position of the enemy. The teams which had 
been sent round from the Head of Elk arriving, the heavy artillery was 
moved with dispatch, and everything being prepared for opening 
trenches, 1,500 fatigue men and 2,800 troops to cover them were ordered 
for this service. Before morning on the 6th the trenches were in for- 
wardness sufficient to cover the men from the fire of the enemy. The 
work was carried on with such dispatch and vigor that the British were 
not aware of its approach until the dawn of day discovered it to them. 
On the contrary, the French parallel on the left, which the regiment of 
Touraine were constructing close up to the enemy's advanced redoubt 
on the right of their position, was sharply cannonaded. Its approach 
had been betrayed to the British by a deserter from the Legion. The 
attention paid to it, however, diverted the British from the real attack. 
The story of the siege has been often told. The mathematical pre- 
cision with which trenches are dug and parallels advanced bring the 
duration of such investments within ascertained terms, and admit of 
little incident or variety. Given the force of the besieged and its power 
of resistance, and the days of an operation are numbered. The pen of 
a Froissart would find but little scope in modern days for picturesque 
description. The late numerous contributions to the literary history of 
this campaign in the journals of Fersen and du Bourg; the official 
reports of the French Engineers and of M. de Menonville, supply 
some interesting details which are worthy of collation and presentment 
in a simple group. Before entering upon this rapid summary, allusion 
must be made to the tragic event which attended the opening of imme- 
diate hostilities. It is graphically related in a letter of Colonel Wil- 
liam S. Smith, written from the headquarters before York on the 
10th October, 1781, to Colonel Samuel B. Webb, of the Connecticut 
line, who had served on Washington's staff. Smith was at the time 
of writing one of the General's military family. It refers to the sad fate 
of Colonel Alexander Scammell, of the Light Infantry, one of the most 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 21 

esteemed officers in the service. He had distinguished himself in various 
branches of the service, was wounded at Saratoga, the Adjutant-General 
of the army from early in 1778 to 1781, on the first of January of which 
year he was appointed Colonel of the First New Hampshire regiment 
of foot. At the time of his death he was in command of the Light Corps 
which Washington formed for the campaign at his camp at Philips- 
burg. Of great stature, six feet two inches in height, he was not only 
a conspicuous figure, but universally beloved for the amiability of his 
character, as well as admired for his dashing bravery. As Colonel 
Smith bears testimony to the charges of peculiar atrocity in the manner 
of his death, a faint reflex of similar cruelty at about the same period in 
the case of the unfortunate Colonel Ledyard — his own words shall be 
used: 

" Our old friend Scammell paid the last debt of nature on the 6th 
instant, at the hospital in Williamsburg. I have informed you of his 
being made a prisoner and wounded, which wound proved fatal, and he 
is no more to be found in the walks of men. On the morning that the 
enemy evacuated their advanced redoubts, he being officer of the day, 
reconnoitered rather too far, fell insensibly among a number of horse- 
men who were patrolling in front of the lines they had retired to. Two 
of them addressed him in rather harsh terms, the one seized his bridle 
and the other presented a pistol to his breast. Thus situated he 
acknowledged himself a prisoner, when a third rode up, presented his 
pistol close enough to burn his coat, and shot him in the back ; a fourth 
made a stroke at him with his sword, but the shot having weakened 
him, he fell from his horse, and the intention of the villains was frustra- 
ted. They plundered him of everything he had, and hurried him into 
their lines. The officers who were present never interfered, nor even 
after he was carried in did they treat him with any kind of civility or 
respect. So much for the boasted humanity of Britons — mark it." 

He was carried into Yorktown,.but permitted to come out on parole 
the next day. He lingered till the 6th, when he succumbed. Colonel 
Humphreys of Washington's staff, wrote an epitaph for his tomb at 
Williamsburg. Thus in the close of the war fell the spirited sojdier 
who had won his maiden spurs as brigade major in the camp at Cam- 
bridge in 1775. Truly it seems that the god of victory can only be 
appeased by the fairest sacrifice. 

The General Orders of the 6th gave minute regulations for the ser- 
vice of the siege. Fifty-four in number, they were fitted to meet every 
emergency. Officers and troops were impatient for a conclusion. The 



22 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

climate was telling rapidly on the men ; the malaria of the peninsula had 
fastened itself on both armies. The night dews were heavy, and wet 
through the tents ; nearly all the American troops had the fever and 
ague ; before the siege had well begun there were four hundred of the 
French on the sick list. 

On the morning of the 8th October the trenches being prepared, 
General Knox, who commanded the American artillery, ordered the 
detachment for the batteries to parade in the afternoon under Colonel 
Lamb. The next day his brigade orders gave notice that a field officer 
would be appointed every day to command in the trenches, and 
instructed them to attend personally to the direction of the fire, pre- 
scribing the ricochet of the shot and shells when practicable ; the 
officers to level every piece themselves. A second field officer was to 
attend in the Park. On the 9th Lafayette's division was ordered to 
mount the trenches ; on the 10th Steuben's, on the nth Lincoln's, and so 
alternately till the close of the siege. In like manner Colonel Lamb, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Stevens, Lieutenant-Colonel Carrington and Major 
Bauman took their turns of rotation in the batteries and in the Park. 
Thatcher, in his journal, states that when the American batteries 
were ready Washington himself (on the 9th) put the match to the first 
gun, which was followed by a furious discharge of cannon and mor- 
tars ; the first salutation to Earl Cornwallis. 

From the French memoirs it appears that the Marquis de St. Simon, 
the Chevalier de Chastellux, and the brothers de Viomenil, alternately 
commanded in the trenches. 

On the 9th October the British frigate Guadaloupe, making a hostile 
movement, the French battery opened upon her with hot shot ; she 
sought shelter under the town, but the Charon, a gunship, took fire, and 
the flames communicating to other vessels they were consumed in the 
night. The conflagration, with the accompaniment of bursting shells, is 
described as a " sublime and magnificent spectacle." 

Closely pressed by the enfolding parallels, Cornwallis made one vig- 
orous effort to evade the toils. On the 10th he embarked a large 
force on flatboats, and an attempt was made to turn M. de Choisy's 
position in front of Gloucester, but that alert officer soon checked the 
attempt with his artillery. 

The second parallel was begun on the 12th, within three hundred- 
yards, and in some parts of it less, of the enemy's lines. The works 
were completed on the 14th, and preparations made for an assault. 
This was the magnificent episode and conclusive event of the siege. 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 23 

Nightfall was the hour fixed upon. Soon after it was fully dark six 
consecutive bombshells, fired from one of the French batteries, gave 
the signal for the sudden dash. Baron de Viomenil commanded the 
entire movement. Washington in the trenches witnessed and approved 
all the dispositions at the moment of attack. The American Light 
Infantry, commanded by Lafayette, stormed the left battery on the 
river bank; the French grenadiers, led by the baron de Viomenil, 
the right British redoubt. " The bravery (notes Washington) exhibited 
by the attacking troops was emulous and praiseworthy. Few cases 
have exhibited stronger proofs of intrepidity, coolness and firmness 
than were shown upon this occasion." Conspicuous for their steadiness 
were the grenadiers of the regiment of Gatinois, thirty of whom 
fell in the attack at the first fire. They had promised Rochambeau, 
who made a personal appeal to them, to suffer themselves to be 
killed to the last man rather than fail, but entreated to have the 
ancient name of their regiment restored. The motto of " Auvergne 
sans tache" had been famous in the army. Rochambeau kept his 
promise, and the King wrote upon his petition with his own hand, 
" Bon pour Royal Auvergne." Lafayette, in his report to Wash- 
ington the next day, of the operations of his command, says that " Lt. 
Colonel Gimat's battalion led the van and was followed by that of Lt. 
Colonel Hamilton, who commanded the whole advance corps, while Lt. 
Colonel Laurens with a party of eighty turned the redoubt. Not a gun 
was fired, and the ardor of the troops did not give time for the sappers 
to derange the abattis, and owing to the conduct of the commanders and 
bravery of the men the redoubt was stormed with an uncommon rapid- 
ity." Captain Stephen Olney, of the Light Company of the Rhode 
Island regiment, was the first to mount the parapet, and was severely 
wounded. The famous Colonel Armand, Marquis de la Rouerie, who 
had returned lately from France with arms and uniforms for his legion, 
marched as a volunteer to the attack. 

The French advanced with equal bravery with the Baron de Vio- 
menil, the Marquis de Rostaing, and the Count de Deux Ponts, leading 
sword in hand. The men marched with fixed bayonets through a fire 
which lasted eight or ten minutes. Six of their officers were wounded, 
Count de Deux Ponts, de Lameth and four of lesser rank. 

On the 15th the British made a last desperate effort, and in a strong 
sortie entered the right battery of the French, and spiked four of the 
guns, but were repulsed by the reserve under the command of the 
Chevalier de Chastelleux. Five of the French officers were wounded 



24 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

in this affair, and M. de Persignan, who commanded the redoubt, 
was carried off prisoner in the first surprise. The guns were imme- 
diately repaired by M. de Aboville, the commander of the French 
artillery, and were in active service within six hours. 

On the 16th, the batteries of the second parallel opened fire from 
the French side, and the drama drew to a rapid close. So great was 
the interest excited by the approaching consummation, and such the 
crowd of spectators in the trenches, that it was necessary on the 16th to 
direct in General Orders that no officer, except those on duty, should 
enter them, except the general officers and their aids, and no inhabitant 
or persons belonging to the army, without a pass from the Major-Gen- 
eral of the trenches. On the 17th, the American grand battery, con- 
sisting of twelve 24s and 18 pounders, four mortars, and two howitzers, 
brought the obstinate Earl to terms. The American artillery, under 
the general supervision of Knox, was immediately directed by Colonel 
Lamb and Lieutenant Colonels Stevens and Carrington, who took turns 
in the daily command. The American supply of ammunition was not 
abundant, that brought by de Choisy from Newport ample for all emer- 
gencies. It is related of Stevens, that, warned by Knox to husband his 
resources, he replied that his friends, the Frenchmen, would make up 
all his deficiencies. It will be remembered that he had served as Lafay- 
ette's chief of artillery in the spring. 

At ten o'clock on the morning of the 17th, the British beat a parley, 
and Lord Cornwallis proposed a cessation of hostilities for twenty-four 
hours that commissioners might meet at the house of a Mr. Moore in the 
rear of the first American parallel. Washington replied with a grant 
of two hours cessation, that terms might be proposed in writing. Find- 
ing their general tenor admissible, hostilities were suspended for the 
night, and Washington proposed his own terms. Commissioners were 
appointed ; Colonel Laurens, the Vicomte de Noailles, and M. de Grand- 
chain on the part of Washington ; Lt. Colonel Dundas and Major Ross 
on that of Cornwallis. The 18th was consumed in negotiations, which 
Washington brought to a close by having the draft of the agreement 
copied, sending it in on the morning of the 19th, and demanding that 
it should be signed by eleven, and the garrison march out at two 
o'clock. 

Rochambeau describes the surrender. " The Americans and French 
took possession of the two batteries at noon. The garrison marched out 
at two o'clock between the two armies, drums beating, carrying their 
arms which were stacked, with about twenty flags. Lord Cornwallis 



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24 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

in this affair, and M. de Persignan, who commanded the redoubt, 
was carried off prisoner in the first surprise. The guns were imme- 
diately repaired by M. de Aboville, the commander of the French 
artillery, and were in active service within six hours. 

On the 16th, the batteries of the second parallel opened fire from 
the French side, and the drama drew to a rapid close. So great was 
the interest excited by the approaching consummation, and such the 
crowd of spectators in the trenches, that it was necessary on the 16th to 
direct in General Orders that no officer, except those on duty, should 
enter them, except the general officers and their aids, and no inhabitant 
or persons belonging to the army, without a pass from the Major-Gen- 
eral of the trenches. On the 17th, the American grand battery, con- 
sisting of twelve 24s and 18 pounders, four mortars, and two howitzers, 
brought the obstinate Earl to terms. The American artillery, under 
the general supervision of Knox, was immediately directed by Colonel 
Lamb and Lieutenant Colonels Stevens and Carrington, who took turns 
in the daily command. The American supply of ammunition was not 
abundant, that brought by de Choisy from Newport ample for all emer- 
gencies. It is related of Stevens, that, warned by Knox to husband his 
resources, he replied that his friends, the Frenchmen, would make up 
all his deficiencies. It will be remembered that he had served as Lafay- 
ette's chief of artillery in the spring. 

At ten o'clock on the morning of the 17th, the British beat a parley, 
and Lord Cornwallis proposed a cessation of hostilities for twenty-four 
hours that commissioners might meet at the house of a Mr. Moore in the 
rear of the first American parallel. Washington replied with a grant 
of two hours cessation, that terms might be proposed in writing. Find- 
ing their general tenor admissible, hostilities were suspended for the 
night, and Washington proposed his own terms. Commissioners were 
appointed ; Colonel Laurens, the Vicomte de Noailles, and M. de Grand- 
chain on the part of Washington ; Lt. Colonel Dundas and Major Ross 
on that of Cornwallis. The 18th was consumed in negotiations, which 
Washington brought to a close by having the draft of the agreement 
copied, sending it in on the morning of the 19th, and demanding that 
it should be signed by eleven, and the garrison march out at two 
o'clock. 

Rochambeau describes the surrender. " The Americans and French 
took possession of the two batteries at noon. The garrison marched out 
at two o'clock between the two armies, drums beating, carrying their 
arms which were stacked, with about twenty flags. Lord Cornwallis 



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being ill, General O'Hara marched out at the head of the garrison. 
When- he approached me (Rochambeau) he presented his sword. I 
pointed to General Washington opposite to me as the head of the 
American army, and said to him that as the French army was an aux- 
iliary on this Continent, that it was now from the American General 
that he must take his orders." 

The manner of the capitulation was modeled on the harsh terms 
Cornwallis had imposed on General Lincoln at the siege of Charleston, 
the previous year. The colors were cased. The defeated army were 
not permitted to play an American or French tune, and it was to Lin- 
coln himself that the formal surrender was made. 

In his General Orders of the 20th Washington congratulated the 
army on the glorious events of the day previous, and expressed his 
warm gratitude to the French king and his officers, naming each in his 
orders with suitable phrase and commendation, and requested the 
Count de Rochambeau " to present in his name to the regiments of 
Agenois and Deux-Ponts the two pieces of brass ordnance captured by 
them (as a testimony of their gallantry) in storming the enemy's redoubt 
on the night of the 14th inst, when officers and men so universally vied 
with each other in the exercise of every soldierly virtue." 

The victors found the little town of York, which at that time con- 
tained about sixty houses in a state of absolute dilapidation. They 
were literally honey-combed by balls. The British officers complimented 
the French on the precision of their fire, and confessed that they were 
the first artillerists in Europe, while the French were equally amazed at 
the wonderful proficiency the Americans had acquired with their limited 
experience. The house of Secretary Nelson, of Virginia, which had 
served as Cornwallis's headquarters, and the most stately building in 
the town, remained for years a significant witness of the accuracy of 
the fire of the allies. The object of contention among his heirs, it was 
mentioned by Rochefoucauld, in 1796, as still a most interesting memento 
of the siege. 

The gladsome news of the capitulation spread rapidly and was 
hailed everywhere with wild enthusiasm. It was brought to Newton, 
in Chester, by Colonel Tilghman on the 23d on his way to Phila- 
delphia with the official dispatches. The excitement was intense, and 
he passed through the town amid the roaring of cannon and every 
demonstration of tumultuous joy. 

The official account reached Philadelphia on the morning of 
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THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 2$ 

being ill, General O'Hara marched out at the head of the garrison. 
When- he approached me (Rochambeau) he presented his sword. I 
pointed to General Washington opposite to me as the head of the 
American army, and said to him that as the French army was an aux- 
iliary on this Continent, that it was now from the American General 
that he must take his orders." 

The manner of the capitulation was modeled on the harsh terms 
Cornwallis had imposed on General Lincoln at the siege of Charleston, 
the previous year. The colors were cased. The defeated army were 
not permitted to play an American or French tune, and it was to Lin- 
coln himself that the formal surrender was made. 

In his General Orders of the 20th Washington congratulated the 
army on the glorious events of the day previous, and expressed his 
warm gratitude to the French king and his officers, naming each in his 
orders with suitable phrase and commendation, and requested the 
Count de Rochambeau " to present in his name to the regiments of 
Agenois and Deux-Ponts the two pieces of brass ordnance captured by 
them (as a testimony of their gallantry) in storming the enemy's redoubt 
on the night of the 14th inst., when officers and men so universally vied 
with each other in the exercise of every soldierly virtue." 

The victors found the little town of York, which at that time con- 
tained about sixty houses in a state of absolute dilapidation. They 
were literally honey-combed by balls. The British officers complimented 
the French on the precision of their fire, and confessed that they were 
the first artillerists in Europe, while the French were equally amazed at 
the wonderful proficiency the Americans had acquired with their limited 
experience. The house of Secretary Nelson, of Virginia, which had 
served as Cornwallis's headquarters, and the most stately building in 
the town, remained for years a significant witness of the accuracy of 
the fire of the allies. The object of contention among his heirs, it was 
mentioned by Rochefoucauld, in 1796, as still a most interesting memento 
of the siege. 

The gladsome news of the capitulation spread rapidly and was 
hailed everywhere with wild enthusiasm. It was brought to Newton, 
in Chester, by Colonel Tilghman on the 23d on his way to Phila- 
delphia with the official dispatches. The excitement was intense, and 
he passed through the town amid the roaring of cannon and every 
demonstration of tumultuous joy. 

The official account reached Philadelphia on the morning of 
Wednesday the 24th. The proceedings here at the seat of gov- 



26 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

ernment were marked by stately ceremony. The Vice - President 
of the State and the members of the Council waited upon the 
President of Congress, and the members of that august body, and 
upon his excellency, the minister of France. At six o'clock the 
entire city was a blaze of illumination. Even the lukewarm and non- 
combatants hailed the surrender as the harbinger of near peace. In the 
interior, the demonstrations of delight were more simple, but no less 
hearty. The instant the Paxton boys received the news they assem- 
bled and constructed a grand bonfire pile for a 'solemn feu de joie/ 
as the report has it. Even the old German settlers of Lancas- 
ter County were aroused from their wonted lethargy ; a correspond- 
ent of the time supplies a characteristic paragraph concerning them. 
" Some of our stiff-necked people here who used to look like pushing 
bulls, begin to say, ' I pleef de ging (King) will luce de goondry.' The 
honest burghers were only anxious to know on which side of the fence 
to plant their cabbages. 

The good citizens of Princeton met at Beekman's tavern on the 23d, 
Tuesday. They did not wait for the official documents, and enjoyed 
the occasion awhile over good punch and wine, then decorously 
repaired to the green in front of the house, where, after an address, 
" suited to the institution of the day," delivered by one of the Professors 
of the college, thirteen rounds were fired, and in the evening the town 
was illuminated. 

Trenton, the seat of government of New Jersey, celebrated the vic- 
tory on Saturday the 27th, when the officials of the State, led by the sturdy 
Livingston, the war governor, attended divine service at the Presby- 
terian church, and later met the inhabitants of the town on the com- 
mon. At dinner they toasted all the friends of America, not forgetting 
" the great and heroic Hyder-Ali, raised up by Providence to avenge 
the numberless cruelties perpetrated by the English on his unoffending 
countrymen, and to check the insolence of and reduce the power of 
Great Britain in the East Indies." Surely the separation in feeling 
between England and her whilome colonies was irreparable, when a toast 
to the terrible chieftain who had hung, to use the expressive words 
of Burke, like a cloud over the Carnatic, could find response in hearts 
of English blood. 

At New Brunswick the same festivities. " May the lilies of France 
and the stripes of America wave in triumph from shore to shore," was 
drank joyfully. But we are told that the greatest order prevailed. 
" As in the feast of Ahashuerus the King, the drinking was according 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 27 

to the law, none did compel ; for it was appointed that they should do 
according to every man's pleasure. The evening being thus spent, each 
of the gentlemen drank a good night to the company in a bumper and 
retired." At Chatham, and indeed at every village throughout the 
State, there were illuminations, and bonfires, and dinners. 

The army encamped at Continental Village celebrated in a grand 
feu de joie by order of the general in command. There was a public 
dinner in the field. Among the army toasts is found the memory of 
Saratoga: " The glorious 19th October, and the grateful remembrance 
of the ever memorable 17th of October, 1777." 

Nor was New York State less patriotic than her sisters. Samuel 
Loudon headed the number of his New York Packet with grand display 
of type, beginning with "Be it ever remembered" and reverently closing 
with " Laus Deo" in largest caps. This patriotic journal was printed at 
Fishkill. Here on the night of the 31st an ox was roasted and plenty 
of liquor drank, and illuminations, bonfires, rockets and squibs afforded 
amusement to numerous spectators. At Newburgh, to enliven the 
entertainment, the traitor Arnold was hanged in effigy. At New Wind- 
sor and Fredericksburg there were similar entertainments. At Albany 
the French and American colors were displayed from the fort, and the 
bells rang out their joyful peals for four hours incessantly. A great 
bonfire was built on the hill above the town ; an ox was roasted, and in 
the evening a general illumination and elegant supper closed the 
scene. 

At Boston on the evening of the 17th November, the Consul General 
of France gave a grand ball, which was attended by the French naval 
officers in the port, the authorities and principal citizens. The Consul 
opened the dances with the lady of the Governor, and the news- 
papers certify that " everything was conducted with the greatest 
decorum." 

Addresses were presented by the citizens of the States which the 
victory had saved from the invasion. The citizens of Baltimore, per- 
sonally attached to Lafayette, made one of special thanks and congratu- 
lations to him on the 13th November. 

Poems also were written on the event in grave and joyous vein. 
Emelia, in the New Jersey Gazette, invites all the Muses from the Aonian 
grove to weave the wreath of victory for the heroes of Gallia and 
Columbia, while the Cornwallis dance to the popular tune of Yankee 
Doodle was the mirth of every banquet. A few verses suffice to show 
its spirit and its wit: 



28 THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 

/ 

Cornwallis led a country dance, 

The like was never seen, sir ; 
Much retrograde and much advance, 

And all with General Greene, sir. 

They rambled up and rambled down, 

Turned hands, then off they run, sir ; 
Our General Greene to Charles Town, 

The Earl to Wilmington, sir. 

Greene in the south then danced a set, 

And got a mighty name, sir ; 
Cornwallis jigged with young Fayette, 

But suffered in his fame, sir. 

Europe was startled by the news as by an electric shock. The Duke 
de Lauzun, in accordance with the ancient etiquette of the French ser- 
vice, having been the first distinguished in action, was the bearer of the 
first intelligence to the Court of France. Sailing from the Chesa- 
peake ia the King's frigate Surveillante, he reached Versailles to find 
the old Minister, Monsieur de Maurepas, at the point of death. His 
last hours were cheered by the glad tidings of victory. The King was 
overjoyed by the intelligence, and profuse in his promises of favor to 
his gallant army. 

At noon on Sunday, of the 25th November, a messenger from the 
coast reached London with the news of the surrender. He rode 
straight to the house of Lord George Germaine, who at once went to 
Lord North. The Minister received the intelligence, says Germaine, 
as he would have taken a ball in his breast ; pacing the room wildly, 
and crying, " Oh, God, it is all over! " The King took the matter out- 
wardly with cool philosophy. But he knew full well the purport of the 
event. Kingly prerogative in England received its death wound on the 
Yorktown plain. 

Congress, immediately on the reception of Washington's letter with 
the information of the signature of the articles of capitulation, which 
was brought to them by Colonel Tilghman, one of his aids-de-camp, 
walked in procession, attended by an immense concourse of people, to 
the Dutch Lutheran church, to return thanks to the god of nations and 
of battles for the victory. A day was set for national thanksgiving and 
prayer, and proclaimed. On the 29th of October, thanks were voted to 
the generals, the officers and the men. Two stands of royal colors taken 
were voted to Washington, in the name of the United States ; two pieces 
of field ordnance were presented to Rochambeau, with a brief but suit- 



THE ALLIES AT YORKTOWN 29 

able inscription. The Chevalier de la Luzerne was requested to ask the 
King in the name of the Congress to permit the Count de Grasse to 
receive a similar testimonial. A horse properly caparisoned and an 
elegant sword were given to the gallant Tilghman, the messenger of 
good tidings. Later a medal was struck at Paris, under the direction 
of Franklin, the American minister at the court of Versailles, with 
the device of the infant Hercules strangling two serpents, indica- 
tive of the enfolding and capture of the armies of Burgoyne and Corn- 
wallis; and in perpetual memory of the event the Congress resolved to 
erect at Yorktown a marble column adorned with emblems of the alli- 
ance between the United States and his most Christian Majesty. 

The Duke de Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, who visited the battle field 
in 1796, noting the absence of the monument, remarks in a tone of nat- 
ural bitterness that the resolution for its creation was as entirely forgot- 
ten as many of the American people would be glad to forget the services 
it was intended to commemorate. 

Adequate apology for the national neglect is impossible ; but there 
is extenuation. The French revolution, though founded on principles 
of liberty and justice, drifted far from the pure intentions of its 
authors. The Christian Majesty whose generous intervention endeared 
him to the American people fell beneath the guillotine. The imperial 
policy which upset and followed the revolution was not friendly to 
republican government, and on occasion directly hostile to the interests 
and dignity of the United States. The Restoration had neither the 
respect nor the sympathy of freemen, and when at last Lafayette him- 
self set a civic crown on the head of the Citizen King, and harmonized 
for a time the royal authority with the liberty of the people a half 
century had passed with its alienation and differences. The events of 
the last fifty years it is needless to recall. To-day how different. 
Through darkness and despair, through rivers of blood, France has 
waded to self-government and self-control. The Republic holds in 
secure grasp every element of power, every condition of existence. 
Firm and strong she extends to us the hand of friendship. She recalls 
to us the glory of the elder time. She acknowledges to us her debt of 
example and erects upon our shores a statue to Liberty illumining the 
World. 

We cannot be deaf to her call; we must not be blind to her munifi- 
cence. The centennial anniversary draws on apace. The national 
spirit is revived. The national wealth and power and pride are at their 
zenith. The infant Hercules has become the*giant Republic. When 



30 



THE ALLIES AT Y0RKT0WN 



the October sun shall hereafter rise in its perennial course may its morn- 
ing rays as they lift from the Atlantic waves gild the spotless shaft which 
shall stand for countless ages the witness of a nation's gratitude, and 
as they fall upon each rood of surface of this broad continent and 
finally sink in parting effulgence in the deep bosom of the Pacific ocean 
may we remember, and our children and our children's children after 
us remember, the obligations we owe to France for our establishment 
and security in this vast heritage. 

JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS 



How are the Mighty fallen I 




FROM AN EXTRA TO THE FREEMAN'S JOURNAL 
Printed at Philadelphia, October 24, 1781 



APPENDIX 



31 



APPENDIX 

NEWS FROM THE FRONT 

From the Journals of the Time 
I 

Baltimore, Tuesday, Aug. 7, 1781 — The In- 
vasion of Maryland being Part of the Plan of 
the British Cabinet (as appears by Lord Ger- 
maine's intercepted Letters), the late Embarka- 
tion at Portsmouth of about 2000 British Troops, 
and the subsequent Motions of the Fleet, have 
given just Cause of Alarm to the Inhabitants of 
this and the Counties adjacent, who are now 
exerting themselves in every District to take the 
Field at a Moment's Warning. 

Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman, at 
the Marquis de la Fayette's Camp, dated "Mal- 
vion Hill, August 1, 1 87 1. "It has been for 
some Time reported that the Embarkation from 
Portsmouth was designed to act up the Bay, and 
Baltimore has been particularly mentioned. Com- 
modore Barron, who is watching their Motions, 
writes the Marquis, that on the 30th of July 40 
Sail of the Fleet weighed from Hampton Road 
with 12 Barges full of Men, and stood towards 
the Capes ; but having gained the proper Chan- 
nel, endeavored to stand up the Bay ; the Wind 
not being favorable for this, they Came to 
Anchor." 

It is reported that a Detachment of Earl of 
Cornwallis's Army under the Command of Briga- 
dier General O'Hara, have landed in Gloucester 
County, Virginia, near the Mouth of York River, 
in the vicinity of which, on New-Point Comfort, 
it is asserted they are to erect a strong fortifica- 
tion. 

On Saturday last the Baltimore Troop of 
Light Dragoons, commanded by Nicholas R. 
Moore, Esq., returned hither from the American 
Camp in Virginia, the late Movements of the 
Enemy rendering their longer stay there unnec- 
essary. Previous to the Departure of this Corps 
of Gentlemen they received the thanks of the 
Marquis de la Fayette and Governor Nelson, as 
well as General Morgan (under whose imme- 
diate Command they were placed), for their 
patriotic and spirited Behaviour. 

On the 27th ult. 45 Transports, with Troops 
on board, arrived at New York from Chesapeake. 



By the latest Accounts, there was no Appear- 
ance of the Enemy's Fleet in our Bay. 

The Marquis de la Fayette, at the Head of a 
body of troops, is on his march northward. 

Generals Wayne, Morgan and Campbell, with 
their respective Corps, were by the latest Ac- 
counts about 30 Miles on the South Side of 
James River. — The Maryland Journal and Bal- 
timore Advertiser, August y, 1781. 

II 

Baltimore, Tuesday, August 14 — Extract of 
a Letter from Hampton, Virginia, dated Au- 
gust 9, 1 78 1. The recent movements of earl 
Cornwallis, giving reason to apprehend that he 
meant to visit this State, and probably this town, 
the militia of this county and those adjacent as- 
sembled with the greatest cheerfulness, spirit and 
alacrity, and we are assured by good authority 
that within two days after the late alarm near 
2800 effective men of this county only appeared 
in arms in town, and were received by general 
Buchanan, our county lieutenant. They have 
since been very honourably dismissed in conse- 
quence of advice of the enemy (under the imme- 
diate command of earl Cornwallis) having landed 
at York-Town and Gloucester in Virginia. 

I make no Doubt but you have been fully in- 
formed of Lord Cornwallis' Movements about Vir- 
ginia — When he left Williamsburg he crossed 
James-River with his Army to Cobham, and pro- 
ceeded to Suffolk, and, after staying a few Days 
there, went to Portsmouth, doing very little in- 
jury, except what is common when an Army is 
marching through a Provision Country. — After 
Staying about a Fortnight at Portsmouth, his 
Lordship embarked about 3000 Troops, with 
some Horse, and proceeded to Yorktown and 
Gloucester, where they remain, doing very little 
Injury to the Inhabitants, except taking Pro- 
visions, for which they PROMISE Payment. — 
Yesterday Morning 750 Foot and Cavalry land- 
ed at Newport-News ; 600 proceeded up to 
York ; 150 Horse were left at Newport-News. 
I was there last Evening, since then I have 
not heard from them. But what we have been 
able to learn, in general, is, that the Enemy are 
all moving from Portsmouth, it being a sickly 
place, intending to continue at Gloucester and 



32 



APPENDIX 



York as long as they can ; but I am certain they 
will not be able to hold it long, though they have 
many very great advantages over us. Our 
Negroes flock fast to them, and ease the soldiery 
of the Labourer's Work. Many Persons in Vir- 
ginia, with large fortunes, are totally ruined. 
The Inhabitants in our County have not, as yet, 
snffered much (only in the Loss of some Negroes), 
but I fear the Time of our Distress is drawing 
near ; but we must rely on Providence, who has 
protected us thus far. By the last accounts of the 
Marquis, he was at Bird's last Sunday ; and was 
to be in Williamsburg on Tuesday Evening. He 
has got a good army, consisting of 8000 effective 
men, and I hope will be able to drive the Enemy 
from York. I cannot learn whether they have be- 
gun to entrench or not ; if they have not, the Mar- 
quis will be able to attack them to Advantage." 

Another letter from Hampton says that the 
Enemy have entirely evacuated Portsmouth, and 
that Colonel Parker (with near 700 troops) must 
be now in Possession of it. — The Maryland Jour- 
nal, Aug. 14, 1781. 

Ill 

Baltimore, Tuesday, August 21. By latest 
accounts from Virginia we learn that the British 
Army, consisting of about 5000 Men, under the 
Command of Earl Cornwallis, still occupied 
Gloucester and York Town, where they were 
erecting strong works, in which they are aided 
by the Labour of about 3000 negroes. 

Several small picaroons from New York now 
infest our bay. They have lately taken one or 
two small vessels near the mouth of Potomack. 

Lord Dunmore, with two or three regiments 
and a number of refugees, sailed from England 
for Virginia about the beginning of last June. 

The Marquis de la Fayette's Head Quarters 
were, a few days ago, near Ruffin's Ferry, on 
Pamonky, a Branch of York River, in Virginia, 
30 Miles Northward of Williamsburg. At the 
same Time General Wayne, (with his Division of 
Troops) was at Bottom's Bridge, about fifteen 
Miles Southeastward of Richmond, on the Wil- 
liamsburg Road. — Maryland Journal, Aug. 21, 
1781. 

IV 

Annapolis, September 6. — List of the Count 
de Grasse's fleet now in the Chesapeake. Ships 



of the line : one no, three 84, nineteen 74, four 
64, one 50. Frigates : two 44, two 34, one 18. 

The citizens of Maryland and Virginia are 
called upon by their patriotism, honour, and in- 
terest to exert every nerve in providing supplies 
for the allied forces. Should their important 
designs fail, or their operations be impeded by 
the neglect or want of exertion in these states, it 
would reflect eternal disgrace on their character, 
and preclude any hopes of further succours. — 
Maryland Gazette, September 6, 178 1. 



Philadelphia, Thursday , Sept. 6. — By an Ex- 
press which arrived here last evening, we have 
the following very important intelligence : 

Extract of a Letter from General Washing- 
ton to his Excellency the President of Congress^ 
dated Chester, September 5, 3 o'clock P. M. 
' ' With the highest pleasure I do myself the 
honour to transmit to your Excellency the in- 
closed copy of a letter from General Gist. It 
announces the safe arrival in the Chesapeake, of 
Admiral de Grasse, with 28 ships of the line. At 
this happy event I beg your Excellency to accept 
my warmest congratulations." 
Copy : Baltimore, September 4, 1781. 

Dear Sir. — I have the pleasure to inform you 
that the Serpent cutter, of 18 guns, Captain Ame 
de Laune, has this moment arrived here, with 
dispatches for your Excellency from Count de 
Grasse, who arrived in Chesapeake with 28 ships 
of the line, the 26th ultimo, and the next day 
landed 3000 troops, on the South side of James 
river, in order to form a junction with the Mar- 
quis dela Fayette. 

The fleet on their passage took a Packet from 
Charleston with Lord Rawdon on board, bound 
to Europe. 

The grand fleet have taken their station from 
the Middle Ground to Cape Henry, from whence 
they detached three ships of the line and one 
frigate to York river, where one 22 gun ship fell 
into their hands. Captain de la Laune informs 
me that he left the fleet the day before yester- 
day, and that he has particular directions from 
the Admiral to forward his dispatches to you by 
one of his officers, but as this gentleman cannot 
be in readiness to proceed immediately, I have 



APPENDIX 



33 



thought it expedient to forward this intelligence 
by express to assist your Excellency in the govern- 
ment of such moVements as may be judged 
necessary to adopt on this occasion. 

I do myself the honour to inclose a list of the 
fleet delivered to me by the Captain of the cutter; 
who will wait here for your orders. 

I have ordered all the vessels in this harbour 
to sail immediately for the reception of the troops 
at the Head of Elk. I am, &c, M. Gist. 

His Excellency General Washington. 

Note. — The above fleet is exclusive of that 
under the command of Count Barras. — Pennsyl- 
vania Packet, Sept. 6, 1 78 1. 

VI 

Baltimore, Tuesday, September II. — On Tues- 
day last, [September 4,] about one o'clock P. M., 
a cutter called the Serpent, belonging to his most 
christian majesty, commanded by M. Amie de la 
Laune, arrived in our harbour with dispatches for 
his excellency, General Washington, from the 
Count de Grasse, who arrived in Chesapeake 
on the 26th ultimo, with a formidable fleet of 
French Men of War, consisting of 28 sail of the 
line, 4 frigates, and the cutter above-mentioned. 

The day this fleet arrived, they took the British 
ship Loyalist, of 22 guns, and blocked up York 
river with one man of war and two frigates. By 
late accounts there lay in York River three men- 
of-war and one frigate. A vessel of 24 guns, 18 
pounders, and several other vessels were stationed 
in James River to cut off the enemy's communi- 
cation. The rest of the fleet lay between Middle- 
Ground and Cape Henry. Three thousand 
troops have been landed in Virginia from the 
fleet, with a view of joining the Marquis de la 
Fayette. 

Near the latitude of Charleston, the French 
fleet met a 24-gun ship and a packet bound to 
England. Lord Rawdon was cm board the lat- 
ter, and is now a prisoner in the Glorieux man 
of war. 

The following toasts were drank on Tuesday 
last, at Lindsay's Coffee house on Fell's Point, at a 
feu de joy, in consequence of the arrival of the 
French fleet —I Louis XVI. 2 The United 
States of America. 3 The Congress. 4 Count 
de Grasse and his fleet. 5 General Washington 



and the allied army. 6 The king of Spain. 7 The 
states of Holland. 8 The count de Rocham- 
beau. 9 The Marquis de la Fayette and his army. 
IO General Greene and the Southern army. 11 
The American ambassadors at the courts of 
France, Spain and Holland. 12 May the 
alliance between France and America be per- 
petual. 13 May trade and commerce flourish in 
America. 14 The state of Maryland. In the 
evening of the same day, the town and point 
were illuminated, Fell's point in particular, made 
on the occasion a most brilliant appearance. 

The British fleet, under the command of Ad- 
mirals Graves and Hood, it is said, sailed from 
Sandy Hook, supposed for Chesapeake, on Fri- 
day, the 30th ult. They consist, it is asserted, 
of about 40 Sail, 21 of which are of the line. 

Last Saturday (Sept 8) afternoon his excel- 
lency General Washington (accompanied by Ad- 
jutant General Hand and other officers of dis- 
tinction) arrived at the Fountain-Inn in this 
town, on his way to Virginia. His excellency 
was received in the vicinity, and escorted to his 
quarters by Captain Moore's troop of Light dra- 
goons, when he was most respectfully compli- 
mented by a number of gentlemen. The Balti- 
more artillery companies gave his excellency a 
handsome salute, and the inhabitants in gen- 
eral seemed to vie with other in testifying their 
respect and affection for his person and character. 
In the evening every part of the town was ele- 
gantly illuminated. Very early the next morning; 
his excellency (with his attendants) proceeded on 
his journey, the object of which is obvious, and, 
undoubtedly, of the last importance. 

On Sunday morning the Count de Rocham- 
beau, Major-General and Commander of his 
most Christian Majesty's Troops in America 
(under the orders of General Washington) with 
his Suite arrived in town, and after short stay 
proceeded southward. This great officer re- 
ceived every mark of respect from the inhab- 
itants that his short continuance here admitted. 

The same evening brigadier-general Chattelux, 
of his most Christian Majesty's forces, also ar- 
rived here, and the next evening sat out for 
Virginia. 

Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman in North- 
umberland County in the northern part of Virginia, 



34 



APPENDIX 



to his friend in this town, dated Sept. 6-7 — 1781. 
"There has scarce anything happened since 
the receipt of your favour respecting the move- 
ments of the enemy. It is said, indeed, that 
they have spiked all their cannon at Portsmouth, 
and evacuated all their posts in that quarter ; 
that previous thereto they killed all their useless 
horses. Cornwallis has collected his whole force 
at York and Gloucester towns, and leaves us to 
guess at his future operations. We are told that 
the Marquis has a very respectable army in the 
neighborhood of Frazier's Ferry. Greene is 
within five miles of Charlestown, and has entire 
possession of the Carolinas, Charlestown ex- 
cepted. 

Leaving this letter open a day or two, we are 
made happy in the mean time by the arrival of 
the French fleet — They have blocked up York 
and James rivers, consist of 28 sloops of the 
line, and landed last Sunday 5,000 troops at 
Jamestown — Cornwallis has already sent terms 
to the Marquis, which are refused. Lord Raw- 
don, on his passage to England, was taken by 
the fleet, and is now in Virginia. 

Three British armed Vessels (said to be a ship, 
a scow and a sloop) were captured on Wednesday 
last, in or near the mouth of the Rappahannock, 
by a French frigate after an obstinate resist- 
ance. 

An accurate list of the naval armament in 
Chesapeake Bay, co?nmanded by Monsieur le 
Compt de Grasse in order of battle. 

White and Blue Squadron, commanded by 
Monsieur de Monteil — La Bourgoyne, 74 guns ; 
le Glorieux, 74 guns ; le Vaillant 64 ; le Destin, 
74 ; le Languedoc, 84 (to repeat signals l'Ai- 
greete, 32), le Sceptre, 74 ; le Reflechi, 64 ; 
le Marceillois, 74 ; le Diadem, 74. 

White Squadron, commanded by Monsier de 
Grasse — Le Northumberland, 74 ; le Zele, 74 ; 
le St. Esprit, 86 ; le Tritton, 54 ; le Cafare, 74 
(to repeat le Serpent, 18) ; le Ville de Paris, no 
(to repeat l'Andromaque, 42) ; la Victorie, 74 
(to repeat TAlerte, 16) ; le Solataire, 64 ; l'Ex- 
periment, 50 ; le Sovereign, 74. 

White Squadron, commanded by Mons. Bou- 
gainville — Le Palmier, 74 ; 1' Hector, 78 ; le 
Citoine, 74 ; le Scipeon, 74 ; l'Auguste, 84 (to 
repeat la Diligente, 32) ; le Magnamine, 74 ; le 



Gaton, 64 ; l'Hercule, 74 (to repeat la Raileuse, 
40) ; le Pluton, 74. 

Major-General Baron de Viomenil, with his 
Suit and many officers of distinction (French 
and American) are just arrived in town. 

Paragraph of a letter, just received, from 
Annapolis, dated yesterday afternoon. "On 
Wednesday last the British fleet, of 21 sail of 
the line, came within our capes, and the French 
immediately weighed anchor and attacked them, 
and it is universally believed were superior. 
On the next morning the French pursued with 
25 ships of the line 14 of them copper bot- 
tomed, and the action was renewed. 'Tis be- 
lieved the Count de Grasse has chased towards 
New York, and will probably be joined by the 
Count de Barras with the squadron from Rhode 
Island. The French Admiral left the seventy- 
fours and two frigates to block up York-river. 
There is no doubt entertained that the French 
were victorious." — The Maryland Journal, Sept. 

11, 1781. 

VII 

Annapolis, Thursday, Sept. 13. —On Friday 
[Sept. 7] last, the 4th Maryland regiment, com- 
manded by Major Alexander Roxburgh, marched 
from this city to join the Marquis la Fayette. This 
regiment is completed to its full complement, con- 
sisting of upwards of 600 rank and file ; and it 
has been generally observed that they are the 
best men enlisted in this State since the war. 
The short time in which the third and fourth 
regiments have been raised, and the excellence of 
the men, give an additional testimony of our in- 
creased ability to prosecute the war to the perfect 
establishment of our sovereignty and independ- 
ence. — Maryland Gazette, September 13, 1781. 

VIII 

Philadelphia, Tuesday, September 18 — Ex- 
tract of a lette? from Baltimore, Sep. 15. We 
have various reports respecting the fleet be- 
low ; but, will you believe it, not one to be re- 
lied on, these seven or eight days ; however, one 
within these two days seems to gain credit ; it is 
that in consequence of an engagement between 
the two fleets, off or at the mouth of the Capes, 
two British seventy-fours and one frigate have 
been captured and brought in. The British fleet 



APPENDIX 



35 



dispersed and the French in pursuit of them. 
Deserters coming daily from his lordship's army : 
one this morning in, 8 days from him, gives a 
dreadful account of his situation, in general very 
sick, all on half allowances; the sickly negroes 
only allowed horse flesh. 

Three prizes below at Annapolis, on their way 
up. One of 400 hogsheads of rum and sugar. 

Extract of a letter from the Marquis de la Fay- 
ette's army, dated Williamsburg, September 1,1781. 
"Now I have rejoiced and congratulated with 
you on the arrival of Count de Grasse, let me 
make you acquainted with Major-General the 
Marquis de St. Simon and the French army. 
You have seen the British troops and the troops 
of other nations, but you have not seen troops so 
universally well made, so robust, or of such an 
appearance as those General St. Simon has 
brought to our assistance. These are all under 
the command of our General. They now en- 
camp nearly on the ground the British occupied 
before they evacuated Jamestown. I do not 
pretend to know the secrets of our Commander, 
or I would tell you what is to be done ; I pre- 
tend, however, to see a great general in the Mar- 
quis de St. Simon ; an affectionate politeness in 
his officers towards ours, and a general impatience 
in the French army to complete the gordian knot 
in which our second Fabius, Fayette, has been 
entangling his lordship ; some of its cords already 
press him, and, I believe, if there were hopes of 
succeeding, he would attempt to cut it. But not- 
withstanding his lordship is, perhaps, the first 
officer in the British service, yet he may not be 
in possession of the sword of Alcides. 

11 The light infantry are advanced to Williams- 
burg. The Pennsylvanians lay near his place, 
and it is the talk of the camp, that the French 
troops will take their position to-morrow in its 
vicinity. The French ships lay in James river, to 
prevent a retreat, in York river and at the 
Capes. 

1 ' You are a soldier as well as philosopher, and 
will experience our feelings on the present occa- 
sion. We have a brave army to contend against, 
furnished in provisions ; with all the necessaries 
for a gallant resistance, and in numbers fully 
sufficient for the defence of .their post, but we 
shall do very well, for to the common motives of 



our profession will be joined an emulation 
arising from fighting by the side of our allies. 

The enemy are entrenching at York with great 
industry. Everything is landed from their ship- 
ping and dispositions made for their destruction. 

M Apropos, yesterday evening, a patrole of 9 or 
10 militia fell in with a patrole of Colonel Tarle- 
ton's legion, of an equal number, and com- 
manded by a lieutenant, the whole of which the 
militia captured ; it is a trifle, but it is a trifle that 
was very prettily done." — Pennsylvania Packet, 
September, 18, 178 1. . 

IX 

Baltimore, Tuesday, Sept. 18. — Early on Sun- 
day morning last, his most Christian majesty's 
forces, consisting of several thousand choice 
troops (who arrived here on Tuesday last), at- 
tended by several generals and other officers of 
distinction, marched for Annapolis, where they 
are to embark with all possible expedition for 
Virginia. The behaviour of every corps during 
their stay here deserves universal applause. 

On Thursday night last a fleet of transports 
from the Head of Elk, having on board the ar- 
tillery, grenadiers, and light troops of the allied 
army, arrived at Annapolis on their route to 
James River. They sailed again for their des- 
tination on Sunday. 

A few days ago the 4th Maryland regiment, 
consisting of 600 rank and file, marched from 
Annapolis to join the Marquis de la Fayette at 
Williamsburg. 

Within a few days past several hundred wag- 
gons and carts, loaded with the baggage, pro- 
visions, &c, of the allied army, passed through 
this town on their way to Annapolis. 

The British fleet, under the command of the 
Admirals Graves, Hood, and Drake, on the 7th 
instant made a feeble effort to enter the Chesa- 
peake, but were attacked and driven to sea by 
the Count de Grasse, who, after pursuing them 
several leagues with 26 ships of his fleet, re- 
turned safe to the bay with 23 ships, the other 
three having been left in chase of a single Brit- 
ish man of war, supposed to be the Royal Oak. 

While the Count de Grasse was chasing the 
British fleet, the Count de Barras with 8 French 
line of battle ships, besides frigates, transports, 



36 



APPENDIX 



and victuallers, arrived in the bay, and brought 
in two British provision ships bound from St. 
Lucia to New York. 

On Tuesday last the British frigates Iris and 
Richmond, the former commanded by captain 
Dawson and the latter by captain Hudson, were 
captured near cape Henry by a part of the 
count de Grasse's fleet as they were returning 
into the Chesapeake. These frigates (one of 
which fought with great bravery and perseverance 
against a superior force) were coming into the 
bay under the idea, it is supposed, that the 
count de Barras's squadron was British, 

The French fleet in and near the Chesapeake 
now consists of about 50 sail of men of war, 
transports, victuallers, &c, 35 of which are of 
the line. 

Eighty pieces of battering cannon, many large 
mortars, and an immense quantity of shells, shot, 
and other valuable stores, have been brought in 
by the count de Barras's fleet for the use of the 
allied army. 

The Romulus of 44 guns, and La Gentille of 
32, with eight transport ships and 1 brig, are ar- 
rived at Annapolis for the purpose of transport- 
ing the troops which left this place on Sunday 
last, with their baggage, &c, to Virginia. The 
embarkation will commence this day. It is said 
they are to disembark at Burwell's ferry in 
James river, four miles from Williamsburg. 

The allied army, which will, in a few days, 
commence very serious operations in Virginia 
under the immediate command of his excellency 
general Washington will consist of between 15 
and 20,000 effective men. 

Last evening a brigade of New York State 
troops, under the command of Brigadier-General 
James Clinton, embarked at and sailed from 
Fell's Point for Virginia. — The Maryland your- 
nal, Sept. 18, 1781. 



Philadelphia, Thursday, September 20, 1 781. 
— Extract of a letter from Williamsburg Sep- 
tember 9, 1 781. "Admiral Hood looked in here, 
and with ten ships attacked four of the line that 
were stationed at Cape Charles. On Count de 
Grasse's appearance with his fleet, the admiral 
pushed off, and could not be overtaken. The 



French fleet have again taken their station in the 
bay, four at the entrance of York river, four at 
each Cape, the main body at Hampton road." 

Extract of a letter dated West Point, 20 miles 
from York, September 10, 1 781. "On Friday 
last appeared off our bay a British fleet, the num- 
ber unknown. The French fleet put to sea, leav- 
ing three of 74 guns in York River, which proves 
their superiority, and they had an engagement at 
sea. Saturday it was confidently reported that 
they had returned with three British frigates and 
one 74, which they had taken. The French and 
American troops have joined, and are between 
York and Williamsburg. No doubt Cornwallis 
will fight, and as he is making the greatest exer- 
tions to defend himself, he will turn loose all his 
cavalry ; they are greatly reduced already, and 
the whole almost unfit for service." 

Extract of a letter from Baltimore, September 
16. li I am happy to congratulate you on the junc- 
tion of the two fleets, Count de Barras and 
Count de Grasse, in the bay. The former has 
taken a 44 gun ship, two frigates, and two trans- 
ports ; and it is said the latter has had an action 
with the British before the arrival of the Rhode 
Island fleet, in which they took a 64 gun ship, 
but this is only report." 

Tuesday afternoon arrived in this city, on his 
return from France, the honorable Colonel Ar- 
mand, Marquis de la Rouerie, with a number of 
arms and cloathing for his legion. — The Pennsyl- 
vania Packet, Sept. 20, 1781. 

XI 

Annapolis, Thursday, September 20, 1781. — 
We have it from the best authority that the Count 
de Grasse is returned to his former station at Cape 
Henry having driven the British fleet from the 
coast, formed a junction with the squadron of 
the Count de Barras and captured two British 
frigates. 

About 4000 French troops and a train of artil- 
lery marched into this city on Tuesday la,st from 
the northward, and will embark this evening or 
to-morrow morning, for Virginia. They are to 
be conveyed by the Romulus, Gentille and some 
other frigates of our illustrious Ally, now at 
anchor off this harbour. — Maryland Gazette, 
Sept. 20, 1 78 1. 



APPENDIX 



37 



XII 

Philadelphia, Tuesday, Sept. 22, 1 78 1.— Va- 
rious have been the reports circulating through 
this city the past week relative to the movements 
of the enemy, All that can be depended on are, 
that a body of about 5,000 men, with light ar- 
tillery, waggons, &c, &c, were embarked on 
board about 80 transports at New York, and 
were laying last Sunday in the Narrows ready for 
sailing, delayed as was supposed merely to know 
the issue of Admiral Graves' attempt on the fleet 
of our royal ally in the Chesapeake. This was 
announced to them on Wednesday last by the re- 
turn of the English fleet, with the loss of the 
Ruby man of war, of 64 guns, and the Roebuck 
of 44, taken by Count de Grasse, and the Terri- 
ble of 74, which after the engagement sunk at 
sea, they being able only to save her stores and 
men ; four other ships are also greatly disabled. 

It is said that the expedition from New York 
in case of the failure of Admiral Graves in the 
Chesapeake, is designed for this city, where it is 
not doubted, should they be so hardy as to ven- 
ture, such a reception would be given them by 
the virtuous yeomanry of this and the neighbor 
ing states as would bring to their minds the well 
fought fields of Bunker's Hill and Bennington. 
General St. Clair, with part of the Pennsylvania 
brigade and a considerable body of militia, are 
expected in the neighborhood of this city in a 
day or two. 

We are happy to inform our readers that Mons. 
de Barras has certainly joined Count de Grasse 
in the Chesapeake, and that lord Cornwallis had 
broke up the Charon man of war to improve her 
plank and timbers towards building a fort. 

HITHERTO America hath shown no cruelty 
in her disposition towards even a merciless 
enemy, and whenever justice or true policy made 
it necessary to adopt a severe measure the execu- 
tion of it hath been attended with painfulness 
and reluctance : But Clinton will instruct her in 
the practice of cruelty by making it our interest 
and in some degree, our preservation, to retaliate. 
After burning of New London, America might 
justly have declared, that if any further burnings 
or devastations were committed on the inhab- 
itants, that no terms should be granted to Corn- 
wallis, but that he and his whole garrison should 



be put to the sword ; for Cornwallis is more cer- 
tainly within our power than any enterprize 
Clinton may attempt is within his. 

It is talked, that Clinton with about four or 
five thousand men, intends to penetrate thro' 
the Jersies toward this city. This may probably 
put an end to the war at once, for it is to be re- 
membered that exclusive of the rivers he has to 
pass, he must return by the same way he came or 
not at all ; and before he shall have marched 
half the distance towards the Delaware he may 
find the Jersey militia and the continental troops 
in that quarter, like Burgoyne's "GATHERING 
STORM " hanging in his rear in that State, a 
formidable opposition in this ; and if in the mean 
time the French fleet should take a turn up to 
the Hook, his retreat will effectually be cut off 
and New York falls in consequence. — The Penn- 
sylvania Packet, Sept. 22, 1781. 

XIII 

Baltimore, Tuesday, September 25. — A few 
days ago the brig Nymph of Philadelphia, com- 
manded by Captain Braimin, bound to this port 
from Havana, unfortunately ran ashore on the 
Bodkin, at the entrance of our river, and bilged. 
* * * * The above-mentioned brig took off 
the Capes and sent into this port, a pilot boat go- 
ing from York Town to New York with dispatches 
from earl Cornwallis to Sir Henry Clinton, some 
of which written in cypher fell into the hands of 
Captain Braimin, and will no doubt be forwarded 
to Congress or to his excellency, General Wash- 
ington. 

The Richmond and Iris, late British frigates, 
taken a few days ago by the French fleet, are 
arrived off the harbour of Annapolis. Lord Raw- 
don, it is said, is a prisoner on board the latter. 

His excellency General Washington is arrived 
in good health at Williamsburg. The advance 
of his army, it is said, is within 5 miles of York, 
Town, the present residence of earl Cornwallis. 

The French troop which lately landed in Vir- 
ginia from the Count de Grasse's fleet, were 
under the command of the Marquis de St. Simon. 
— The Maryland Journal, September 25, 1 78 1. 

XIV 
Philadelphia, Thursday, September 27. — Ex- 



38 



APPENDIX 



tract of a letter from Annapolis, dated September 
16, 1 78 1. " Permit me to congratulate you on the 
return of the French fleet. It appears there has 
been a running engagement between the enemy 
and them, though nothing decisive. The Count 
de Barras, lying within the Capes, hoisted the 
enemy's flag ; this two of the British frigates ob- 
serving, determined to force their way through the 
formidable fleet of Count de Grasse. Of course 
you must suppose they fell an easy conquest. — 
The Pennsylvania Packet, September 27 , 1781. 

XV 

Philadelphia, Saturday, September 29. — Ex- 
tract of a letter from Count de Grasse to the Hon. 
the Chevalier de la Luzerne, Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary of France. 

Cape Henry, Sept. 13, 1781. " Nothing gave 
me greater pleasure than the approach of the 
armies under General Washington and Count de 
Rochambeau. In order to hasten their arrival I 
had selected out seven vessels that drew the least 
water to transport them from the mouth of Elk 
down Chesapeake Bay. But the moment they 
were ready to sail to execute this service, I was 
myself obliged to make preparations for repelling 
the enemy's fleet, which appeared off the entrance 
of the Bay. I have fought them and their van 
has been very roughly handled. I returned to 
the bay on the 10th. In the meantime Count de 
Barras had arrived and sent up the transports he 
had with him to bring down the troops, which 
induced me not to send up the seven vessels 
above mentioned ; and I had only to add to 
those sent by Count de Barras as many frigates 
as I could. My putting to sea facilitated the 
entrance of M. de Barras, and our junction has 
added much to our strength. I fell in with two 
of the enemy's frigates — the Iris and the Rich- 
mond, of 32 guns each. They had been sent by 
the English admiral to cut away the buoys of our 
anchor. They have paid dear for them." — The 
Pennsylvania Packet, Sept. 29, 1781. 

XVI 

Baltimore, Tuesday, October 2. — Yesterday 
brigadier-general Gist sat out from his house in 
this town for the headquarters of his excellency 



General WASHINGTON, near York Town, 
Virginia, 

A late letter from Williamsburg mentions that 
the allied army, under the command of his ex- 
cellency General Washington, consisting of up- 
wards of 15,000 effective men, all in health and 
high spirits, had taken an advantageous position 
in the neighborhood of York- Town and would 
immediately commence very serious operations 
against that important British Post. — The Mary- 
land Journal, October 2, 1 78 1. 

XVII 

Philadelphia, Saturday, October 6. — Thursday 
last a detachment of the Pennsylvania line, under 
the immediate command of Colonel Craig, 
marched from their camp on the other side of 
the Schuylkill through this city and immediately 
embarked on board vessels in the Delaware, 
which are to convey them part of their route to 
the Southward. 

By a gentleman who left Williamsburg on the 
26th ult., we learn that the Allied Army had 
commenced operations against Lord Cornwallis, 
who was at that time closely penned up in York 
Town, which it appears he has rendered very 
strong by numerous fortifications ; though it was 
said considerable impression was made on his 
works by the fire of our heavy cannon, etc. We 
shall very probably soon have agreeable accounts 
from that quarter. 

Sir Henry Clinton remains quiet in New York 
notwithstanding the imminent danger now hang- 
ing over the head of his colleague in wickedness, 
Lord Cornwallis ; but it is presumed the pres- 
ence of his Young Master will at once dissi- 
pate his fears, and that he, as a 4 man of spirit,* 
will be proud to fight in a cause for which the 
young gentleman exposes his life. — The Penn- 
sylvania Packet, October 6, 1781. 

XVIII 

Philadelphia, Tuesday, October 9. — The fol- 
lowing account is given by a gentleman who left 
the Army in Virginia on the yzth ult. at two- 
o'clock P. M. On Friday, September 28, the whole 
army marched from Williamsburg to within one 
mile of the enemy's works at York, and formed 
the first line of the circumvallation without any 



APPENDIX 



39 



loss. On the 29th our troops had a few skir- 
mishes with the enemy, and but little damage 
done on either side. In the night the British 
evacuated Pigeon quarter and three other re- 
doubts, which are so high as to be able to com- 
mand the town. These were taken possession 
of on Sunday morning at sunrise under a heavy 
cannonade from York Town. The enemy next 
fled from a stockade when the French grenadiers 
had advanced within fifteen yards of it, and re- 
treated, under cover of their shipping, with the loss 
of ten taken prisoners. It was expected our troops 
would break ground on the 1st inst. Cornwallis's 
forces in York are supposed to be 6000 troops, 
including refugees, besides 1000 armed negroes. 
He has possession of the river and Gloucester, 
strongly fortified and garrisoned by about 1000 
men ; these are hemmed in by General Whee- 
den with 1500 men, the Duke de Lucerne with 
his legion and 2000 marines from the fleet to 
prevent any escape that way, — one ship of 44 
guns, two frigates and a 20 gun packet lie at 
Burwell's landing in James's river ; one of 50, 
one of 40, two frigates and a store ship in the 
mouth of that river — five ships of the line off 
Cape Henry ; 32 ships of the line and several 
frigates are drawn up across the mouth of York 
river ; and three ships of considerable force are 
in that river below the town, which were to pro- 
ceed onward with the first fair wind. Gen. 
Washington sent in a flag to Lord Cornwallis, 
directing him not to destroy his shipping or war- 
like stores, as he would answer it at his peril. 
The easy capture of the outposts will greatly 
accelerate the future operations of our army. 
Lieut, col. John Conolly was taken near York- 
Town by two militia men, and is paroled to 
Hanover in Virginia. — The Pennsylvania Packet, 
October 9, 1781. 

XIX 

Baltimore, Tuesday, Oct. 9.— The Enemy in 
York Town and Gloucester, in Virginia, are 
now completely invested by Land and Water — 
The Allied Army, under his Excellency General 
Washington's Command, commenced operations 
against the Enemy in those Towns on Thursday, 
the 27th ult. . and. we are assured, that the French 
and American Batteries were playing success- 



fully against the Enemy on that and the three 
following days. 

It is asserted that a Body of French Troops 
have taken Possession of an important Height, 
called Pigeon-Hill, near York-Town, on which 
they were erecting a strong Battery, that, it is 
imagined, would greatly annoy the Enemy. This 
Hill, it is said, was gained by our Allies with the 
Loss of 9 Men only. — The Maryland Journal, 
Oct, 9, 1 78 1. 

XX 

Philadelphia, Thursday, October 1 1 — Extract of 
a letter, dated camp, Williamsburg, September 27 '. 
"The whole Army moves down to-morrow, as 
you will see by the inclosed extract from gen- 
eral orders : 

General Orders 
[Williamsburg] Sept, 27, five o'clock P. M. 

The whole Army will march by the right in 
one column at 5 o'clock to-morrow morning pre- 
cisely, the particular orders of march for the 
right wing will be distributed by the Quarter- 
master General. The General desires that the 
officers will confine themselves in point of bag- 
gage to objects of the first necessity, that the 
Army may march as light and unencumbered as 
possible. The Quartermaster General will have 
directions to appoint a proper deposit for the 
effects that will be left, from whence they will 
be transported to the army as soon as a perma- 
nent position is taken. 

The Quartermaster General will allot a pro- 
portionate number of waggons in his service for 
the service of the left wing. If the enemy 
should be tempted to meet the army on its 
march, the General particularly enjoins his 
troops to place their principal reliance on the 
bayonet, that they may prove the vanity of the 
boast which the British make of their peculiar 
prowess in deciding battles with that weapon ; 
he trusts that a generous emulation will actuate 
the allied armies. That the French whose na- 
tional weapon is that of close fight, and the 
troops in general that have so often used with 
success, will distinguish themselves on every 
occasion that offers. The justice of the cause in 
which we are engaged, and the honour of the 



40 



APPENDIX 



two nations, must inspire every breast with sen- 
timents that are the presage of Victory." 

Extract of a letter, dated camp, near Williams- 
burg, Sept. 27, 1781. " The American army and 
our allies formed the line of battle this day ; to- 
morrow morning I expect we shall march to a 
position near York, to commence a siege. We 
make a brilliant appearance ; as to numbers, I 
think, we are fifteen thousand strong, not includ- 
ing the Virginia militia^ 

General Wayne was wounded in the thigh the 
2d instant by a centinel, who conceived him to be 
an enemy, but has since recovered. 

I congratulate my friends upon the prospect of 
reducing his lordship, and restoring peace and 
liberty to our country. — The Pennsylvania Pack- 
et, October II, 1781 

XXI 

Philadelphia, Saturday, October 13 — Extract 
of a letter from a gentleman at the Head of Elk, 
dated October 8. "I have just heard that the 
enemy have evacuated their out-works, and that 
Colonel Scammell was wounded and taken as 
he was out reconnoitring." 

Advices from the best authority inform us that 
on the 1st instant the allied army approached 
York-Town, when, after some firing of field 
pieces by a party of our troops, the enemy aban- 
doned their outposts, which were soon taken pos- 
session of by our forces, and the town was com- 
pletely invested, as those works were within half 
a mile of it, and our heavy cannon were soon 
to commence a severe fire. — The Pennsylvania 
Packet, Saturday, October 13, 1 78 1. 

XXII 

Philadelphia, Tuesday, October 16. ■ — Extract of 
a letter from the army near York, dated October 
I, 1 78 1. "On the 28th of September the whole 
army marched from Williamsbur; and approached 
within two miles of the enemy at York, at which 
distance a show was made of some opposition on 
our left, but upon the count Rochambeau, who 
commands the left wing, moving a few pieces of 
field artillery under the direction of the Baron Vio- 
meml, and firing a few shots, the enemy retired. 
, On the 29th the American troops moved forward 
and took their ground in front of the enemy's 



works on their left — no opposition except a few 
scattering shots from a small work by Moore's 
mill, on Wormley's Creek, and a small battery 
on the left of Pidgeon Quarter — a small fire all 
day from our riflemen, and the enemy's Ya- 
gers. 30th, in the morning we discovered 
that the enemy had evacuated all their exterior 
line of works, and withdrawn themselves to 
those near the body of the town — by this means 
we are in possession of very advantageous ground 
which command in a very near advance, almost 
the whole remaining line of their defence. The 
greatest expedition is using in bringing up the 
heavy artillery and to open our batteries, which 
will be executed in a few days." 

Extract of a letter dated camp, before York, Oc-' 
tober I, 1 78 1. " Nothing very remarkable has 
happened since we moved down, which was on 
the 28th ult. The night before last the enemy 
abandoned some advanced redoubts which gives 
us an opportunity of commencing the siege with 
less difficulty. Yesterday Colonel Scammel, who 
was officer of the day, in reconnoitering the 
enemy, was unfortunately wounded and taken 
prisoner. 

The report of Captain White, of Colonel 
Hazen's regiment, being drowned, was prema- 
ture." 

Extract of a letter dated camp, before the 
enemy s lines at York, October I, 1 781. After 
a variety of fatigue and every other concom- 
itant trouble, we are at last seated now be- 
fore Mr. Cornwallis's lines. The French army 
is operating on their right, and the American 
army on their left. Immediately on our advance, 
the enemy abandoned all their out works, which 
gives the allied arms the greatest advantage, as 
they have left us a very formidable raveen in 
their front, so that our parties at work may be 
supplied with water under cover. 

This day and all last night we were working 
at our first parallel and the French are landing 
their heavy artillery as fast as possible. 

The enemy seems to be very passive, not dis- 
turbing us very much ; a little firing of artillery, 
etc., but this is the consequence of all opposition 
made to approaches. 

In six days from this date we will be (in all 
human probability) in their works. 



APPENDIX 



41 



The French troops are a glorious body of 
men, they fear nothing, but advance with celerity 
to the conquest, a conduct that ever attends 
minds animated with glory and fame. May never 
dying laurels be theirs and the Americans' reward. 

Poor Scammcl is wounded and prisoner, taken 
the first night after we sat down. Eight hundred 
yards is the furthest distance from any part of 
our works to theirs." 

Extract of a private letter from a gentleman 
to his friend in this city, dated Camp be- 
fore York Town, October 5, 1 78 1. You must 
before this time have heard of our safe arrival 
in Virginia, and our junction with the troops 
from Count de Grasse's fleet. On the 28th 
ultimo we marched from Williamsburg and 
made our appearance before the enemy's works 
at this place ; on the 29th we encamped within 
less than a mile of their first chain of redoubts, 
and our movements indicating a storm, they 
evacuated them the same night ; on the 30th his 
excellency reconnoitered their second line, and on 
the 1st of the current began a number of redoubts 
within the lines which they had evacuated. 
From that time to the present we have been em- 
ployed in compleating those works and making 
fascines and gabions for further operations. We 
expect in two or three days at furthest to begin 
the siege with ardor by breaking ground within 
less than 400 yards of their principal batteries. 
Since we began the redoubts they have kept up a 
continual cannonade upon us, without our taking 
so much notice of them as to return a single shot 
except from a few riflemen, and have killed only six 
of our men. The American troops compose the 
right wing of the army in the following order — 
Muhlenberg's and Hazen's brigades to form the 
division on the right under the Marquis de la 
Fayette — Wayne's and the Maryland brigade the 
division of the centre, commanded by Baron 
Steuben — Dayton's and Clinton's that on the left 
— General Lincoln commands the whole wing — 
Stephen's and Lawson's brigades of militia form 
the second line. His excellency Count Rocham- 
beau commands the left wing and makes his own 
disposition. The park of artillery and corps of 
sappers and miners are posted between the two 
lines. I send you an extract from the General 
Orders of yesterday. 



Camp before York-Town, 
October 4, 1781. 

The general congratulates the army on the 
brilliant success of the allied troops nearGloster. 
He requests the Duke Lauzene to accept his 
particular thanks for the judicious disposition 
and decisive vigor with which he charged the 
enemy, and to communicate his warmest ac- 
knowledgements to the gallant officers and men 
by whom he was so admirably seconded ; he 
feels peculiar satisfaction at the inconsiderable 
loss on our part, that no ill effects are to be appre- 
hended from the honorable wounds which have 
been received in this affair, and that at so small 
an expense, the enemy, amounting to six hun- 
dred horse and foot were completely repulsed 
and reconducted to their very lines." 

The corps of the allied army were the Duke 
Lauzene's legion and the militia grenadiers of 
Mercer. 

The following is a list of our killed and wounded 
and as far as can be gathered of the enemy's : 

Duke Lauzene's legion, 3 huzzars killed. 

Captain Billy, Dillon, and Detestor, with 11 
huzzars, wounded ; the officers very slightly ; 3 
horses killed and 4 wounded. 

The enemy's loss in killed and wounded ex- 
ceeds 50, including the commanding officer of 
the infantry, killed, and lieutenant colonel Tarl- 
ton badly wounded. 

Deserters coming into our camp every day, 
and we have certain accounts of the enemy's 
killing about 400 of their horses and throwing 
them into York river." — The Pennsylvania Pack- 
et, Tuesday, October 16, 1781. 

XXIII 

Baltimore, Tuesday, October 16. — Extract of a 
letter from a gentleman at Williamsbiog, dated 
October 5, 1781 : 

" No very material news from below. The 
enemy keep a continual firing from their works on 
our men ; however they have killed but a few. 
We shall, in a day or two, be ready for them, 
and hope to give a good account of them soon. 
We killed and took 50 of Tarleton's men 
in Gloucester on Thursday. This officer had 
his horse shot under him, and, it is said, is 
wounded." 



42 



APPENDIX 



Extract of a letter from a gentleman at head- 
quarters, dated Camp at York-Town, October 5, 
1 78 1 : "I have only time to inform you that to- 
morrow it is expected, all our batteries will open 
on his lordship and I expect, in a short time, will 
make the Town too hot for him. Our works are 
within 5 or 600 yards of the town. We have 
about 15,000 regular troops and about 5 or 6,000 
militia." 

Philadelphia, Tuesday, October 23. — On Sun- 
day last a large sum of money, which lately 
arrived at Boston from France, arrived in town 
in g waggons. It is destined for the use of the 
French army in Virginia. 

Late Letters from the lower Part of Virginia, 
advise that the Siege of York and Gloucester, 
now going on with the greatest perseverance and 
vigour, exhibits a scene of awful grandeur, sur- 
passing description. — The Maryland Journal, 
October 16, 1781. 

XXIV 

New London, Friday, October 19, 1781. — We 
have just received the following from a corre- 
spondent : 

Philadelphia, October 8, 1781. 

' 'Sir : I left our lines before York in Virginia on 
the first of October at sunset — The place was 
invested on the 28th ult.— on the 30th the enemy 
quitted all their out-posts, and were confined to 
the town only — on the night of the 30th we 
broke ground within half a mile of the town, 
and were in possession of the outworks which 
the enemy had evacuated, about the same dis- 
tance from the town. The country about York is 
exceeding level, a rise of five yards is called a 
hill. Our lines are about the same height of the 
enemy's ; between our left and the enemy's right 
there is a creek makes up from the river, near 
one-third the length of our lines, but from the 
center and right wing of our army the ground is 
as favorable as can be wished for making regu- 
lar approaches ; I suppose that is the method the 
enemy is to be reduced. It is thought Corn- 
wallis has provision plenty, and is between six 
and seven thousand strong (regular troops). We 
have about fourteen thousand regular troops 
and about four thousand militia before the town. 
The enemy keeps up a constant cannonade, 



which is disregarded. Col. Scammel, in recon- 
noitring the enemy's works on the 20 ult., was 
wounded and taken prisoner." — The Connecticut 
Gazette, October 19, 1781. 

XXV 

Philadelphia, Saturday, October 20. — By 
accounts from the camp before York, dated 
the loth inst., we learn that on the 6th 
inst. our forces began their first parallel about 
500 yards from the enemy's works, and com- 
pleated it on the 10th with seven or eight re- 
doubts and batteries, which incircles the en- 
emy compleatly. On the evening of the 9th our 
battery on the right began a bombardment and 
cannonade, and continued all night ; and at six 
the next morning the French opened on the left 
with 24 and 18 pounders, 13 inch mortars, &c, 
and continued at the date of our advices ; which 
add that health and high spirits prevailed in our 
camp, and the enemy were in a fair way of being 
speedily reduced to the necessity of asking 
terms. — Pennsylvania Packet, October 20, 1781. 

XXVI 

Philadelphia, Tuesday, Oct. 23. — Early yes- 
terday morning an Express arrived in town 
with the agreeable and very important Intelli- 
gence of Lord Cornwallis and his Army having 
surrendered on the 1 7th instant ; and we im- 
patiently wait the Arrival of his Excellency 
General Washington's Dispatches particulariz- 
ing this most interesting Event. 

Extract of a letter fro?n Camp before York- 
Town, dated October 12. "I have the pleasure 
of informing you, that on the 9th, at three in 
the afternoon, both the French and our bat- 
teries, opened on the enemy from right to left, 
and continue to play on them, doing them much 
damage. Deserters who come in say they have lost 
a great number killed and wounded by our shells. 

" On the ioth at night we set fire to the Cha- 
ron of 44 guns with another smaller vessel, both 
of which were entirely consumed ; and on the 
nth, in the morning, burnt two transports ; the 
above was done by fire balls. 

" All the women and children are sent on the 
Gloster side, and those of the troops remaining 
dare not show their heads above their works, by 



APPENDIX 



43 



the reason of the severity of our fire. Our 
works are about 600 yards from the town, and 
expect to break ground this evening within 300. 
I am in hopes of informing you of the capture 
of his lordship in my next." 

Extracts of letters from Camp before York, in 
Virginia, to the evening of the 10th instant : 
" That the combined armies having compleated 
a perfect line of circumvallation within 400 yards 
of the British main works, a battery opened the 
evening of the 9th on the enemy's left, consist- 
ing of 24 and 18 pound cannon and 4 mortars. 
On the morning of the 10th a battery of 18 
pounders in the centre and one of 12 heavy can- 
non, chiefly 24 pounders and 13 inch mortars, 
from the French camp on the enemy's right, 
were opened, and the whole continued firing till 
the evening of that day, when two of the ene- 
my's principal batteries were silenced, and sev- 
eral others much damaged. A number of the 
houses in York, near the water, appeared to 
have been set on fire. Another heavy battery 
was nearly compleated on the French wing, the 
approaches were carrying on with the greatest 
rapidity and spirit, and works were commenced 
within 200 yards of the town. The greatest 
harmony subsisted in the combined camp. Our 
loss from the cannonade had been very trifling. 

"Colonel Scammel of New Hampshire, who 
had been taken prisoner in reconnoitering the 
English lines, previous to our completely invest- 
ing the place, was shot by one of their dragoons 
after he was made prisoner. That gallant officer 
has since died of his wounds much regretted. " 

Extract of a letter from Jersey : ' ' The 
British, after the most vigorous exertions, have 
again fitted a respectable fleet for sea, consist- 
ing of 24 ships of the line, two fifties and 
a number of 44s and frigates ; they have likewise 
six fire ships compleat and more getting ready. 
Each ship is to take 200 infantry on board, and 
part of them fell down last Sunday. We had 11 
deserters from the ship Intrepid, who brought off 
the ship's pinnace ; they say the ship received 98 
shot in her hull in the action of the 6th. — Penn- 
sylvania Packet, October 23, 1 781 

XXVII 

Philadelphia, Thursday, October 25. — This 



morning Colonel Tilghman, Aid-de-Camp to his 
Excellency, our illustrious Commander-in-Chief, 
arrived in town with the following Dispatches to 
the President of Congress : 

Letter from Washington, dated Head Quar- 
ters, near York, 19 October, 1781, to the Presi- 
dent of Congress, containing, No. 1. Cornwal- 
lis' letter, dated York, Virginia, 17th October, 
1781, to his Excellency Genl Washington, com- 
manding the combined forces of France and 
America. No. 2. Washington's reply, dated 
Camp before York, 17 October, 1781. No. 3. 
Cornwallis to Washington, dated York, 17 Oc- 
tober, half-past four P. M. No. 4. Washington 
to Cornwallis, Head Quarters, before York, Oc- 
tober 18. No. 5. Cornwallis to Washington, 
York, 18 October, containing capitulations, 14 
articles. — The Pennsylvania Packet, Oct. 25, 178 1. 

XXXVIII 

Baltimore, Tuesday, October 30. — Extract of a 
Letter from a Maryland Officer of Distinction, 
dated Trenches before York, Oct. 19, 178 1. "The 
Allied Army broke Ground before this Place 
the 5th Instant, and Batteries were opened on 
the 9th, and the Line of Contravellation com- 
pleted the Day following. 

On the night of the nth we began our first 
Parallel within 250 Yards of their Lines. 

To complete this Parallel, it became necessary 
for us to attempt the Possession of two very im- 
portant detach'd Works upon their Left, which 
enfiladed their Lines and commanded the Town. 
The Evening of the 14th the necessary Dis- 
positions were made for the Attack, and the 
Signals given for that Purpose at 7 o'clock. 

The Count St. Simon immediately made a 
Feint upon their Right, while the Marquis de la 
Fayette, with the American Light-Infantry, and 
Count Deux-Pont, with the French Grenadiers, 
made separate Attacks upon their Left with the 
Bayonet, and after a Conflict of a few Minutes 
got full Possession of their works, with very in- 
considerable Loss, in which some Prisoners were 
made. 

The Marquis' Attack was covered by the Penn- 
sylvania Brigades. 

The Firmness and Bravery with which they 
sustained the heavy Fire of the Enemy, does 



44 



APPENDIX 



Honor to the Allied Arms, and can only be 
equalled. 

About 4 o'clock on the morning of the 15th 
the Enemy made a Sortie, and rushed suddenly 
into our Trenches, but were immediately charged 
with the Bayonet and drove back to their Lines. 

On the memorable 17th of October his Lord- 
ship, without any Summons from his Excellency 
to Surrender, sent a Flag with Proposals of Sur- 
render of the Towns of York and Gloucester, 
which were rejected ; but the Outlines being ad- 
missible, the General took the Matter up on that 
Ground, and offered the same Terms given by 
them on the Surrender of Charlestown. — The 
Maryland Journal, October 30, 1 78 1. 

XXIX 

New London, Friday, November 2. — Extract 
of a letter from Col. Miles, Quartermaster for 
Pennsylvania, to Col. Hughes. 

Philadelphia, October 22, 1781. 

" Before I say anything on business, I must 
indulge myself in congratulating you on the 
capture of Cornwallis and all his army on the 
17th instant — The particulars are not yet arrived ; 
but the President of Congress has just received 
a copy of Count de Grasse's letter to the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland, forwarded by water to An- 
napolis — The Count has taken all his troops on 
board and gone to meet Admiral Digby — though 
the particulars are not come to hand, the fact is 
not to be doubted." — The Connecticut Gazette, 
Nov. 2, 1781. 

XXX 

New London, Friday, November 9. — Copy of a 
letter wrote by the Count de Grasse to the Governor 
of Maryland. 

On board le Ville de Paris, Oct. 28, 1781. 
Sir, 

I have the honor to thank your Excellency for 
the news which you have communicated to me — 

I have prayed General Washington to return 
my troops, which it is probable he will have no 
further occasion for, Lord Cornwallis being al- 
ready captured, of which news no doubt you 
have been informed. 

As soon as the troops are embarked, it is my 
intention to leave the bay, when I shall endeavor 
to contribute further to the success and safety of 



the United Stares, and prevent as far as in my 
power the designs of Sir Henry Clinton. — Con- 
necticut Gazette, Friday, Nov. 9, 178 1. 

XXXI 

Philadelphia, Saturday, November 10. — Col. 
Humphrey, Aide-de-Camp to his Excellency, the 
Commander-in-Chief, who arrived in town last 
Saturday, with the dispatches inserted in our 
paper of Tuesday, brought with him twenty-four 
Standards, late belonging to Lord Cornwallis's 
army ; he was met at the Middle Ferry in 
Schuylkill, by the light-horse of this city, who 
escorted the colours through some of the principal 
streets to the State house, and they were laid at 
the feet of the Congress of the United States, 
surrounded by thousands of spectators, who ex- 
pressed their satisfaction by repeated shouts. — 
Pennsylvania Packet, Nove??iber 10, 1781. 



LETTERS FROM THE FIELD 
I 

From Sparks' Letters of Washington, LLI. 412. 

Camp before York, 30 September, 1 781. 
My Dear General, 

You have so often been pleased to ask I would 
give my opinion upon any subject that may oc- 
cur, that I will this day take the liberty to men- 
tion a few articles. I am far from laughing at 
the idea of the enemy's making a retreat. It is 
not very probable ; but it is not impossible. In- 
deed they have no other way to escape, and 
since he cannot get ships above York, I should 
be still more afraid of a retreat by West Point 
than anything else. The French hussars re- 
maining here, our dragoons and some infantry 
might be stationed somewhere near West Point, 
rather on the north side. I see the service is 
much done by details, and, to use your permis- 
sion, I would take the liberty to observe, that 
when the siege is once begun it might be more 
agreeable to the officers and men to serve as 
much as possible by whole battalions. 

Colonel Scammell is taken. His absence I 
had accounted for by his being officer of the 
day. I am very sorry we lose a valuable officer ; 
but though Colonel Scammell's being officer of 
the day has been a reason for his going in front, 
I think it would be well to prevent the officers 



APPENDIX 



45 



under the rank of Generals or Field-Officers 
reconnoitring, for the safety of their commands 
advancing so near the enemy's lines. There is 
a great disproportion between Huntington's and 
Hamilton's battalions. Now that Scammell is 
taken, we might have them made equal, and put 
the oldest of the two Lieutenant Colonels on the 
right of the brigade. 

I have, these past days, wished for an oppor- 
tunity to speak with your Excellency on Count 
de Grasse's demand relative to M. de Barras' 
fleet. This business being soon done, we may 
think of Charleston, at least of the harbour ; or 
of Savannah. I have long and seriously thought 
of this matter, but would not be in a hurry to 
mention it, until we know how long this will 
last. However, it might be possible to give 
Count de Grasse an early hint of it, in case you 
agree with him upon the winter departure of the 
whole fleet for the West Indies. 

One of my reasons to wish troops, though not 
in great numbers, to be sent to Gloucester coun- 
ty by way of West Point, is, that for the first 
days it will embarrass any movement of the ene- 
my up the river, or up the country, on either 
side ; and when it is in Gloucester county it may 
be thought advantageous by a respectable regular 
force to prevent the enemy's increasing their 
works there, and giving us the trouble of a sec- 
ond operation ; and, at the same time, it will 
keep from York a part of the British forces. 
With the highest regard and most sincere affec- 
tion, I have the honour to be, dear General, 
Your most obedient, humble servant, 

Lafayette 
His Excellency George Washington, 

Commander in Chief, &c. 

II 
Communicated by James E. Mauran 
Headquarters before York, Oct. 10, 1781. 
My dear Webb : 

Our old friend Scammel paid the last debt of 
nature on the 6th instant, at the hospital in Wil- 
liamsburg ; I have informed you of his being 
made a prisoner, and wounded, which wound 
proved fatal and he is no more to be 
found in the walks of men. On the morning 
that the enemy evacuated their advanced re- 



doubts, he being officer of the day, reconnoitered 
rather too far, fell insensibly among a number of 
Horse men who were patroling the front of the 
lines they had retired to. Two of them ad- 
dressed him rather in harsh terms and one seized 
his Briddle and the other presented a pistol to his 
breast, thus situated, he acknowledged himself a 
prisoner, when a third rode up, presented his 
pistol close enough to burn his coat and shot him 
in the back, a fourth made a stroke at him with 
his sword, but the shot having weakened him he 
fell from his Horse and the intention of the Vil- 
lain was frustrated ; they plundered him of every- 
thing he had and hurried him into their lines. 
The officers who were present never interfered, 
nor even after he was carried in did they treat 
him with any kind of civility or respect. So 
much for the boasted Humanity of Britons. 
MARK IT. 

Our first parallel is now compleat, our Batteries 
in full was reopened upon them yesterday, 3 
o'clock P. M., and have kept up the most spright- 
ly peal ever since you can form an idea of. 

I think we shall be able to give a good ac- 
count of them before long. You may depend 
upon hearing from me when anything material 
happens. I am as yet well, but like to have lost 
my hat by a 12 pdr. yesterday. Remember me 
particularly to the good family on the Banks of 
the Rariton, at Wheather's field, and con- 
sider him as your friend who is known by the 
name of Wm. S. Smith 

To Col. Samuel B. Webb, 

Connecticut Line, Peekskill. 
Endorsed : 

Colonel Miles by forwarding this by the first 
express to General Heath's Camp will much 
oblige His Humble Servt., 

Wm. S. Smith, 
A. D. Camp to ye Com'r in Chief. 

Ill 

REPORT OF LIEUT. COL. HAMILTON 

From A/mon's Remembrancer, XIII. 61. 

[Camp before York, Oct. 15, 1781.] 
Sir : I have the honour to render you an ac- 
count of the Corps under my command, in your 
attack of last night upon the redoubts of the 
enemy's lines. 



46 



APPENDIX 



Agreeable to your orders, we advanced in two 
columns with unloaded arms, the right composed 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Gimat's battalion and my 
own, commanded by Major Fish. The left of a 
detachment commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Laurens, destined to take the enemy in reverse, 
and intercept their retreat. The column on the 
right hand was preceded by a vanguard of twen- 
ty men led by Lieutenant Mansfield ; and a de- 
tachment of sappers and miners, commanded by 
Captain Gilliland, for the purpose of removing 
obstructions. 

The redoubt was commanded by Major Camp- 
bell, with a detachment of British and German 
troops, and was completely in a state of defence. 

The rapidity and immediate success of the 
assault, are the best comment on the behavior of 
the troops. Lieutenant-Colonel Laurens dis- 
tinguished himself by an exact and vigorous 
execution of his part of the plan by entering the 
enemy's works with his corps among the foremost 
and making prisoner of the commanding officer 
of the redoubt. Lieutenant-Colonel Gimat's 
battalion, which formed the van of the right at- 
tack, and which fell under my immediate obser- 
vation, encouraged by the decisive and animated 
example of their leader, advanced with an order 
and resolution superior to every obstacle. They 
were well seconded by Major Fish, with the bat- 
talion under his command, who when the front 
of the column reached the abbatis, unlocking his 
corps to the left, as he had been directed, ad- 
vanced with such celerity, as to arrive in time to 
participate in the assault. 

Lieutenant Mansfield deserves particular com- 
mendation for the coolness, firmness, and punc- 
tuality, with which he conducted the vanguard. 
Captain Olney, who commanded the first platoon 
of Gimat's battalion, is entitled to peculiar ap- 
plause. He led his platoon into the work with 
exemplary intrepidity and received two bayonet 
wounds. Captain Gilliland, with the detach- 
ment of sappers and miners, acquitted themselves 
in a manner that did them great honour. 

I do but justice to the several corps when I 
have the pleasure to assure you, there was not an 
officer nor soldier whose behavior, if it could be 
particularized, would not have a claim to the 
warmest approbation — as it would have been 



attended with delay and loss to wait for the re- 
removal of the abbatis and pallisades the ardour 
of the troops was indulged in passing over them. 

There was a happy coincidence of movements. 
The redoubt was in the same moment inveloped 
and carried on every part. The enemy are en- 
titled to the acknowledgements of an honorable 
defence. 

Permit me to have the satisfaction of express- 
ing our obligations to Col. Armand, Capt. Segog- 
ne, the Chevalier de Fontevieux and Capt. Bed- 
kin, officers of his corps, who acting upon this 
occasion as volunteers, proceeded at the head of 
the right column, and entering the redoubt 
among the first, by their gallant example con- 
tributed to the success of the enterprise. 

Our killed and wounded you will perceive by 
the inclosed return. I sensibly felt at a critical 
period the loss of the assistance of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Gimat, who received a musket ball in 
his foot, which obliged him to retire from the 
field. Captain Bets, of Laurens' corps, Captain 
Hunt and Lieutenant Mansfield, of Gimat's, 
were wounded with the bayonet in gallantly 
entering the work. Captain Lieutenant Kirk- 
patrick, of the corps of sappers and miners, re- 
ceived a wound in the ditch. Inclosed is a re- 
turn of the prisoners. The killed and wounded 
of the enemy did not exceed eight. Incapable 
of imitating examples of barbarity, and forgetting 
recent provocations, the soldiery spared every 
man that ceased to resist. I have the honour to 
be, with the warmest esteem and attachment, 
Sir, your most obedient servant, 

A. Hamilton 
Lieut. Col. Commandant 

Major Gen. the Marquis de la Fayette. 

IV 

From Sparks' Letters of Washington, VIII. 425. 

Camp before York, 16th October, 1781. 
My dear General : 

Your Excellency having personally seen our 
disposition, I shall only give you an account of 
what passed in the execution. Colonel Gimat's 
battallion led the van, and was followed by that 
of Colonel Hamilton, who commanded the whole 
advanced corps. At the same time a party of 
eighty men, under Colonel Laurens, turned the 



APPENDIX 



47 



redoubt. I beg leave to refer your Excellency 
to the report I have received from Colonel Ham- 
ilton, whose well-known talents and gallantry 
were on this occasion most conspicuous and 
serviceable. Our obligation to him, to Colonel 
Gimat and to Colonel Laurens, and to each and 
all the officers and men are above expression. 
Not one gun was fired ; and the ardor of the 
troops did not give time forthe sappers to derange 
the abatis ; and owing to the conduct of the 
commanders and bravery of the men, the redoubt 
was stormed with uncommon rapidity. 

Colonel Barber's battalion, which was the first 
in the supporting column, being detached for 
the aid of the advance, arrived at the moment 
they were getting over the works, and executed 
their orders with the utmost alacrity. The 
Colonel was slightly wounded. The rest of the 
column, under Generals Muhlenberg and Hazen, 
advanced with admirable firmness and disci- 
pline. Colonel Vose's battalion displayed to the 
left, a part of the division successively dressing by 
him, whilst a kind of second line was forming 
columns in the rear. It adds greatly to the 
character of the troops, that, under the fire of 
the enemy, they displayed and took their ranks 
with perfect silence and order. 

Give me leave particularly to mention Major 
Barber, Division Inspector, who distinguished 
himself and received a wound from a cannon ball. 

In making the arrangement for the support of 
the works we had reduced, I was happy to find 
General Wayne and the Pennsylvanians so 
situated as to have given us, in case of need, the 
most effectual support. I have the honor to be, 
with the most perfect respect, your Excellency's 
most obedient servant, Lafayette 

His Excellency George Washington, 
Commander in Chief, etc. 



REPORT OF BARON DE VIOMESNIL TO COUNT 
\ DE ROCHAMBEAU 

From Count William de Deux-Ponts 1 Journal, 
edited by Samuel Abbott Green. 
Translated for the Magazine 
Camp before York, 16 October, 1781. 
You have had too large a share, Count, in the 
successful movement which must hasten the 



capitulation of Lord Cornwallis for me not to 
feel it my duty to hand you herewith a copy of 
the Report made by me to Count de Rocham- 
beau of the affair of the trenches from the four- 
teenth to the fifteenth. If I am mistaken upon 
any of the points which you may have seen before 
myself, you will do me a great favor by inform- 
ing me that I may correct my errors. I earnestly 
hope that the promotion which I have solicited 
for you and M. de l'Estrade, your companion in 
glory, may be granted ; I believe the good of the 
service to be interested in it ; events of this na- 
ture being so rare, the service you have rendered 
so important, and the distinction and energy of 
your conduct are so well known to the entire 
army, that I do not believe there lives a single 
Frenchman who can disapprove of your being 
made Brigadier. 

As for me, Count, I am too happy to have 
this occasion to show you my opinion of you and 
my confidence in you ; I hope that it may serve 
to secure for me your friendship and to continue 
to secure for me some regard for the feeling 
of tender and faithful attachment with which I 
have the honor to be yours, &c, 

VIOMESNIL 

Count William de Deux-Ponts. 

Report of Baron de Viomesnil to Count de Ro- 
chambeau upon the Attack of the York-Town 
Redoubts. 

In the trenches, 15 October, 1781. 
General, 

General Washington having yesterday evening 
approved in the trenches the dispositions I had 
made and the instructions I had given to MM. 
de la Fayette and General Stubens, as well as to 
MM. des Deux-Ponts, de l'Estrade and de Ros- 
taing for the attack of the two redoubts on the 
enemy's left which you had ordered me to carry, 
I returned to the column of attack, which I pro- 
posed to lead in person, and after having given 
to Count de Custine the necessary information 
and orders for the disposition of the troops 
which were to remain in the trenches, we de- 
bouched at the signal agreed upon with great or- 
der and in perfect silence. The two redoubts 
were attacked and carried almost at the same 
moment. The Marquis de la Fayette conducted 
the attack with which he was charged with equal 



4 8 



APPENDIX 



intrepidity and skill. His infantry behaved like 
grenadiers accustomed to difficult situations ; all 
who defended the redoubt attacked by the Amer- 
icans were killed or made prisoners. A major 
and an officer are in the latter number. Count 
William des Deuxponts, who commanded the 400 
grenadiers and chasseurs whom I had assigned to 
the attack of the great redoubt, marched upon it 
as well as M. de l'Estrade, Lieutenant Colonel 
of Gatinois, whom I had placed under his orders 
and as his advance guard, in such order and with 
such intrepidity that in less than six minutes 
they were masters of and mounted this redoubt. 
They entered it, together with the first Gren- 
adiers, after having cut their way, axes in hand, 
through the abatis in the ditch and through 
the fraise of the work. One hundred and forty 
men who defended it and made a sharp musketry 
fire were killed or made prisoners. Some escaped, 
in the number of whom it is supposed Colonel 
Macpherson. Count de Rostaing, who marched 
with two companies of auxiliary chasseurs and 
the second battalion of his regiment, behaved 
with like valour and distinction ; 400 men of the 
regiment of Gatinois acted in this affair as though 
the entire regiment of Auvergne were present. 
This detail should gratify you. They unfortu- 
nately lost nearly seventy men, of whom fifty 
grenadiers and chasseurs. M. de Berthelot was 
killed, M. de Sireuil, Captain of Chasseurs and 
officer of great distinction, had a leg broken, and 
M. de Sillegue, Lieutenant of Chasseurs, was 
severely wounded. The grenadiers and chas- 
seurs of Deux-Ponts had 22 men killed or wound- 
ed ; the chasseurs of Agenois six men killed ; 
those of Bourbonnois, who were at the head of 
the column commanded by M. de Rostaing, for- 
tunately lost no one. In all, this decisive at- 
tack cost nearly one hundred men ; but it should 
reflect the highest honor on Count William 
des Deuxponts, M. de l'Estrade, Count de Ros- 
taing, and the officers and troops who were 
engaged in it. Joy and proper behaviour before 
the sally, silence, vigor and difficulties overcome 
during the attack, excellent order and humanity 
after the success. Such, my General, is what I 
have seen of la nation and of the grenadiers of 
Deuxponts after twenty years of peace, and I am 
most happy to inform you of it. 



I should also mention two sergeants of the 
regiment of Gatinois whom I specially charged 
to march ten paces in advance of the grenadiers 
to feel their way and indicate the passages or 
points most favorable to surmount the abatis ; 
these two men, who both came out unhurt, so 
thoroughly justified what the Baron de l'Estrade 
had told me of their intelligence and bravery, 
that I hold it my duty to notice them with dis- 
tinction, and pray of you not to disapprove of 
my having the honor to present them to you 
to-morrow morning. MM. de Vauban and de 
Lameth, ordered by you and M. de Beville to 
participate in this attack, and Count de Damas, 
whom only the desire to distinguish himself and 
his simple zeal attracted to it, entered the redoubt 
with the first Grenadiers, and behaved every- 
where like true Paladins. They have a refine- 
ment of courage which will some day be an ex- 
cellent example for the warriors with whose com- 
mand they may be charged, and certainly of the 
greatest benefit to the King's service. The Chev- 
alier de Lameth was severely wounded in both 
legs after surmounting the parapet. 

MM. de Viomesnil, de St. Armand, de Cha- 
bannes, de Brentano, Desoteux, and de Pange, 
my aids de camp, deserve that I should name 
them in general and in particular for their dis- 
tinguished conduct at this attack and their exact 
execution of the orders I gave them throughout 
the night. 

M. le Chevalier de Menonville, Aid Major Gen- 
eral, having brought with him two hundred 
workmen of the regiment of Soissonnais, whose 
duty was to prolong the second parallel up to 
the redoubt carried by Count William de Deux- 
ponts, this labor was so well executed under 
the direction of the Chevalier Doire, so near to 
the enemy and so promptly, that I thought it 
just to give ten sols additional to each of the 
workmen. MM. de Turpin and de Gouvion 
worked with the same success between the re- 
doubts captured and the communications of the 
first with the second parallel of the Americans. 

The artillery did wonders during the time 
which preceded the two attacks. M. d'Aboville 
and the commandants of the batteries outdid 
themselves in preparing the success. 

I do not yet know the loss of the Americans. 



APPENDIX 



49 



When MM. de la Fayette and Baron de Stuben 
send me their reports I will hasten to forward 
them to you ; according to what they have just 
told me, it is not considerable. 

Count William was wounded in the face, but 
slightly ; his conduct was so brilliant and his ac- 
tion so distinguished and decisive that I beg of 
you, General, to obtain for him from the King's 
kindness the rank of Brigadier. 

I beg of you to procure the same rank for 
Baron de l'Estrade, who has been in service more 
than forty years, and has shown an example to 
the grenadiers and chasseurs of his regiment 
worthy of the highest praise. The Count de 
Rostaing, Colonel since 1770, and having also 
greatly distinguished himself, should you ask the 
rank of Brigadier for him I am sure it would 
not be refused him. 

General Washington appearing satisfied with 
the result of our attacks, should you add your 
approbation of all that has been done, I shall 
have nothing further to ask of you so long as my 
service in the trenches continues. 

I have the honor to be, with the most respect- 
ful attachment, General, your very humble, very 
obedient servt, Viomesnil 

VI 

From Sparks' Letters of Washington, VIII. 182. 

Headquarters, 19th October, 1781. 
Sir: 

I have the honor with many congratulations, 
to inform you that one o'clock this afternoon is 
appointed for the delivery of two of the enemy's 
redoubts on the Gloucester side ; one to a de- 
tachment of French, the other to a detachment 
of American troops. The garrison is to march 
out at three o'clock (with shouldered arms, drums 
beating a British or German march, the cavalry 
with their swords drawn, and the colors of the 
whole cased), to a place which you will be so 
good as to appoint, in front of the posts, where 
they will ground their arms, and afterwards re- 
turn to their encampment. You will be so good 
as to communicate this to General Weeden, and 
to make the necessary arrangements, and desire 
him to take every precaution to prevent the loss 
or embezzlement of the arms. I am, etc., 

George. Washington 

Brigadier-General De Choisy. 



VII 

Communicated by Henry C. Van Schaack. 

Camp before York in Virginia, 21st Oct., 17S1. 
My dear Sir : 

A French ship being about to sail with de- 
spatches to the Court of France from Count de 
Grasse and Count de Rochambeau, of the event 
which has taken place here, I think it of importance 
for you to receive as early as possible a general 
sketch of our operations here, as it is probable 
that Congress, or their servants, whose immediate 
duty it is to correspond with you, may not have 
it in their power to transmit you official intelli- 
gence for some time to come. 

The enemies operations in [the] states, although 
not carried on with great armies, compared with 
those of 1776 and 1777, yet were so formidable 
as to dispel every force which the country, of it- 
self, was capable of opposing. This rendered it 
necessary for America to march its army here, or 
give up the Southern States as lost. It appears 
also to have been the opinion of the French 
Court, as Count de Grasse gave intelligence of 
his intentions of arriving at the Capes of Virginia. 
Our previous views were New York. The 
dispositions were made on the Hudson River for 
the attack of Lord Cornwallis in Virginia, and 
everything has succeeded equal to our sanguine 
wishes. 

This important affair has been effected by the 
most harmonious concurrence of circumstances, 
that could possibly have happened. A fleet and 
troops from the West Indies, under the orders of 
one of the best men in the world ; an army of 
American and French troops, marching from the 
North River 500 miles ; and the fleet of Count 
de Barras, all joining so exactly in point of time 
as to render what has happened almost certain. 

I shall not enter into a detail of circumstances 
previous to the collection of our force at Wil- 
liamsburgh, twelve miles distant from this place, 
which was made on the 27th ult. On the 28th 
we marched to this camp, and on the 29th and 
30th we completed our investiture of York. A 
body of American militia, the Duke Lauzerne's 
legion, and some marines from the fleet of 
Count de Grasse, at the same time formed in the 
vicinity of Gloucester, so as to prevent any in- 
cursions of the enemy into the country. From 



5o 



APPENDIX 



the first of October to the sixth was spent in 
preparing our material for siege, bringing for- 
ward our cannon and stores, and in reconnoiter- 
ing the points of attack. On the evening of the 
6th we broke ground and began our first parallel 
within 600 yards of the enemies works, undis- 
covered. The first parallel, four redoubts and 
all our batteries were finished by the 9th at two 
o'clock p. M., when we opened our batteries and 
kept them playing continually. On the night of 
the 12th, we began our second parallel, at 300 
yards distant from the enemy, and on the night 
of the 14th, we stormed two redoubts which the 
enemy had advanced of their main works. The 
gallant troops of France, under the orders of 
Baron de Viomenil, and the hardy soldiers of 
America, under the Marquis de la Fayette, at- 
tacked separate works, and carried them in an 
instant. This brilliant stroke was effected with- 
out any great loss on our side. The enemy lost 
between one and two hundred. This advantage 
was important, and gave us an opportunity of 
perfecting our second parallel, into which we 
took the two redoubts. 

On the 16th, just before day, the enemy made 
:a sortie and spiked up some of our cannon, but 
were repulsed and driven back to their works. 
The cannon were soon cleared, and the same 
day our batteries in the second parallel began to 
fire, and continued without intermission until 9 
o'clock in the morning of the 17th October, ever 
memorable on account of the Saratoga affair, 
when the enemy sent a flag offering to treat of 
the surrender of the posts of York and Glouces- 
ter. The firing continued until 2 o'clock, when 
commissioners on both sides met to adjust the 
capitulation, which was not finished and signed 
until 12 o'clock on the 19th. Our troops took 
possession of two redoubts of the enemy soon 
after ; and about two o'clock the enemy marched 
out and grounded their arms. The whole garri- 
son are prisoners of war, and had the same honors 
only as were granted to our garrison at Charles- 
town ; their colors were cased, and they were pro- 
hibited playing a French or American tune. The 
returns are not yet collected, but including 
officers, sick and well, there are more than seven 
thousands, exclusive of seamen, who are sup- 
posed to amount to one thousand. There are 



near forty sail of top-sail vessels in the harbor, 
about one-half of which the enemy sunk upon 
different occasions. About two hundred pieces 
of cannon, nearly one-half of them brass, a great 
number of arms, drums and colors are among the 
trophies of this decisive stroke. The prisoners 
are to be sent into any part of this State, Mary- 
land or Pennsylvania. 

The consequences will be extensively beneficial. 
The enemy will be immediately confined to 
Charlestown and New York, and reduced to a 
defensive war of those two posts, for which they 
have not more troops in America than to form 
adequate garrisons. 

The exalted talents of General Greene have 
been amply displayed in North and South Caro- 
lina. Without an army, without means, with- 
out anything, he has performed wonders. He 
will now be reinforced with a large body of 
troops, which will enable him to push the enemy 
to the gates of Charlestown. 

This army is composed of French and Ameri- 
can troops ; three thousand of the former came 
from the West Indies ; the whole commanded in 
person by our beloved Washington, whose dis- 
guished worth and patriotism rise every day and 
demand the pure pen of some animated repub- 
lican to do him sufficient justice. The harmony 
and good understanding between the American 
and French troops exceed all description. One 
soul actuates the whole mass, and all fired with 
zeal for the interests of America. The troops 
which came with Count de Grasse from the West 
Indies, under the orders of the Marquis de St. 
Simon, will return with him immediately. The 
army which came from France under Count de 
Rochambeau, will be cantoned for the present in 
this State. The American troops which belong 
to the States east of Pennsylvania, will imme- 
diately depart for the North River ; those west 
from Pennsylvania, inclusive, will go to the 
southward. The enemy have a post at Wilming- 
ton, in North Carolina, of which those troops 
will dispossess them, and then join General 
Greene. 

We have a very respectable defensive force on 
the Hudson's river, amply sufficient to garrison the 
important posts in the Highlands, and to form 
a small covering army. 



APPENDIX 



51 



If I can possibly procure copies of the capitu- 
lation and returns of the troops and stores taken, 
I will do myself the honor to enclose them. 

The unequivocal testimonies which America has 
already received of the friendship of France, in- 
duce us to hope much from the future. If it shall 
be found possible to have a superior French fleet 
before New York by the 1st of next June, to 
stay certainly through the operation, I should not 
hesitate to pronounce, with as much decision as 
military affairs will admit, that in six weeks we 
should wrest that important place from the hands 
of the English. 

I would thank you to present my very respect- 
ful compliments to Mrs. Jay, and remember me 
to Col. Livingston. 

I have the honor to be, with great esteem and 
respect, your excellency's most obedient servant, 

H. Knox 

His Excellency John Jay, Esq. 

P. S. Since writing the foregoing, his Excel- 
lency, General Washington, has informed me 
that he has enclosed to you authenticated copies 
of the capitulation and returns as far as can be 
collected. 

VIII 

KNOX'S BRIGADE ORDERS, OCTOBER 21, I781 
From the Orderly Book for the id Regiment of 

Artillery, Col. Lamb, in the Collection of the 

IV. Y. Historical Society. 

It is with the highest degree of pleasure Genl 
Knox obeys the request of His Excellency the 
Commander in chief in communicating His Ex- 
cellency's thanks to the Corps of Artillery. The 
attention to the Public interests in all ranks of 
officers in bringing forward, with uncommon la- 
bour, to this point the cannon and stores, which 
have in conjunction with those of our good 
friends, the French, in a capital degree effected 
the joyful event of the 19, merits the warmest 
effusions of gratitude. The skill, so conspicu- 
ously manifested in the management and direc- 
tion of the cannon and mortars, have amazed our 
noble allies and brought home to the feelings of 
our enemies that the officers of the American 
Artillery have acquired a respectable portion of 
knowledge in the profession. Genl Knox par- 
ticularly requests Coll Lamb to accept of his 



most sincere acknowledgments for his care and 
attention in conducting the Stores and Troops 
from the Head of Elk to this place. He aLo 
thanks Lt Col Stevens for his great exertions at 
Christiana Bridge in forwarding the Stores from 
that place and for the essential assistance he af- 
forded Col Lamb in the other paths of duty, and 
Major Bauman for the separate transportation of 
stores with which he was charged. 

He is highly impressed with the merit of the 
above Gentlemen and with that of Lt Col Car- 
rington in the important duties of the Batteries 
which they discharged in a manner highly hon- 
ourable to themselves and their Country and of 
all the officers and men for their talents and good 
conduct in their respective stations. Capt Ste- 
vens is entitled to his esteem and thanks for his 
care and industry in bringing forward the Re- 
mainder of the stores and Capt Machin and 
Ferguson for their great Exertions in erecting 
the Batteries with which they were charged. Lts 
Price and Ford with the other officers and men 
of the Laboratory are also requested to receive 
the warmest acknowledgments of their General 
for the great attention and skill exhibited by 
them in the Preparation of the numerous Stores, 
upon which the success of the whole operation 
depended. 

The General also thanks Lt Col Dabney, the 
Officers and Privates of the Virginia State Regi- 
ment, Major Jones with the militia, Capt Mc- 
Kennon, the Officers and Privates of the Dela- 
ware Detachment, who have been annexed to 
the Artillery, for the Zeal and alacrity with which 
they have performed the several duties assigned 
them, and assures their Corps that he shall ever 
retain the most grateful sense of their services 
on this occasion. 

IX 

NARRATIVE OF THE DUKE DE LAUZUN 
Translated for the Magazine. 
On the first day's march from Philadelphia 
General Washington learned that M. de Grasse 
had anchored in Chesapeake bay with more than 
thirty ships of the line, and had disembarked 
M. de St. Simon with three thousand land 
troops. I never saw a man so thoroughly and 
openly delighted than General Washington. We 



52 



APPENDIX 



learned at the same time that Lord Cornwallis 
had received instructions from General Clinton 
not to return to Portsmouth, which was an ex- 
cellent post, but to fortify himself at York town 
until he received reinforcements. 

Arrived at the head of Elk at the open- 
ing of Chesapeake bay, and fearing that Lord 
Cornwallis might seriously embarrass M. de 
la Fayette, whose division only consisted of two 
thousand Americans and the light troops of M. de 
Saint Simon, he embarked on boats of every 
kind all the grenadiers and chasseurs of the 
army and all the infantry of my regiment, under 
the orders of M. de Custine. I asked permis- 
sion to march with my infantry, satisfied that 
these troops would first exchange fire with the 
enemy. General Lincoln followed us at some 
distance with the American light infantry. M. 
de Custine, eager to arrive in advance, took a 
fast sailing sloop and went forward without 
stopping or giving me any order whatever as 
far as James River. On the third day of our 
passage the weather was very heavy. The boats 
were detestable ; two or three foundered and 
seven or eight of our men were drowned. The 
bad weather compelled us to anchor off Annap- 
olis ; as we were about setting sail again 
General Washington sent an aide-de-camp to 
me with word to disembark the troops and not to 
move until further orders. 

The English squadron appearing off Chesa- 
peake bay M. de Grasse had gone out to engage 
them and not yet returned. Three days later 
one of the King's corvettes came up to inform 
us that M. de Grasse had beaten the English 
fleet, captured two frigates and returned to 
the anchorage in the bay. I at once embarked 
the troops and we were ten days in getting down 
to the mouth of the James River. 

There I found M. de Custine ; and as I was 
reporting to him what had happened in his ab- 
sence General Washington and M. de Rocham- 
beau, who were near by on a corvette, sent me 
word to come on board. General Washington 
told me that as Lord Cornwallis had sent all his 
cavalry and a considerable body of troops to 
Gloucester opposite York he feared he in- 
tended to retreat in that direction, and that he 
had therefore sent over a corps of observation 



under command of brigadier-general Wiedort 
of the Continental line, an officer of sufficient 
merit but who detested fighting, which he had 
never been willing to take part in, and besides 
terribly afraid of gunshot. He told me that he 
should write to General Wiedon that he would 
leave him the honor but forbid him to give any 
orders. I explained to him that we did not 
understand the service in that fashion ; that if 
General Wiedon were under my orders I should 
certainly make him obey, but that I should 
equally obey if under his ; that I had not the 
least objection to serve under him if he thought 
best and that he might depend on my main- 
taining the most friendly relations with him. 

I joined General Wiedon's corps with my 
regiment. He blockaded Gloucester in a drole 
way ; he was more than fifteen miles from the 
enemy's posts, frightened to death, and did not 
dare to send a patrol half a mile from his 
army. He was the best man alive and all that 
he desired was to take no responsibility. I pro- 
posed to him to approach Gloucester and to 
make next morning a reconnoisance near to the 
English posts ; he consented and we went out 
with fifty huzzars. When we were within seven 
or eight miles of the enemy he said to me that it 
was useless to go any further and we should see 
nothing more ; I so urged him that he could not 
refuse to follow me. I drove in the enemy's 
posts and went far enough to obtain a precise 
idea of their position. My General was in des- 
pair ; he told me that he would not go with me 
again ; as he had no desire to be killed. 

I reported to M. de Rochambeau what I had 
seen ; I informed him that no reliance could be 
placed on the American militia and that it was 
indispensable that he should send me at least 
two more battalions of French infantry. I had 
neither artillery, nor provisions, nor powder. 
I asked these of him ; he at once sent me artil- 
lery and eight hundred men drawn from the 
marines, under the orders of M. de Choisy, who 
by seniority commanded General Wiedon and 
myself. 

M. de Choisy is an excellent and worthy man, 
absurdly violent in temper, constantly in a rage, 
quarrelling with everybody, and without com- 
mon sense. He began by ridding himself of 



APPENDIX 



53 



General Wiedon and the entire militia, telling 
them they were all cowards, and in five minutes 
they were almost as much afraid of him as of the 
English, which is certainly a great deal to say. 
The next day he wished to occupy the camp I 
had reconnoitered. General Wiedon preferred 
to move a day later and remained behind with 
about six hundred men of his division. 

Just as we reached the Gloucester plain some 
Virginia State Dragoons came up in great 
fright and told us that they had seen the English 
dragoons out and that for fear of accident they 
had hurried to us at full speed without stopping 
to see anything more. I went forward to learn 
what I could. I saw a very pretty woman at 
the door of a little farm house on the high road ; 
I went up to her and questioned her ; she told 
me that Colonel Tarleton had left her house a 
moment before ; that he was very eager to shake 
hands with the French Duke. I assured her 
that I had come on purpose to gratify him. She 
seemed very sorry for me, judging from experience 
I suppose that Tarleton was irresistible ; the 
American troops seemed to be of the same 
opinion. 

I was not a hundred steps from the house 
when I heard pistol shots from my advance guard. 
I hurried forward at full speed to find a piece 
of ground where I could form a line of battle. 
As I arrived I saw the English cavalry in force 
three times my own ; I charged it without halt- 
ing ; we met hand to hand. Tarleton saw me 
and rode towards me with pistol raised. We 
were about to fight single handed between the 
two troops when his horse was thrown by one of 
his own dragoons pursued by one of my lancers. 
I rode up to him to capture him ; a troop of Eng- 
lish dragoons rode in between us and covered his 
retreat ; he left his horse with me. He charged 
me twice without breaking my line ; I charged 
the third time, overthrew a part of his cavalry 
and drove him within the entrenchment of 
Gloucester. He lost an officer, some fifty men, 
and I took quite a number of prisoners. 

M. de Choisy established his camp at a mile 
and a half from Gloucester ; our patrols were 



constantly exchanging shots with those of the 
English and we did not sleep one instant during 
the siege. The Baron de Viomesnil being about to 
attack two redoubts of the York works, M. de 
Choisy was ordered to make a feint upon 
Gloucester ; he determined to make a real attack 
and carry the entrenchments sword in hand. He 
accordingly distributed axes to the American 
militia, with which to cut the palisades. At the 
first fire half of them threw down their axes and 
guns to run the faster. Thus deserted he fell 
back upon me with some companies of French 
infantry and lost a dozen men. 

The day after the next my lord Cornwallis 
proposed a capitulation. M. de Rochambeau 
selected me to carry the great news to France 
and sent for me. I was not anxious to return 
to Europe ; I advised him to send M. de Charles, 
by which he would make his peace with M. de 
Castries, and perhaps secure the better treatment 
for his army. I could not persuade him ; he 
said to me that I had been first in action and 
to me it fell to carry the news ; Count Wil- 
liam de Deux Ponts the second, and should 
carry the details of it. Count de Charles 
never forgave him nor me either. I embarked 
on the king's frigate La Surveillante, and after 
a passage of twenty-two days, arrived at Brest 
and went up to Versailles without loss of time. 

Arrived at Versailles I found M. de Maurepas 
on his death bed ; he was hardly conscious ; he 
recognised me nevertheless and received me in a 
most touching manner. He recommended me 
earnestly to the king and his ministers, who 
promised to put into execution what it was his 
intention to do for me. He died the day after 
the next and M. de Castries and M. de Segur 
treated me as badly as they could. 

My news delighted the King extremely ; I 
found him in the Queen's apartments ; he put 
me numerous questions and said many kind 
things to me. He asked me if I proposed to 
return to America ; I answered yes ; he added 
that I might assure his army that it would receive 
great favors, greater than any others had ever 
received. — Memoires du Due de Lauzun. 



BAUMAN'S MAP OF THE SIEGE OF YORKTOWN 

To Sebastian Bauman, Major in Colonel Lamb's regiment of artillery, 
the student is indebted for the only American map and survey of the 
siege of Yorktown. Bauman was an educated officer of German birth, 
for a long period before the war a resident of New York City. He was 
the only officer in the New York regiment of artillery not native born. 
He was commissioned by the New York Provincial Congress early in 
1776. 

In a manuscript note, found in his Book of Military Problems, there 
is a valuable account of the capture of New York in the summer of 
1776. He was left in the City on the morning of the 15th with orders 
to bring out the little artillery remaining but was cut off from the 
retreating army by the extension of the British line across the island 
after the landing at Kipp's bay. He stood by his pieces, two howitzers, 
till night fall, when he succeeded in transporting them and his men to 
Powlis Hook. He served with distinction in the Northern Campaigns 
of 1776 and of 1777. Entrusted with the command of the artillery at 
West Point in 1779, he was at that post in the eventful days of Arnold's 
treason, and the letters to him from Knox at that period show con- 
clusively that however widespread the distrust of officers, his patriotism 
was not for an instant doubted. In 1781 he went with his regiment to 
the southward, and during the siege of Yorktown was one of the 
officers who rotated in the command of the artillery park and batteries, 
by turns fixing the ammunition and pointing the American guns. 
At the close of the campaign he returned to his post at West Point, 
where he remained until the disbandment of the army, when he resumed 
his old mercantile life in New York, and took command of the New 
York Regiment of Artillery in the State service. Later he received 
the Federal appointment of postmaster in the same city, and died in 
office, October 19, 1803, the anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis, 
in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He was one of the original members 
of the New York Society of the Order of Cincinnati. 

An accomplished engineer, while on the Yorktown peninsula, he 
prepared from actual surveys the admirable chart, now reproduced at 
one-half its original size, which, in the fall of 1782, after struggling with 
almost insurmountable difficulties, he finally succeeded in having 
engraved and published. His prospectus, issued at the beginning of 






bauman's map of the siege of yorktown 55 

the year, and printed in the New Jersey Journal, January 30, 1782, best 
describes the work. 

Major BAUMAN of the New York or Second 
Regiment of Artillery 
Has drawn a MAP 
Of the Investment of York and Glou- 
cester, in Virginia. 

Showing how those posts were besieged in form 
by the allied army of America and France ; the 
British lines of defense, and the American and 
French lines of approach ; with part of York River, 
and the British ships, as they then appeared sunk in 
it before York-Town ; and the whole encampment 
in its vicinity. 

This MAP, by desire of many gentlemen, will 
shortly be published in Philadelphia, in order that 
the public may form an idea of that memorable 
siege. Those gentlemen who wish to become sub- 
scribers, will apply to Captain Arnold, in Morris- 
town, and to the printer hereof ; where the condi- 
tions will be shown, and subscription money be 
received. 

In a letter to General McDougall, who was one of the subscribers 
to the chart, he apologized for its rude appearance on the ground that 
he had but little time for the survey, the only object to him then being 
the lines, without idea of publication, and that it was the first work of 
the kind the engraver who cut the plate had ever done ; yet, he adds, it 
had received the entire approbation of the public, " with respect to 
the artist and the army, American, French and British, of the accuracy 
in the design," a phrase, which in its obscurity admits of more than 
one interpretation. In the points displayed by the map, there is one of 
peculiar interest to historical students, viz., the arrangement of the 
stars on the national ensign. 

This interesting plate descended to his family, but was some years 
since inadvertently disposed of for its metal value to a dealer in junk. 
Perchance the publicity now given to it may lead to its discovery. 
Copies of the map are extremely rare. That used in the present repro- 
duction belonged to Jonathan Goodhue, and is now preserved in the 
collection of the New York Historical Society, where there are also a 
number of letters of Major Bauman, presented to it by Mr. Bauman 
Lowe, a descendant. 

EDITOR 



56 



NOTES 



NOTES 

Historical anecdotes. — In a rare 
collection of bound pamphlets, picked 
up, mostly in England, I find one bear- 
ing this title : " Historical Anecdotes, 
Civil and Military : in a Series of Let- 
ters, written from America, in the years 
1777 and 1778, to different persons in 
England ; containing observations on 
the General Management of the War, 
and on the Conduct of our Principal 
Commanders in the Revolted Colonies, 
during that Period. London, 1779." 
The small volume before me is a book 
of 85 pages, and contains a large num- 
ber of letters which give one a good idea 
of events which were transpiring within 
the immediate knowledge of the writer. 
It may interest the reader to look back 
upon scenes which were occurring in 
this country not far from a century ago. 
The following is an account of the treat- 
ment which a loyalist in Westchester 
Co., N. Y., received at the hands of 
both friends and foes : 

" When the King's troops were in that 
part of the country, your old acquaint- 
ance, Mr. , was very active in giving 

them every assistance in his power. 
The rebels had information of his con- 
duct. They had before taken his fat 
cattle, &c, to the number of about 
forty ; and when the royal army retired, 
attempted to take him prisoner ; but he 
escaped them, by half an hour, and got 
hither. They then stripped his house 
of everything worth carrying away, 
except the provisions laid up for the 
winter ; 'because he was a d — d tory, 
and had gone to the king's troops for 
protection.' The next day came the 



light dragoons, provided with bags, and 
carried off all the beef, pork, and gam- 
mons ; ' because he was a d — d rebel, 
and had run away for fear of the King's 
army.' The poor gentleman is now in 
the town with his family, with little, next 
to nothing, to subsist on. He cannot 
return ; and if he could, he could not 
live unless he could eat stones." 

Under date of July 24, 1777, the 
writer says : " General Burgoyne has 
crossed the Lakes : and, on his approach 
to Ticonderoga, which was amazingly 
strong, the Rebels abandoned it pre- 
cipitately, leaving everything, except 
their muskets, behind them. He is has- 
tening rapidly to Albany ; and we soon 
expect great and good news from that 
quarter," 

Meanwhile, before " the great and 
good news " reaches New York, we may 
be curious to read some of the specula- 
tions of the writer respecting the war. 

" We are all persuaded that we have 
the power of crushing this rebellion 
whenever we think proper." "Who 
could have thought that this abominable 
rebellion would have been permitted to 
rise to so great, so enormous a height, 
or to have continued so long ? Its whole 
strength ever has been, and in my opin- 
ion is now, mere weakness. Vigor and 
propriety of conduct would have crushed 
it last autumn, last spring, last any time ; 
and would yet crush it before Christmas." 
" Never was there such trifling with such 
a set of miscreants. We have made 
them of consequence ourselves, even in 
the eyes of Europe, by our attention 
and respectful treatment of the most 
contemptible set of wretches that ever 
disgraced a country," "The very raga- 



V 'fife 




56 



NOTES 



NOTES 

Historical anecdotes. — In a rare 
collection of bound pamphlets, picked 
up, mostly in England, I find one bear- 
ing this title : " Historical Anecdotes, 
Civil and Military : in a Series of Let- 
ters, written from America, in the years 
1777 and 1778, to different persons in 
England ; containing observations on 
the General Management of the War, 
and on the Conduct of our Principal 
Commanders in the Revolted Colonies, 
during that Period. London, 1779." 
The small volume before me is a book 
of 85 pages, and contains a large num- 
ber of letters which give one a good idea 
of events which were transpiring within 
the immediate knowledge of the writer. 
It may interest the reader to look back 
upon scenes which were occurring in 
this country not far from a century ago. 
The following is an account of the treat- 
ment which a loyalist in Westchester 
Co., N. Y., received at the hands of 
both friends and foes : 

" When the King's troops were in that 
part of the country, your old acquaint- 
ance, Mr. , was very active in giving 

them every assistance in his power. 
The rebels had information of his con- 
duct. They had before taken his fat 
cattle, &c, to the number of about 
forty ; and when the royal army retired, 
attempted to take him prisoner ; but he 
escaped them, by half an hour, and got 
hither. They then stripped his house 
of everything worth carrying away, 
except the provisions laid up for the 
winter ; 'because he was a d — d tory, 
and had gone to the king's troops for 
protection.' The next day came the 



light dragoons, provided with bags, and 
carried off all the beef, pork, and gam- 
mons ; ' because he was a d — d rebel, 
and had run away for fear of the King's 
army.' The poor gentleman is now in 
the town with his family, with little, next 
to nothing, to subsist on. He cannot 
return ; and if he could, he could not 
live unless he could eat stones." 

Under date of July 24, 1777, the 
writer says : " General Burgoyne has 
crossed the Lakes : and, on his approach 
to Ticonderoga, which was amazingly 
strong, the Rebels abandoned it pre- 
cipitately, leaving everything, except 
their muskets, behind them. He is has- 
tening rapidly to Albany ; and we soon 
expect great and good news from that 
quarter," 

Meanwhile, before " the great and 
good news " reaches New York, we may 
be curious to read some of the specula- 
tions of the writer respecting the war. 

"We are all persuaded that we have 
the power of crushing this rebellion 
whenever we think proper." "Who 
could have thought that this abominable 
rebellion would have been permitted to 
rise to so great, so enormous a height, 
or to have continued so long ? Its whole 
strength ever has been, and in my opin- 
ion is now, mere weakness. Vigor and 
propriety of conduct would have crushed 
it last autumn, last spring, last any time ; 
and would yet crush it before Christmas." 
" Never was there such trifling with such 
a set of miscreants. We have made 
them of consequence ourselves, even in 
the eyes of Europe, by our attention 
and respectful treatment of the most 
contemptible set of wretches that ever 
disgraced a country," "The very raga- 







,„/ «*£h*S !><,(,<//?,.*, £u a.»J&»4.wHA,/,*ey. 



NOTES 



57 



muffin' Militia now dare not only smell 
powder, but kill a Redcoat, with as much 
indifference as if they had never feared 
such an animal." At last "the great 
and good news " which was to bring so 
much joy to loyal hearts, reached New 
York, and in a somewhat prosaic way 
the writer, under date of New York, 
Nov, 10, 1777, writes: "Before this 
reaches you, you must have heard that 
General Burgoyne has been under the 
necessity, through want of provisions 
and by other disasters, to surrender 
himself and his army to General Gates. 
There has been a strange fatality in this 
affair." Anticipating what may happen 
to New York, the writer declares : " I 
wish not to survive the destruction of 
this place, or its capture by the Rebels." 
11 From everything I see, America seems 
to be intentionally given up, and the 
interest and glory of Britain sacrificed 
to party and a junto of villains within 
her own bowels." "Rebellion, which 
a twelvemonth ago was really a con- 
temptible Pigmy, is now in appearance 
become a giant more dreadful to the 
minds of men than Polyphemus of old, or 
the Sons of Anak." 

From the foregoing extracts it is 
evident that the spirit of boasting on 
the part of the writer had become some- 
what "toned down" from what it was in 
the early part of the correspondence. 
Under date of New York, January 26, 
1778, he writes to his friend in England : 
" I wish I had something clever to write 
to you ; but everything on this side of 
the water is most confoundedly out of 
joint. I wish it may be better with you, 
and I hope it is." Again, Feb. 7, 1778 : 
" I am almost tired of politics ; and was 



not my own fate so interwoven with this 
country, I should be completely so. 
But speak I must, though like Cassandra, 
I am not heeded till too late. The 
leaders of this Rebellion are a set of men 
principled against Monarchy in its mild- 
est form. Their conversations, their 
public actions, their preachments, and 
their collegiate education, have all ten- 
ded to this one favourite object, Democ- 
racy. We are jumbled together in this 
Town, with a set of as great villains as 
were ever unhanged ; and we have the 
flattering prospect before us, of being 
the only or the greatest sufferers, how- 
ever matters turn out." 

A gentleman in England, writing to a 
friend, also in that country, professes to 
give the substance of what he has 
learned from his correspondents in 
America. He says : " You seem to look 
upon everything as completely lost ; 
Heaven be thanked, I do not ; I believe 
the Rebels to be in a most pitiful condi- 
tion." Among other difficulties which 
lie in the way of success by the Ameri- 
cans, he says that "their paper-money 
hangs like a mill- stone about their neck 
and is ready to sink them." As the 
public debt stood on the 31st of Decem- 
ber, 1777, it amounted "to several mil- 
lions sterling more than all the Property, 
together with the fee-simple of the soil 
in the Thirteen Confederate Colonies, is 
worth." "This is liberty and prop- 
erty with a vengeance ! Such are 
the blessed fruits of Rebellion ! 
Thus the Devil rewards his servants 
always, notwithstanding his fair Prom- 
ises ; paying them constantly at last in 
their own Coin, in bills of Congressional 
Paper," Here is the end of these inter- 



53 



NOTES 



esting letters, the perusal of which has 
given the writer much amusement. 
Providence J. C. Stockbridge 



Fox hunting — Reading an account 
of a fox hunt at Newport the other day, 
I could not help a sigh over the suffer- 
ings of the poor beast, and a feeling of 
mortification that ladies could partici- 
pate in the cruel sports for which, at 
Narragansett, there is not even the ex- 
cuse of retaliation. Poor Reynard had 
robbed no poultry yard and had not put 
himself out of the pale of the law. On 
this occasion the unfortunate creature 
is reported to have sat listlessly under 
the fence, eyeing the gay gathering of 
scarlet - coated huntsmen and eager 
hounds in leash, wondering what all the 
hue and cry was about and unable to 
understand the part he had to play in 
the amusement of the day. The report of 
another day's "meet " reads thus: " The 
little animal took to the water and swam 
about until exhausted, when he was cap- 
tured by the whipper-in — and carried to 
the kennel for the next day's Sport." 

A friend hands me a few verses 
which appeared in Dunlap's Pennsyl- 
vania Packet, Dec. 27, 1773, in which I 
am glad to see that a lady protested 
against the unmanly sport. I send it to 
the Magazine in the hopes that it may 
be reproduced. It does not seem that 
with all our boasted " progress " we are 
any better than our forefathers. 

S. L. 

THE DEATH OF THE FOX, BY A FEMALE 
The fox from covert unsecure 

Is roused and frightened by the roar 
Of hounds, a wretched ghastly gang, 

That shame their masters to a man. 



Over many a hill he takes his way, 

Through many a thicket seems to stray ; 
With horrid speed the gang pursue, 

With horrid yells delight the crew, 
That rambling, roaring, ranting, tearing, 
Kicking, spurring, cursing, swearing, 

Pursue the chase with awkward speed, 
In hopes to see a Reynard bleed. 

The victim trembling o'er the plain, 
By turns across the farmer's grain, 

Extends his course with grief oppressed, 
In hopes to find some place of rest ; 

But all in vain : The gang draws near, 
And with their yells increase his fear; 

Grim horror darts from every eye, 
And threatens sad destruction nigh ; 

He falters, and the dogs press on, 
They seize him, and the job is done, 

A fox is killed by twenty men ; 
That fox, perhaps, had killed a hen. 

A gallant act no doubt is here ; 
All wretched foxes ought to fear 

When twenty dogs, and twenty men, 

Can kill a fox, that killed a hen. 



The andre conspiracy — Some time 
ago I received a letter containing enqui- 
ries concerning the Andre conspiracy. 
The letter got mislaid and the name of 
the writer has escaped my memory. I 
would not be guilty of even the shadow 
of a discourtesy to a student of History 
whose path has thorns enough at the 
best. I can find no surer way than by a 
communication to the Magazine. My 
unknown correspondent will find all that 
is known of this subject in the Appendix 
to the 7th volume of Sparks' writings of 
Washington. George W. Greene 

East Greenwich, R. I. 



Discipline of rochambeau's army 
— In his autobiography Benjamin Frank- 
lin pays a splendid tribute to the con- 
duct of the French troops who came to 



QUERIES 



59 



the assistance of the American States. 
He contrasts it with that of Braddock's 
army on its march. 

" In their first march, too, from their 
landing till they got beyond the settle- 
ments, they (Braddock's troops) had 
plundered and stripped the inhabi- 
tants, totally ruining some poor fam- 
ilies, besides insulting, abusing, and 
confining the people if they remon- 
strated. This was enough to put us 
out of conceit of such defenders if we 
had really wanted any. How different 
was the conduct of our French friends 
in 1781, who, during a march thro' the 
most inhabited part of our Country 
from Rhode Island to Virginia, near 
seven hundred miles, occasioned not the 
Smallest Complaint for the loss of a pig, 
a chicken, or even an apple. — Bigelow's 
Life of Franklin, written by himself, I. 

327. lULUS 



QUERIES 

The esopus records — What has be- 
come of the records of the Court of 
Wiltwyck and of the Court of Kingston 
from 1664 to 1685 ? An entry in the 
first volume of the existing series says : 
" The previous 24 volumes of minutes 
in Dutch having been numbered A, B, 
C, etc., these volumes will be numbered 
Aa, Bb, etc. Dr. O'Callaghan quotes 
from the Wiltwyck records, but nobody 
else seems to have any recollection of 
them. B. Fernow 

Albany 

American theatrical performan- 
ces during the revolution — It ap- 
pears from the following verses, copied 



many years ago from a dingy manuscript 
bound with a file of play bills marked 
1782-83, that theatrical performances 
were given during the American Revo- 
lution at Annapolis. As the Congress 
early in the war prohibited the drama 
it would be interesting to know if the 
first opening of the theatre was there, 
and is Annapolis entitled to the credit ? 

Minto 

Occasional Prologue, written and spoken by 
Mr. Heard, at the Theatre in Annapolis, the 
24th of April, 1783, to the Play of the Roman 
Father : 

Ye brave asserters of your Country's cause, 
Ye gallant Champions to protect her Laws, 
Children of freedom, from Oppression rais'd, 
Beloved by Nations, by your foes even prais'd, 
Whose warlike deeds have rais'd your Country's name* 
Equal at least to Greek or Roman fame ; 
And prov'd as Wonders, in the distant Climes, 
You dar'd be virtuous in the worst of times ; 
Attend this night our Author's Tragic Tale, 
And let the maxim in your hearts prevail, 
lt He who can melt at sense of Human Woes 
Will fight the better 'gainst his Country's foes." 

By you encourag'd we attempt to prove 
Those various passions, Honour, Duty, Love — 
A Roman Maid demands the Pitying Sigh, 
What tender heart can such a boon deny ? 

A Father, to preserve the State from shame- 
Gives his own Children to the Public claim, 
The humble Passions nobly he withstood, 
And conquerr'd Nature for his Country's good. 

O, Could my poor imperfect powers impart 
The Poet's language to the feeling heart, 
Cou'd I such well-wrote sentiments express, 
And paint the Roman Patriot's distress, 
Then might your Fancy judge the Author drew 
A Portrait of Columbia's Father too. 

When War surrounded us with dreadful rage, 
The State alone indulg'd our infant Stage, 
Grateful to you, our Ardour will increase 
With Glorious Independence and Peace. 



Lost localities of Westchester 
county — Washington, in his Order Book, 
under date of Oct. 24, 1782, directs: 
" The tents being too cold for the ac- 
commodation of the sick, the regimental 



6o 



QUERIES 



surgeons will send no more to the flying 
hospital, but have such as are hospi- 
tal patients sent to the huts at New Bos- 
ton." Where was " New Boston V 

On the night of the 13th of May, 
1 781, Lieut. Colonel Greene, the hero 
of Red Bank, was killed at his quarters 
on the Croton river, near the site of the 
present dam, by a party of De Lancey's 
corps. Paymaster Thomas Hughes, of 
the American army, who was in the 
house at the time, contrived to escape. 
A letter describing the action, written a 
few hours afterward, he dates at Rhode 
Island Village. Where was " Rhode 
Island Village ? " 

The remains of Greene seem to have 
been interred in the churchyard at Crum- 
pond, about five miles from the scene of 
his death. See article, " Danforth's 
House " (by Chas. A. Campbell), in Am. 
Hist. Record for February, 1874, page 
6 3 . B. D. 



Revolutionary characters — Can 
any reader furnish me with any partic- 
ulars or reference to material concerning 
the lives or deaths — especially the time 
and place of death — of any of the fol- 
lowing Revolutionary characters ? 

Colonel Lewis Nicola, who addressed 
the famous letter to Washington urging 
him to become king. 

Major Flagg, who was murdered by 
De Lancey's corps on the Croton in 
May, 1781. 

Colonel Elisha Sheldon, who com- 
manded in Westchester county. 

Lieut. Col. John Jameson, to whom 
Major Andre was entrusted. 

Joshua Hett Smith, at whose house at 
Haverstraw Arnold and Andre met. 



Lieut. King, of Sheldon's Dragoons, 
spoken of by Sargent in his Life of 
Andre, as " the late General King of 
Ridgefield," and whose statement in re- 
gard to Andre is in the N. Y. His- 
torical Magazine for October, 1857, page 

293- 

Lieut. Col. Francis Barber. — This offi- 
cer, it is said, was killed by a tree fall- 
ing upon him, while riding along the 
edge of a wood near Newburgh, N. Y. 

In Washington's Order Book, under 
date Newburgh, Feb. 12, 1783, he says : 
" The remains of the late Lieut. Colonel 
Commandant Barber will be interred 
to-morrow. The procession will set out 
at ten o'clock, a. m. from the division 
house, the quarters of the deceased." 

Where was the "division house," and 
where was Lieut. Col. Barber buried ? 

A.M. 



Duel of gates and Wilkinson — 
I wish to be quite certain if the tradition 
that a duel was fought between General 
Gates and General Wilkinson is correct. 
Can any of your correspondents give the 
time and place where this affair of honor 
took place and the consequences ? 

Beacon Street 



Fellowship-club of Newport, r. i. 
— Have any records been preserved of 
the Fellowship Club that met previous 
to the Revolution at Capt. Lawton's in 
Newport, R. I. What was the character 
of t;he Association and who were the 
members ? Petersfield 



Match Coats — In certain Indian 
Conveyances, among other considera- 
tions, "Match Coats" are sometimes 



REPLIES 



61 



mentioned. What were " Match Coats ?" 
It has been conjectured that u Watch 
Coats " were meant. How is it ? 
Paterson, N. J. W. N. 



A curious engraving — I should be 
glad to learn the history of the follow- 
ing described engraving : 

At the left a dais, as high as a man's 
shoulders, when sitting ; on this eleva- 
tion a man is seated, in his left hand a 
scroll, at his side a table, inkstand and 
pens, a military hat on one side ; he is 
listening to a person at his left, who holds 
in his hand a paper, from which he is 
apparently reading ; around him are 
several persons standing, one of whom 
is in military dress. In front of the pre- 
siding officer, at a table, are two persons 
with pens in hand. In front are five 
rows of elevated benches filled with 
auditors, several of whom have their 
hats on. 

The engraving is finely done, in stip- 
ple, without any inscription or artist's 
name. Size of plate, 6^ by 11%. 

J. COLBURN 

Boston, Mass. 



REPLIES 



French emigres and new york cof- 
fee houses — [III. 262] I presume that 
the following advertisement will answer 
the query of Fly Market as to the locality 
of the Coffee House honored by the 
presence of the famous gastronome 
Brillat-Savarin. 

Little's hotel, no. 42 broad street 
— Is genteelly fitted up and where Board- 
ing can be had on the best and most ac- 
commodating terms. Every person may 



have a separate room if required. Fami- 
lies travelling will find it to their com- 
fort, as the house is roomy and airy, and 
in a healthy situation— and every exer- 
tion made to please by their very hum- 
ble servant, Michael Little. 

N. B. An ordinary every day as usual, 
at half- past 2 o'clock, in his great room 
at 4 s. — Parties accommodated with Din- 
ners and Suppers as usual at short no- 
tice. July 20, 1802. — Conwier rial Ad- 
vertiser, August 12, 1802. Editor 



Burgoyned — [V. 137, 379] The 
South Carolina Gazette, printed at Char- 
leston, March 3d, 1779, contained the 
following : " Col. Campbell's expedition 
from Savannah to Augusta, with the 
Highlanders and Col. Brown's rangers, 
has proved as unfortunate as Major 
Gardner's to Port Royal ; to escape 
a Burgoynade he has made a very 
sudden and precipitate retreat down the 
country." Petersfield 



Moon curser — [V. 140, 383] Prof. 
Lee, in a note to his translation of the 
" Travels of Ibu Batuta," gives the New 
Zealand tradition as to the Man in the 
Moon. It is there stated that one 
Celano cursed the Moon for not giving 
him sufficient light, whereupon he was 
caught up by the Moon, together with a 
tree on which he had laid hold, and 
there he is now seen. 

The Tories probably cursed the Moon 
for throwing unexpectedly a flood of 
light on their nefarious acts. 

Minto 



The boston beacon [V. 222, 377] 
Your correspondent is in error in his 



62 



REPLIES 



conclusion that the historic tar barrel 
was a temporary expedient. Hear what 
Shaw says in his topographical and his- 
torical description of Boston, published 
in 1817. 

Beacon hill is the second of a range of 
three hills which runs from the head of 
Hanover street west to the water. This 
hill is the highest within the peninsula 
and is situated on the western side of 
the Common. It affords an extensive 
prospect of the harbour, a considerable 
distance into the bay, and of the sur- 
rounding adjacent country. On the top 
of a hill was fixed a beacon, whence the 
hill has its name ; the design of it was 
to alarm the country in case of invasion, 
by setting fire to a barrel of tar fixed on 
the top of it. The beacon was blown 
down by the violence of the wind in 
November, 1 789. On the same spot was 
erected in the year following, a plain 
column of the Dorick order, raised on 
its proper pedestal, substantially built of 
brick and stone. On each square of the 
column were inscriptions commemora- 
tive of the leading events of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, as well as an ornament 
to the hill and a useful landmark. It 
was incrusted in cement, and had a large 
eagle of wood gilt, at the top, support- 
ing the American arms. The height, in- 
cluding the eagle, was sixty feet ; the 
diameter of the column was four feet ; 
the pedestal eight feet. The base was 
encompassed with rails, on the first of 
which were benches for the accommo- 
dation of those who ascended the hill. 
The above description of the hills is 
chiefly from Pemberton. The descend- 
ants of the first settlers regarded these 
hills with a kind of religious venera- 



tion, and Boston is not less distin- 
guished for her three hills than Rome 
for her seven. Beacon hill, however, 
which, like an overtopping tower, kept 
ivatch to foresee the approach of danger, 
is now levelled to its base. The form of 
the hill resembled a sugar loaf. Its 
height was about 138 feet above the 
level of the sea. 

Then follows the inscription on the 
column which was erected, it is said, by 
the voluntary contributions of the citi- 
zens of Boston. 

Boston Boy 



BUSSEY OR BUSSIE [V. 140] G. G. 

H. enquires where he may find a Roster 
of Hazen's command. No doubt Pro- 
fessor Asa Bird Gardner, whose residence 
is at Governor's Island, has such a 
document in his extensive collection of 
military rolls. J. F. 

New York. 



The rogerenes — [IV. 6&, 227, 313 ; 
V. 144] In reply to " Query " of "Pe- 
tersfield," I call attention to Barber's 
" Connecticut Historical Collection," 
pages 279, 280, 347, and 348. 

Salem, Va. W. McC. 



The cross keys tavern — [V. 63] 
Isaachar Cozzens in his geology of 
New York Island, written in 1842, gives 
the following description of a land mark 
sufficient to identify the exact site of 
the old wayside inn: "At an old tavern, 
called the ' Cross Keys,' on the Kings- 
bridge road, in the tavern yard, is a de- 
tached rock of Gneiss cleft in two pieces 
lying side by side, and on the top of the 
Gneiss rock, which lies in place, the 



REPLIES 



63 



striae of this removed rock, cross at right 
angles, the rock in place below — it is as 
much as thirty feet long, the two pieces 
together being about nine feet broad and 
ten feet high." It is reported that Mr. 
Shepherd F. Knapp, who resides at Au- 
dubon Park, has the original sign-board 
of the tavern in his posession. 

W. K. 



The episcopal establishment in 
new york — [V. 373] " Carey" is re- 
spectfully referred to an article in the 
Historical Magazine for May, 1861, 
wherein is clearly demonstrated the es- 
tablishment of the Church of England 
in New York. The modesty of modern 
Episcopalians in not giving greater pub- 
licity to the fact is reprehensible. 

Petersfield 



The sect of devilism — [V. 141] 
The representatives of devilism in the 
tract printed by Rivington, were the 
Whigs of the Revolution. The Chris- 
tian element was represented by the 
Tories. S. I. 

The randal maps — [V. 372] When 
last heard of, the Randal Maps were 
in possession of William Radde, the 
publisher, of No. 548 Pearl Street, in 
whose custody Mrs. Randal had placed 
them for disposal to the city or State of 
New York. Surveyors state that the 
value of the field notes in settling dis- 
puted bounds has been exaggerated, and 
that they have only an historical value. 
Thos. Armstrong 



peated a generally accepted tradition 
that Braddock was murdered by one of 
his own men. One Thomas Faussett, a 
resident of Fayette Co., Pa., claims to 
have been the perpetrator of the foul 
deed. Winthrop Sargent, in his history of 
the Expedition of Braddock, gives nine 
pages to prove the falsity of the story, 
but, although his excellent monograph 
has been before the public for twenty- 
five years, it seems not to have destroyed 
the popular tradition. Minto 



The woodruff house at perth 
Amboy — [V. 376] It is not known 
that Washington ever visited Perth Am- 
boy. During the Revolution the " Lewis 
Place," as the Woodruff mansion was 
known in Amboy, was controlled by the 
British army. Besides Washington never 
had any business in Perth Amboy ; he 
travelled the other route to Philadelphia 
during the American war. 

WOODBRIDGE 



Death of braddock — [V. 374] 
The writer on Blennerhasset simply re- 



NEW YORK PRISONS DURING THE REV- 
OLUTION — [V. 222] The only Sugar 
House used as a prison by the British 
during their occupation of New York, 
was that owned by Livingston. It was 
situated in Liberty Street, adjoining the 
Dutch church, later Post Office. 

Minto 

Washington's headquarters on the 
Broadway — [IV. 462] The house of 
William Smith, the historian, was situated 
at the corner of Exchange Place and 
Broadway. As Smith removed in March, 
1776, to his country seat at Haverstraw, 
and Washington entered New York 
April 13th, 1776, it is therefore a fair 



6 4 



REPLIES 



inference that the commander-in-chief, 
without the consent of the owner, took 
possession of the deserted mansion as a 
convenient town headquarters. 

W. K. 



The blue bell tavern — [IV. 460, 
V. 142] The learned antiquary re- 
ferred to by your correspondent, New 
York, was undoubtedly correct in his sur- 
mise in regard to this tavern sign. There 
is laid down on Scull's map of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1770, a tavern on the road from 
Philadelphia to Easton, designated as 
The Ball. There was also in Philadel- 
phia a famous tavern with the sign of 
the Blue Ball ; it was located in Elbow 
Lane, near Third Street. The sign must 
have been a common one. Paul Mum- 
ford sold goods in Newport in 1774, at 
the sign of the Blue Ball ; his house 
was opposite Samuel Carr's ferry. 

Market Street 



— " The Blue Bells " was at the pres- 
ent Washington Heights, on the east 
side of the old Kingsbridge road, and 
opposite the Bennett place, formerly 
Mr. Henry O'Reilly. We are told 
by Mr. Blasie Ryer of that vicinity 
that it was a long, low-roofed frame 
house, and was demolished many 
years ago. This tavern was kept dur- 
ing the revolution by one Wilson, 
an Englishman and a Tory. It was a 
favorite rendezvous of British officers, 
who there once concocted a night 
job for the capture of Washington, dis- 
covered, however, in time to save him by 
a Scotch servant girl of the house by the 
name of Douglas. She let out the se- 
cret to a good patriot woman, Mrs. 



Bauer, living across the street — our in- 
formant's grandmother — who contrived 
to send word to the General by her little 
Christine to keep out of the way that 
night. Another of these revolutionary 
Out Ward tavern-stands was the old 
" Cross-Keys," with two keys crossing 
each other on its sign. It is a long, 
one-story stone house, still standing on 
the same road, now Broadway, and 
just beyond the Carman ville street 
northward. It is the only survivor of 
its local class, and a landmark. 

At Kingsbridge, the old Macomb man- 
sion, for many years part of the beautiful 
residence of Mr. Joseph Godwin, was 
always reported by the ancients as a 
tavern-stand during the old war. One 
of its upper rooms used to be pointed 
to by Mrs. Robert Macomb as once a 
lodging chamber of General Washing- 
ton. We have been informed by the 
venerable Dr. E. N. Bibby of Van 
Cortlandt Manor that this old estate, 
at the close of the war of Independence, 
belonged to the heirs of Metcalf Eden, 
and was purchased by Alexander Ma- 
comb. W. H. 



An author wanted — [V. 376] In 
the November number, 1880, of the 
Magazine of American History, p. 376., 
H. E. H. wishes to know the author of 
" Poems, by the author of Moral Pieces 
in Prose and Verse," Boston, 1827. 
This anonymous work was written by 
Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney, who 
acknowledges its authorship in the ac- 
count of her writings in her " Letters of 
Life," New York, D. Appleton & Co., 
1866, p. 329. Thorvald Solberg 

Library of Congress. 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



65 



EDITOR'S CHRONICLE 

The town authorities of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, have set three memorial 
stones, weighing more than a ton each, 
to mark historical events which have 
occurred within its limits. They are 
thus inscribed : Site of the residence of 
Thomas Dudley, A. D, 1630, founder 
of Cambridge, and Governor of Massa- 
chusetts. Site where four citizens were 
killed by British Soldiers retreating from 
Lexington, April 16th, 1775. Site of 
the house which was the headquarters 
of General Putnam in 1775. 



The Historical Society of St. John, 
New Brunswick, at its late annual meet- 
ing, Nov. 25th, 1880, proposed to com- 
memorate, in 1883, the centennial of the 
landing of the Loyalists at Parrtown and 
Carleton, now in the city limits of St. 
John. The plan includes the erection 
of a Memorial Hall in the old burial 
ground, in which lie the remains of 
Gabriel G. Ludlow, of New York, first 
Mayor of St. John ; of William Wanton, 
a son of General Wanton of Rhode 
Island, and others of historic name. 



Father Hennepin's Description of 
Louisiana, translated by our distin- 
guished scholar, Dr. John Gilmary Shea, 
has made a timely appearance ; last year 
being the bi- centennial of the Jesuit 
Father's exploration of the Upper Mis- 
issippi and discovery of the Falls 
of St. Anthony. This is the first trans- 
lation of Hennepin's description. In a 
preliminary paper, Dr. Shea examines the 
authenticity of the document, and the 
charge of plagiarism brought against it. 
He enters the lists against all comers 



from La Salle himself down to M. 
Margry, the recent editor of Les D6- 
couvertes des Francais dans l'Amcrique 
Septentrionale. 



Mr. William Kelby, assistant Libra- 
rian of the New York Historical So- 
ciety, is still engaged upon his work, 
Inscriptions on the tomb stones in 
Trinity churchyard, New York, and de- 
sires information from the descendants 
of those there buried. 

A society was formed at Rio de Jan- 
eiro on the 28th September, 1880, which 
will have its name in history. It is 
called Sociedade Brazileira contra a Es- 
cravidao (Brazilian Anti Slavery So- 
ciety). Its manifesto of purposes has 
been printed in English and French and 
widely circulated. While specific in its 
condemnation of the institution and in 
protest against unnecessary delay, the 
Society proposes no instant change. A 
congress of abolitionists is called for the 
month of August, 1881. 



At the December meeting of the New 
York Historical Society, John Albee of 
Newcastle, N. H., read an interesting 
paper on " New England Town Govern- 
ment." Mr. B. F. de Costa, in a few 
remarks at the close, noticed the fact that 
Charlestown, Mass., his native town, was 
the first organized on this continent. 
Mr. Edward F. De Lancey in turn 
requested the audience to take notice that 
both gentlemen had omitted one impor- 
tant fact, viz.: that the Puritans learned, 
during their residence in Holland, the 
system of town government. In con- 
versation after adjournment, Mr. George 



66 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



W. W. Houghton called attention to 
the abundant material not yet examined 
in London and its vicinity, the great 
bulk of which relates to the history 
of New York. He also noticed the 
striking fact that while nearly every 
New England town has already pub- 
lished its early records, or is at present 
engaged in this laudable work, those of 
the great city of New York, which in- 
clude three periods of nationality, are 
perishing in the City Hall, and hoped 
the Society would take steps towards 
their publication. 



surpassed by that of any country at any 
period of its history." 



In 1 78 1 the Congress passed a resolu- 
tion to erect at York, in Virginia, a mar- 
ble column, adorned with emblems of 
the alliance between the United States 
and Louis XVI, King of France. No 
steps were taken to carry the resolution 
into effect until the last session of Con- 
gress, when the sum of $100,000 was 
voted for the purpose, $20,000 to 
defray the expenses of a centennial cele- 
bration ; and a joint commission of the 
two houses appointed to select a site and 
superintend the expenditure. We trust 
that whatever may be the site selected, 
the column will be visible from the sea. 



From the President's message we ex- 
tract the following passage, which, we are 
glad to believe, is not an exaggerated 
picture of our national prosperity : 

" It is believed that the present finan- 
cial situation of the United States, 
whether considered with respect to trade, 
currency, credit, growing wealth, or the 
extent and variety of our resources, is 
more favorable than that of any other 
country of our time, and has never been 



We notice by the public prints that 
the chairman of the Cowpens Centen- 
nial Committee, in South Carolina, has 
received the following letter from Alex- 
ander Hamilton, of New York. "At 
last I have procured the consensus of 
the Cincinnati Societies and the Gov- 
ernor of the Middle States to the in- 
scription on the panel for those States : 

1781 
ONE PEOPLE. 

NO NORTH, NO SOUTH, 

NO EAST, NO WEST. 

A COMMON INTEREST, 

ONE COUNTRY — ONE DESTINY. 

I88l 

AS IT WAS, SO EVER LET IT BE." 

This is an odd inscription. Nothing 
is more clearly established than the ill- 
feeling entertained during the revolution 
between the army officers from the 
South and East ; of course there was no 
West until the beginning of this century. 
The United States has never from its 
beginning been so thoroughly united as 
it is to-day. But it is after a century of 
disagreement and of strife. Not " as it 
was," but as it is, so ever let it be. 



Attention is called to the fact that 
New York has furnished seven Vice- 
Presidents to the general government, 
and it is suggested that as Virginia is the 
mother of Presidents, so New York 
should be dubbed the father of Vice- 
Presidents. 



A curious letter in the Sun of New 
York, November 30th, 1880, under the 
signature of Wm. Henry Burr, of Wash- 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



6 7 



ington, D. C, with the title ; ' Was Tom 
Paine Junius?" enters quite at length 
into this novel claim. A comparison 
of the letters of Crisis published in 
England and America supplies the slight 
foundation on which this ingenious hy- 
pothesis is based. 



On the 2 2d November, a granite statue 
of General Hamilton, presented to the 
city of New York by his son, John C. 
Hamilton, was unveiled in Central Park 
with appropriate ceremonies. The ad- 
dress of the occasion was delivered by 
Chauncey M. Depew. This presen- 
tation by an individual has given rise to 
severe comment upon the want of public 
spirit among our citizens ; in our opinion, 
wholly unjust and uncalled for. It has 
not been the habit of the city to erect 
statues to individuals, and many 
believe the practice undesirable in a 
republic. But it must not be forgotten 
that the citizens of New York, twice 
signified their appreciation of the services 
of their great townsman, once in having 
painted the famous full length portrait by 
Trumbull, now in the hall of the New 
York Chamber of Commerce, and again 
in the lifelike and beautiful statue exe- 
cuted by Ball Hughes, unfortunately 
destroyed with the Merchant's Exchange 
in the great fire of 1835. At his death, 
Hamilton received a public funeral. 
There is a bust and memorial tablet to 
him in Trinity Church ; a monument over 
his grave ; and streets, squares, and fer- 
ries of the city bear the name of one 
whom it delighted to honor. 



born October 30th, 1796. Her father, 
Captain Benjamin True, was a revolu- 
tionary soldier, and did guard duty at 
the execution of Andre. Her grand- 
father served in the French and Indian 
War; her husband in the war of 181 2, 
for which she received a pension ; her 
son William, and her grandson Moses 
P. Stevenson, in the war of the Re- 
bellion. 



The movement begun last year by the 
Chamber of Commerce to erect a monu- 
ment on the corner of the Sub Treasury 
building in New York, to mark the site 
where Washington took the oath of office 
as first President of the United States, 
has taken definite shape. On the mo- 
tion of Mr. S. B. Chittenden, the House 
of Representatives passed a bill 7th De- 
cember last, granting permission to the 
Chamber to put up the monument at its 
own expense ; the design, however, to 
receive the approval of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, and the monument to be 
forever under the exclusive control of 
the United States. 

Various plans have been talked of ; 
among others a group of the personages 
present on the occasion. We trust that 
the monument will be to Washington 
only. 



The death is noticed of Mrs. Judith 
Stevenson at Chester, N. H. She was 



The Harvard Register will change its 
form with the January number, if suf- 
ficient subscriptions be received, other- 
wise it will be discontinued. Its editor, 
Mr. Moses King, proposes to issue it as 
a monthly, at $3.00 a year, and invites 
subscriptions. It is warmly commended 
by President Eliot to the patronage of 
the Alumni of Harvard. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF VERRAZANO 

The first printed account of the Voyage of Verrazano appears to be that found 
in Ramusio's " Navagationi et Viaggi," etc., Venice, 1556, p. 350. It is entitled, 
" Relationi di Giovanni da Verrazano Fiorentino della terra per lui Scoperto in 
nome di sua Maesta., Scritta in Dieppa, adi 8 Lugilio M. D. XXIIII." It is alluded 
to in the same volume, p. 350, by the author of the " Discorso d'un gran Capitano de 
mare Francese." Belief o rest, in his " Histoire Universelle," 1570, Book IV. gives 
details of the Voyage. The Letter of Verrazano to Francis I. was translated and 
published by Hakluyt in his "Divers Voyages," London, 1582, which also con- 
tains Laudoniere's reference to Verrazano. The same Letter, slightly revised, 
appears in his " Navigations," Vol. III. p. 295, Ed. 1660. Linschoten notices Ver- 
razano in his "Discourse of Voyages," 1598, p. 217. See also an account of the 
Voyage in Herrera, " Historia General," 1601. D. III. L. vi. c. 9. Wytfliet fol- 
lows in his work of 1603, p. 100. De Laet's "Histoire du Nouveau Monde," 
1603, p. 100, makes mention of the Voyage. In 1661 Dudley, in his " Arcano 
del Mare," published at Florence, Vol. I. chap. vi. p. 29, makes a curious allu- 
sion to the Voyage, saying, " E trono allora degl' Indiani, che piglianano de 
tabacco in fumo con la pipa." In 1706 the Voyage appears in Vander Aa's Col- 
lection, published at Leyden, in Dutch. Vol. X. devotes thirty-one pages to the 
subject, and gives a plate. " Uomini Illustri Toscani," Florence, 1768, Vol. II. 
contains the portrait of Verrazano with a eulogy. Barcia, in his " Essayo Chrono- 
logico," Madrid, 1726, folio 8, refers to the doings of Verrazano. Annibale Caro, 
in a letter to Hieronimo da Verrazano, written from Sicily, October 13, 1537, and 
published in " De lettere familiari " of Caro, Venice, Vol.1, p. 6, Ed. 1781, 
refers to the Map of the Voyage. Tiraboschi, in his well known " Storia della 
Litteratura Italiana " (Mantua, 1771-82), called attention to the Voyage and 
mentioned the manuscript copy of the Letter, with its Cosmographical Appendix, 
in the Strozzi Library at Florence. Foster's " Discoveries in the North," p. 43, 
treats of the Voyage. In De Murr's Life of Martin Behaim, Gotha, 1801, p. 28, 
there is a notice of the Verrazano Map, mentioned by Cardinal Borgia, in a letter 
to Behaim, of January 31, 1795. Lock's notice of the Voyage is found in Clark's 
"Progress of Maritime Discovery," London, 1803, p. 130 ; and of the Map again 
in Millin's " Encyclopedique," Vol. LXVIII. (March), 1807. The North Amer- 
ican Review, October, 1837, contained an article on "The Life and Voyages of 
Verrazzano," by George W, Greene; reprinted in "Historical Studies," New 
York, 1850, p. 321. Some account of the Voyage appears in Bancroft's "His- 
tory of the United States," Vol. I. p. 17, Ed. 1839. The Collections of the New 
York Historical Society, 1841, Vol. I. S. 2, p. 37, gives the Text of the Letter, 
according to the Manuscript in the Magliabecchian Library at Florence, this copy 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF VERRAZANO 69 

having been made at the instance of Prof. Greene. It accompanies an English 
Translation by Dr. Cogswell, who also furnishes a preliminary notice. The " Sag- 
giatore," Rome, 1844, Vol. I. p. 257, contains Prof. Greene's Essay with the 
Carli Letter. In 1850, Shillinglaw referred to the Voyage in his "Narrative of 
Arctic Discovery," p. 30. Thomassy published an account of the map in " Nou- 
velles Annales des Voyages," Paris, 1852, reprinted the same year as " Les Papes 
Geographies." etc., and in 1853 Prof. Greene's essays, with a dissertation by Arch- 
angel, was reprinted in " Archivio Storico," Florence, Vol. IX. Errizzo, in " Sco- 
perta Artiche," Venice, 1855, p. 141, makes an allusion to the Voyage. The 
Voyage is noticed in Asher's "Henry Hudson," Hakluyt Society, i860, p. lxxix. 

The next publication on this subject was of a character adverse to the Voyage 
of Verrazano, and but for its publication little of what followed would have 
appeared. This was " An Inquiry into the Authenticity of documents concerning 
a discovery in North America," claimed to have been made by Verrazano, read 
before the New York Historical Society, Tuesday, October 4th, 1864, by Buck- 
ingham Smith, New York, 1864, p. 31, with a section of the Globe of Vlpius. 
This pamphlet included a translation of the Carli Letter. The Inquiry was 
reviewed by its author in "The Historical Magazine," Vol. IX. p. 169, under 
the head of "Verrazano as a Discoverer." In Vol. X. p. 299, he also gave some 
notes on the Map. Dr. Kohl, in Vol. I. p. 249, 2d series, of the Collections of 
the Maine Historical Society, 1869, has an account of the Voyage. See, also, 
Stevens' Historical and Geographical Notes," 1869, p. 36; followed by "The 
Northmen in Maine," by B. F. De Costa; Albany, 1870, pp. 149. Afterwards 
attention was directed to the subject by President Daly, of the American Geo- 
graphical Society, in a letter to Mr. Thos. E. Davis, at Rome, published in the Bul- 
letin of the Society, 187 1, p. 80. This letter secured a photographic copy of the 
Map of Hieronimo da Verrazano, which Mr. Brevoort used. Then appeared 
" Verrazano, the Navigator, or Notes on Giovanni da Verrazano, and on a plani- 
sphere of 1529, illustrating his American Voyage in 1524, with a reduced copy of 
the Map. A paper read before the American Geographical Society of New York, 
•by J. C. Brevoort, a member of the Society." New York, 1874, 8vo, pp. 159. 
This was favorably noticed by F. H. Norton, in the New York Commercial Adver- 
tiser, 1875. Next appeared, in opposition to the Voyage, and to the paper of Mr. 
Brevoort, " The Voyage of Verrazzano ; A Chapter in the Early History of 
Maritime Discovery in America," by Henry C. Murphy. New York, 1875, Svo, 
pp. 198, 4. The Nation, January 27th, contained a notice of this work ; and the 
"New England Historical and Genealogical Register" for January, 1S76, con- 
tained a favorable notice, which called out from B. F. De Costa " Verrazzano ; A 
Motion for the Stay of Judgment." New York, 1876, pp. 16 ; this being a reprint 
from the " Charlestown Advertiser." The " Nation," of New York, Dec. 7, 
1876, contained a favorable notice of the "Motion." The. " Revue Critique," 
Paris, January, 1S76, contained copies of two powers of attorney, of importance 



JO BIBLIOGRAPHY OF VERRAZANO 

in connection with the subject, afterwards printed with English translations as 
an Appendix to Murphy's " Voyage of Verrazzano." The " Revue Critique " 
also contained a partially favorable notice of Mr. Murphy's work, by Mr. Henry 
Harrisse. The " Geographical Magazine," London, 1876, January, had a favor- 
able notice of Mr. Murphy's book ; and L'Eco dTtalia, New York, May 9th, 
1876, contained an unfavorable notice ; followed by an equally unfavorable 
notice, by Mr. Major, in the " Pall Mall Gazette, of May 26th, 1876, which was 
reprinted in the " Geographical Magazine " for July, 1876. The " American Church 
Review," July, 1876, contained another adverse review of Mr. Murphy, by B. F. 
De Costa. See "Verrazzano" in Bulletin No. 39, p. 137, Boston Public Library, 
1876. The student may also find observations by Mr. Charles Deane, in Vol. II. 
p. 219, 2d S., of the Maine Society's Collections, 1877. " The Globe of Vlpius, 
1542," 1878, p. 8, was a reprint formed of some notes of a Paper on " The Globe 
of Euphrosynus Vlpius, 1542, in its relation to the Map of Hieronimo Verra- 
zano, I 529." The paper was read before the New York Historical Society, 
by B. F. De Costa, on the evening of Dec. 4th, 1878. The daily press 
of New York for December 5th, contained notices of the Lecture. It was also 
noticed, Dec. 8th, 1878, in "L'Eco dTtalia." The Newport "Mercury," of 
March 28th, 1878, contained an abstract of this Lecture, showing the connection 
of Verrazano with that place. The " Compte-Rendu " of the " Congres Inter- 
national des Americanistes," Vol. I. 1878, p. 535, has a note in defense of the 
Voyage of Verrazano, criticising Mr. Murphy's work adversely. The " Magazine 
of American History," 1878, contained, in February, "The Letter of Verrazano," 
in May, " The Voyage of Verrazano," and in August, " The Verrazano Map." 
The Boston "Daily Advertiser," Sept. 24th, 1878, contained an editorial referring 
to these articles. Afterward followed an article in the " Magazine of American 
History," January, 1879, on "The Globe of Vlpius," in its relation to the voyage. 
The four articles, in a revised form, with this Bibliography, are combined in 
" Verrazano the Navigator," A. S. Barnes & Co., New York, 1880. See also " Memo- 
rial History of Boston," 1880, pp. 32-35, 41-44. 

Notices of the Voyage of Verrazano may be found also in Biographical Dic- 
tionaries and Encyclopedias, and in such works as Brodhead's History of New 
York, the Gay-Bryant History of the United States, Miss Booth's History of New 
York, and Mrs. Martha J. Lamb's History of New York. Verrazano is also men- 
tioned in the principal school histories. The long list of works already given, 
however, embraces nearly everything of a critical character that has come to the 
notice of the writer, and may perhaps serve every purpose of the investigator. 

B. F. DE COSTA 



LITERARY NOTICES 



71 



(Publishers of Historical Works wishing Notices, will address the Editor, with 
Copies, Box 37, Station D— N. Y. Post Office.) 



HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH PEOPLE. 
By John Richard Green. Vol. IV. 8vo, 
pp. 519. Harper & Brothers. New York, 
18S0. 

Mr. Green stands by common consent at the 
head of English historians. His method is novel, 
his standpoint of observation of his own selection. 
Recognizing that the history of all nations, which 
have really made any progress in the science of 
government, is that of resistance to prerogative 
and privilege, and of the assertion of popular 
rights by the people, he holds fast to this central 
idea in the course of his narrative, and to it subor- 
dinates all side issues, illustrations, disquisitions 
and dissertations. The story of dynasties and 
monarchs interests him only so far as it relates to 
the aid they have given, or the obstacles they 
have opposed to the general current of popular 
development. 

The present volume treats of the English Rev- 
olution, 16S3 to 1760, and of modern England, 
1760 to 1815, a period of intense interest to 
American readers. Modern England or, as it 
may in the true sense be called, the British 
Empire, dates from the Seven Years' War. 
Mr. Green claims that three of its victories 
determined for ages the destinies of mankind. 
Germany revived at Rossbach, Europe implanted 
her influence on the East at Plassey, and the 
predominance of the English race on the Amer- 
ican continent was determined on the plains of 
Abraham. In the triumph of Wolfe at Quebec, 
Pitt laid the foundation of the great republic of 
the West. England rose as by magic from a 
European to a world-wide power, and to use the 
words of Mr. Green, " claiming as her own the 
empire of the seas, Britain suddenly towered 
high above nations whose position in a single 
continent doomed them to comparative insignifi- 
cance in the after history of the world. ' In 
this exaggerated strain the outside world will 
detect more of English sufficiency than historic 
truth. Burke held the same views, and claimed 
for Britain an "imperial character," extending 
its sovereignty " to the farthest limits of the east 
and the west." But in the very paragraph which 
invites us to this view of England's greatness, 
the true reason for her failure to maintain this 
supremacy, not only through countless ages, but 
for the limit of a single generation, is clearly 
stated, though the far-reaching bearing of the 
statement is not grasped. Its people, steeped 
in the commercial ideas of the time, saw in the 
growth of such a dominion, the monopoly of 
whose trade was reserved to the mother country, 
a source of boundless wealth. To secure this 
monopoly, she began by oppressing her own col- 



onies, and ended in setting herself against the 
spirit of the age, arraying herself against hu- 
man progress and human rights. Fox alone of 
British statesmen seems to have comprehended 
the revolution, from which her island isolation 
exempted England, and to have foreseen the fu- 
ture of Europe and of mankind. 

The ruling classes in England were narrow- 
minded and selfish. In their view she could only 
become powerful by the suppression or ruin of 
her neighbors. War, continual war was the only 
possible result of such a policy. Wherever the 
interest of England was menaced, there, whether 
on the side of right or wrong, England was 
ready to throw her purse into the scale, and a 
heavy weight it made in the balance. True the 
necessities of war called out every latent energy, 
stimulated her intellectual activity and enor- 
mously developed her industrial resources, but 
the agricultural interests of the country were 
neglected, and the race itself changed. Long 
before the close of the continental struggle the 
British yeoman had disappeared as a class from 
British soil, and with the growth of the manu- 
facturing towns and the aggregation of land by a 
handful of proprietors, the scornful epithet of 
Napoleon, that England was but a nation of shop- 
keepers, was fully justified. The wooden bul- 
warks of her ships, the fighting qualities of 
her seamen, not volunteers, but mercilessly 
snatched by press gangs wherever found, pre- 
served her soil from the revolutionary armies, 
and her institutions from the invasion of revolu- 
tionary ideas. In their contempt for races other 
than their own, for every foreign habit and every 
foreign tongue, the body of the people knew 
nothing of the real meaning of the uprising of 
1789. Twice since then the governing classes 
in periods of great industrial depression have trem- 
bled as the lower stratum of society threatened a 
general upheaval ; but a continuous flow of emi- 
gration of her surplus population has saved her, 
as it has saved the Continental nations, from a 
social revolution. 

In the United States of America Mr. Green 
recognizes the main branch of the English 
people, and he avows his faith that in spirit 
this English people on both sides of the At- 
lantic are one. But this is not sound judg- 
ment. Though the English language, modified by 
the thousand changes, elisions, and additions, 
which circumstances compel, will surely remain 
the speech of this vast land, yet it is not safe to 
assume that English characteristics will long pre- 
vail. The American people is already a composite 
race, with marked features of its own. Already 
its habits and customs are being modified with 
remarkable rapidity, To the individual American, 



72 



LITERARY NOTICES 



the Englishman is as much a foreigner in his 
manners, his habits of thought, his mode of life, 
as the man of any race on the Continent. This does 
not spring alone, from alienation of feeling, but 
from the cosmopolitan nature of our population, 
and the independence of thought, which is the 
inevitable concomitant of conscious power and 
national pride. That a British power will 
grow up in Australasia more homogeneous in 
feeling with the mother country is probable, but 
the pride of England in the rapid growth of 
that magnificent colony may well be damped 
by the reflection that in the diversion of the emi- 
gration, which would otherwise have sought the 
shores of America, she has irrevocably parted 
with the influence which growth from her 
seed would have had upon the American race. 
In the centuries that lie before us " primacy of 
the world" will be with the American, and not 
with the English people. 

While there is much that is novel in the opin- 
ions and reasoning, as well as in the method, of 
Mr. Green in his treatment of the Whig admin- 
istration which governed or misgoverned Eng- 
land from the revolution of 1688 to the acknowl- 
edgment of the independence of the United 
States, his argument is well sustained and the 
gradual but snail-like advance of the English peo- 
ple toward popular sovereignty is clearly pointed 
out. The organic change which has taken place 
in the English government in this century was the 
outcome of the failure of George III. to establish 
personal sovereignty, precisely as the freedom of 
France is the result of the failure of the third 
Napoleon to fasten upon her ' ' le pouvoir per- 
sonel." And the analogy maybe carried further. 
The failure in each case was caused by defeat in 
war undertaken to consolidate the power and 
enlarge the prerogative of the throne. That 
the aristocratic monarchy of England has already 
been converted into a "democratic republic, 
ruled under monarchical forms," will hardly be 
accepted as absolutely true. The word democratic 
ill applies either to the people or the institutions 
of England. As has been observed, the breath of 
1789, blasting privilege and destroying caste, 
never crossed the British Channel. Democracy 
and caste are inconsistent with each other. In 
the relation between man and man England is 
more aristocratic than Spain, or Austria, or 
I taly, or Russia even. Only in military Prussia 
is there to be found an equivalent for English 
morgue and assumption — individual as well as 
national. 

Of American affairs, and their relation to 
British politics, Mr. Green has a correct general 
appreciation, but a want of knowledge of details. 
He does not seem to be aware of the number of 
troops raised by the colonies" during the wars 
with France, of the martial spirit of their popula- 
tion, or that it was in that long struggle they 
learned their power. Nor yet is he correct in 



his estimate of Washington's influence at the 
outbreak of the revolution, which he greatly 
underrates. Washington was already a con- 
spicuous figure. Even when he passed through 
New York on his way to Cambridge camp the 
newspapers of the day styled him " the most im- 
portant personage on the American Continent." 
Again, few will admit the truth of his state- 
ment, that it was Napoleon who in 1812 forced 
the United States to declare war against Great 
Britain. It was the long-contained hatred of 
our people of the insolent assumptions of Eng- 
land which broke out at the first convenient 
season. It was the right of search and the im- 
pressment of seamen from American vessels, 
which exasperated America. The fight was for 
the honor of the flag. But the most patriotic 
American will find no word to blame in this de- 
lightful volume. If he do not accept all its 
statements, or concur in all its conclusions, he 
will acknowledge at least that in feeling he is in 
accord with the author. He will thank him for 
his manly denunciation of the shameful act of the 
British Government in ordering the destruction 
of the national capital, and he will remember 
with affectionate gratitude his glowing tribute to 
Washington, a gem of personal characterization 
and glowing phrase. To him Washington is 
dear as a type of the manhood of the English race ; 
to us as the conscious founder of American na- 
tionality. 



THE READER'S HAND-BOOK OF THE 
American Revolution, 1761-1783. By 
Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard Uni- 
versity. i6mo, pp. 328. The Riverside Press. 
Houghton, Osgood & Co. Boston, 1880. 
In the long list of historical publications with 
which the American press has teemed since the 
beginning of the Centennial days, none has ap- 
peared of greater value than this admirably 
arranged guide to the most important period in 
our annals, that which begun with the resist- 
ance of the colonies to the oppressive acts of 
Parliament, and closed with the definitive treaty 
of peace. Words fail us to express our own per- 
sonal sense of obligation to the industrious, in- 
telligent and skillful scholar, who conceived and 
carried forward the laborious task. To com- 
pletion it cannot be said, for in such a work 
completeness is impossible, and here again the 
author is most worthy of praise. To undertake 
a labor, which by its nature is endless, is praise- 
worthy ; to have the courage to send the sheets 
to press, while every day adds to the informa- 
tion to be imparted, may almost be termed 
literary heroism. 

A modest preface distinctly states the pur- 
pose and the limitation of the work. '• It is like 
a continuous foot-note to all the histories of the 



LITERARY NOTICES 



73 






American revolution. It points outsources, but 
it includes also the second-hand authorities, 
though not all of them. Its references are made 
because for some reason they are significant 
above others, though perhaps in minor details, 
and sometimes simply because of their greater 
accessibility. Any one disposed to follow its 
guidance, will find that, with the common books 
at his command, the course of events can be un- 
derstood, while with the larger resources of our 
greater public libraries within reach he can com- 
pass the subject more thoroughly. The special 
student will, however, find here his starting 
point. The ordinary reader can survey the field 
and follow as many paths as he likes." 

The arrangement is chronological, with subject 
divisions. A brief analysis indicates the par- 
ticular branch and the names of the histories or 
parts of histories ; articles and disquisitions in- 
form the reader where he can find all of import- 
ance that has appeared in print upon each. For 
instance, the student engaged upon the " Events 
of 1781 " will find the chapter thus arranged: 
Meeting of the Pennsylvania Line, Jan., 1781 ; 
Political Aspects, 1 781 ; Finances ; Greene's 
Campaigns in General, 1780-1782 ; the British 
in Virginia, January — May. 1781 ; Cowpens, 
January 17, 1781 ; Cornwallis and Greene ; 
Guilford, March 15, 1781 ; Hobkirk's Hill, 
April 25, 1781 ; Ninety-six, May — June, 1781 ; 
Eutaw, September 8, 1 781 ; End of Southern Cam- 
paigns ; Cornwallis in Virginia, May, 1781 ; the 
Allies in Virginia, 1781 ; Arnold in Connecti- 
cut, September, 1781 ; Off the Capes of Chesa- 
peake, September, 1781 ; Siege of Yorktown, 
September — O tober, 1781. Under each of 
these subdivisions reference is given to the vol- 
ume and page of every writer on each, a list of 
the maps which illustrate them, and a word as to 
their comparative value. 

None can better appreciate the thoroughness of 
the Work than the editor of an historical publica- 
tion. To him, indeed, it is invaluable as a 
guide to be ever at the elbow — a table com- 
panion at home and a vade mecum when libra- 
ries are visited for consultation. But Mr. Win- 
sor must not consider his work as complete ; 
every year he should publish a supplement, with 
additional references to the new volumes and 
articles, which are rapidly appearing, maintain- 
ing the same titles, divisions and subdivisions. 
He will then earn a fresh title to gratitude. 

He promises, "if the system of this hand- 
book prove practically useful, to follow this 
initial volume with others, covering themes of 
History, Biography, Travel, Philosophy, Science, 
Literature and Art." That the system has 
proved practically useful he may rest assured, 
and we heartily hope he will find encourage- 
ment to go on with the work on the very plan he 
has laid down, but we repeat. that, while ex- 
tending his range of subjects, he should not 



abandon his first muse, nor forget to pour out an 
annual libation at Clio's shrine. 



BRITISH THOUGHT AND THINKERS ; 

Introductory studies critical, biographical and 
philosophical. By George S. Morris. i6mo, 
pp. 388. S. G. Griggs & Co. Chicago, 18S0. 
The purpose of this volume is to suggest rather 
than to instruct ; to direct the thought of the 
reader rather than to present conclusions for his 
acceptance. The origins of English thought are 
sought far back in what the author terms the 
mediaeval anticipation of the modern English 
mind, and traced from the influences of the 
schoolmen to the grand revival of learning in all 
its branches in the sixteenth century, which 
seemed indeed like the new birth of the Phoenix 
from the ashes of a ruined civilization. Natu- 
rally enough, the name of Shakespeare stands 
first in the select group of those who have 
moulded English thought, yet until this cen- 
tury, his influence upon thinkers can not be said 
to have at all compared with that of Bacon in 
the rational, or of Locke in the speculative do- 
main. The chapters on John Stuart Mill and 
Herbert Spencer bringdown the line to our own 
days. With regard to Bacon, we are at issue 
with Mr. Morris, who looks upon him as little 
more than a missionary, a preacher, a scientific 
protestant. Lord Campbell's opinion that he it 
was who first systematically showed the true 
object of philosophical enquiry and the true 
means by which that object may be attained, 
will nevertheless stand as the best estimate of 
his rank among philosophers of the modern 
era. 

THE STUDENT'S HANDBOOK OF BRIT- 
ISH and American Literature. With se- 
lections from the writings of the most distin- 
guished authors. By the Rev. O. L. Jenkins. 
Edited by a member of the Society of St. 
Sulpice. Second edition, revised and enlarged. 
i6mo, pp. 517. John Murphy & Co. Bal- 
timore, 1880. 

The first edition of Father Jenkins' handbook 
appeared in 1876 as a manual for the more ad- 
vanced classes in our schools and colleges. Com- 
posed for students of the Roman Catholic reli- 
gion, "care has been taken," to use the words 
of the editor, to "point out the works that are 
hostile to their faith or morals. ' Complaint is 
made that Catholic authors are generally ignored 
by Protestant text-books of literature, and if the 
complaint be just, surely fault will not be found 
by even the most rigid Protestant with any effort to 
vindicate the claim of Catholic writers to their 
place among the teachers of the world. The 



74 



LITERARY NOTICES 



additions in the present edition consist chiefly in 
sketches of the lives of authors. 

American literature in its colonial and revo- 
lutionary periods, and in the present century, is 
fully represented. In his remarks upon the char- 
acter of contemporary literature the author holds 
that while American literature has assumed vast 
proportions, it has not yet reached the tone or 
dignity of a national literature. He acknowl- 
edges the respectability of Poe, Bryant and Long- 
fellow in poetry, of Prescott, Irving and Bancroft 
in history, of Cooper and Hawthorne in fiction. 
Others he damns with still fainter phrase. We 
take issue with this assertion. American litera- 
ture is quite as national as it is possible for a 
literature to be ; national in its emancipation 
from foreign prejudice, national in its inde- 
pendence of judgment. The tendency of the 
time is too critical to admit of the massive works 
which were the delight of our ancestors. Nar- 
rower fields are chosen and studied with more 
attention to minuteness and detail. The age is 
not heroic, and an epic can not well be expected 
of it, but in intellectual activity covering every 
field of original investigation, it can safely chal- 
lenge comparison with any that has preceded it 
since the dispersion of knowledge with the cata- 
clysm of the Roman Empire. 

FOUR CENTURIES OF ENGLISH LET- 
TERS. Selections from the correspondence of 
one hundred and fifty writers, from the period 
of the Paston Letters to the present day. 
Edited and arranged by W. Baptiste 
Scoones. i2mo, pp. 573. Harper Bros. 
New York, 1880. 

This is a welcome volume. There is no branch 
of literature more fascinating than the epistolary ; 
none which is of more value to the historical 
student — not the strained efforts of sage, ques- 
tioning or answering his brother sage, but 
frank, natural correspondence, familiar or 
friendly. The scanty plot of ground, as the 
author modestly terms this extended selection, is 
planted with the gleanings from five hundred 
volumes of epistolary lore. Literary excellence 
has been the standard of admission to the 
collection. The quality of English letters, we 
use the word in its limited sense, is, as the author 
justly*says, unsurpassed. For variety, by impli- 
cation, he allows an equality, if not superiority, to 
France. The arrangement is chronological, ac- 
cording to the date of each author's birth ; cer- 
tainly the best that could have been made. 

The division is by sections : First, (1450 to 
1600); Second, (1600-1 700) ; Third, 1800-^. 

It is useless to attempt to give any further idea 
of the contents of this delightful book in which 
all tastes may find something to their gratifica- 
tion. 



NOTES CONCERNING THE WAMPA- 

NOAG tribe OF Indians ; With some account 

of a Rock Picture on the shore of Mount 

Hope Bay in Bristol, R. I. By William T. 

Miller. i2mo, pp. 148. Sidney S. Rider. 

Providence, R. I., 1880. 

This volume is composed of three historical 
monographs, read before the Rhode Island 
Historical Society in Providence, in 1874, 1875, 
and 1876. Mr. Rider is doing an excellent work 
for the cause not only of Rhode Island history 
but of American history in general by his excel- 
lent publications. 

The central figures in the story of the Wampa- 
noags are Massasoit, the early friend of the Ply- 
mouth settlement, and his son, Pometacom or 
King Philip, the leader of his race in the most 
formidable effort, until that of Pontiac, to check 
the progress of European civilization on this con- 
tinent. 

The first knowledge of Indians in this section 
comes from Verrazano, who discovered Rock 
Island and the entire Narragansett Bay in 1524. 
Mr. Miller opens his papers with an account 
of this visit, and passes to an interesting ac- 
count of the then recent rediscovery of the in- 
scribed rock on the west shore of Mount Hope 
Bay. The story of Massasoit from the time of 
his first visit to the English in 1621, when with 
diplomatic sagacity he concluded a treaty with 
them by which he secured their alliance with 
their formidable firearms against his rival Can- 
onicus, sachem of the Narragsmsetts, until his 
death in 162 1, forms the first paper. The second 
paper unfolds the changed relation of the two 
races to each other. As the colonists acquired 
strength and the desire for the possession of land 
increased, the forbearance which marked the 
early intercourse of the pilgrims with the natives 
was forgotten, and the Indians, demoralized by 
their intercourse with the whites, were not the 
quiet, simple natives whom Massasoit had held 
in control. War was the natural consequence, 
and it opened in a terrible form in the raid of 
King Philip's Indians on the Swanzey settlement 
in 1675. The third paper describes King Philip's 
war, and closes with the tragic scene of his death, 
and its attendant atrocities. His head was cut 
off and his body quartered. His head was ex- 
posed for many years at Plymouth on the top of 
a pole. His wife and son were captured, and 
their fate being left to the decision of the clergy 
they were, by desire of the majority, shipped to 
the West Indies and sold into slavery. 

CINCINNATI'S BEGINNINGS. By Francis 
W. Miller. 8vo, pp. 235. Peter G. Thom- 
son. Cincinnati, 1880. 
This is the story of the birth and youth of the 

Queen of the West, a title borne long and proudly 



LITERARY NOTICES 



75 



by Cincinnati until a rival sprung up in the more 
dashing, enterprising Chicago, whose ambition 
nothing less will satisfy than to out-Paris Paris 
herself in street splendor. One would have to go 
far back in the history of the American colonies 
to seek the first covetousness of French and 
English for exclusive domain over the beautiful 
and fertile valley of the Ohio. Fortunate for 
the American people, indeed for the world at 
large as well as for herself, was the period of the 
initial settlement of the territory. The cotton 
gin had not as yet converted slavery into a na- 
tional institution. The men who made the de- 
claration of independence recognized its incon- 
sistency with that instrument, and Congress, in 
the ordinance of 1787, dedicated the vast region 
out of which Ohio was first carved to perpetual 
freedom. 

In July, 1788, John Cleves Symmes having 
concluded negotiations with the Commis- 
sioner of the United States Treasury, set out 
from New Jersey for the west with a retinue of 
fourteen four-horse wagons and sixty persons, 
and moved through Pittsburg and Wheeling to 
the Miami country, which he reached in October. 
The beginnings of Cincinnati were in October, 
1803. Its original name was Losantiville, which 
was changed to Cincinnata by Governor St. Clair, 
in 1790, which singularly justifies the old pro- 
nounciation of the name familiar to the ears of 
the passing generation. All of these matters are 
treated in detail by Mr. Miller, and an extensive 
appendix supplies a variety of letters and ex- 
tracts from letters upon topics of general interest 
relative to the Miami country, dating from 1789 
to 1799. The careful historical student will be 
abundantly repaid by a perusal of this volume. 

MEMORIAL RECORD OF THE FATHERS 

of Wisconsin ; Containing sketches of the 
lives and careers of the members of the con- 
stitutional conventions of 1S46 and 1847-8, 
with a history of the early settlement in Wis- 
consin. Prepared by H. A. Tenney and 
David Atwood. i6mo, pp. 400. David 
Atwood. Madison, Wis., 1880. 
This is a collection of biographical sketches — a 
work, as the authors term it, of composite order. 
The material supplied has been printed essen- 
tially as it was received, and consequently is of 
varied excellence. The purpose of the record is to 
present all accessible information concerning the 
pioneers of the now thriving state. Wisconsin was 
created a separate territory July 4, 1S36. A pre- 
liminary chapter gives the history of i ts settlement, 
the routes of early immigration, and of the pre- 
liminaries to the formation of a state government. 
The biographical sketches, alphabetically ar- 
ranged, concern, first, the members of the consti- 
tutional convention of 1846 ; secondly, that of 



1847-8. A supplement includes the constitutions 
adopted by each convention, and the volume 
concludes with papers on the early history of 
Wisconsin by George B. Smith, a member of the 
first convention, and on the early pioneers, by 
Peter Parkinson, Jr. The work deserves a place 
on the shelves of every historical and reference 
library. There is a general index and a list of 
the members of the conventions. 



CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY OF TFE 
Independence of the State of Vermont 
and the Battle of Bennington, August 
15 and 16, 1877. Westminster — Hubbard- 
ton — Windsor. 8vo, pp. 231. Tuttle & Co. 
Rutland, 1879. 

This is the official account of the proceedings 
held at the Bennington centennial celebration, 
in which the President of the United States 
and numerous high officials and representative 
men took appropriate parts. Mr. Daniel Roberts 
was the orator on the first or Vermont day. 

Bennington was the first of the one hundred 
and thirty New Hampshire grants, and is justly 
termed the cradle of the state. The history of the 
struggle of the Vermonters for independence 
against the claim of New York to jurisdiction 
over the land is a curious one. On the part of 
New York it dated back to the year 1764, when 
an order from the King in Council declared the 
west bank of the Connecticut river to be the 
boundary line between the two provinces of 
New Hampshire and New York. The heat of 
the controversy was not diminished by the neces- 
sity of opposing a foreign enemy, and the people 
of the Grants held a somewhat wavering attitude 
during the greater part of the struggle, actuated 
more apparently by regard for their own interests 
than a consideration for the common weal. Tiue 
the hardy mountaineers engaged eagerly in the 
surprise of Ticonderoga, and fought bravely at 
Bennington in defence of their hearthstones, but 
the Grants as a political organization rendered 
little effective service beyond the defence of their 
own frontiers. Indeed it was at the crisis of the 
northern campaign, in the mid-summer of 1777, 
when Burgoyne had seized the keys of the frontier 
and was in full march for the line of the Hudson 
that the convention in the same instrument pro- 
tested against the oppressions of New York and 
the oppressions of Great Britain, and constituted 
themselves an independent State, a political or- 
ganization that was not recognized until 1791, 
fourteen years later, when she was admitted as an 
equal member of the Federal Union. But while 
the patriotic student of history will find little to 
praise in the manner of this declaration of inde- 
pendence, none can review the record of one 
hundred years of the existence of the State, with- 
out admiration for the noble attributes of inde- 



7 6 



LITERARY NOTICES 



pendence, freedom, culture and industry which 
have made of her a model commonwealth. 

The oration on Bennington battle-day, August 
l6th, was delivered by President Samuel C. 
Bartlett of Dartmouth College, an eloquent and 
suggestive address ; and the battle itself was nar- 
rated with particularity and precision by Hiland 
Hall, formerly a Governor of the State. 

We regret to notice in this volume the occa- 
sional repetition of the old charge that New 
York was not warm in the Whig cause. New 
York earned the animosity of Massachusetts at 
the period of the non-importation act because 
she insisted on a union of the Colonies as a pre- 
liminary step to any measures of joint resist- 
ance. In the question of the grants she held to 
what she considered her rights, not without jus- 
tice, as Congress refused to listen to the com- 
plaints against her jurisdiction. Historians have 
fallen into the error of supposing that because 
New York city was held by the enemy the 
people of the State were therefore hostile to the 
cause of independence. The simple answer to 
all these various charges is, that New York was 
the one and only Colony which met every requi- 
sition of Congress in men, money, and supplies. 
Others fulfilled parts of the demand made upon 
them. None the entire demand save New York 
alone. 

SETTLERS OF AQUIDNECK AND LIB- 
ERTY OF Conscience. Read before the Rhode 
Island Historical Society, February, 1880. By 
Henry E. Turner. 8vo, pp. 55. The New- 
tort, R. I. Historical Publishing Co. 
R. H. Tilley, Sec. Newport, 18S0. 
By the friendly and potential intervention of 
Roger Williams, it was, we are informed by the 
learned antiquary whose pages are now before us, 
that in March, 1637, Canonicus and Miantonomi 
were induced to convey to William Coddington, 
for himself and his associates, the Island of Aquid- 
neck, now Rhode Island ; and in March, 163S, 
they removed from Massachusetts and began the 
settlement of Pocasset, now Portsmouth, at its 
north end. The next year a portion of this little 
settlement removed and established themselves 
at what is now known throughout the world as 
New port, the City by the sea, the Queen of water- 
ing places, the mould of summer fashion, the 
American Bath, picturesque and appropriate 
names, which, strange to say for American no- 
menclature, it well deserves. In 1641, the 
" Bodie Politick " of the Island declared itself 
to be a " Democracie or popular government," 
and also proclaimed the principles of religious 
liberty by ordering that " none be accounted De- 
linquent for doctrine ; " and again agreed that 
it was to be one of the liberties of the town to 
hold forth Liberty of Conscience. 



On this point all the Rhode Island settlements 
were in harmony. The little colony stood alone 
in resistance to the persecuting spirit of the New 
England theocracies. Referring to this branch of 
our history, Dr. Turner laughs to scorn the 
claim put forward by John Quincy Adams in 
1S43, that to the united Colonies of New Eng- 
land mankind were indebted for the glorious 
principle of Liberty of Conscience. 

An appendix supplies the Wheelwright remon- 
strance of 1637, sundry letters of Roger Wil- 
liams and other documents relating to the 
troubles with the Indians. Even Roger Williams 
complains bitterly of "these wild ones ; "says 
the " small neck " was a very den of wickedness, 
a confluence and rendezvous of all the wildest 
and most licentious natives and practices of the 
whole country," and asks for leave to buy of Mas- 
sachusetts merchants yearly supplies of powder 
and ball to protect themselves against ' these 
Barbarians, who," he complains, "are full of artil- 
lerie obtained from the Dutch and perfidious 
English." 

A SHORT OUTLINE HISTORY OF THE 

United States for Review Grades and 
Classes Preparing for College ; and 
for Beginners in the Study. By David 
B. Scott, Jr. Second edition revised. 2-imo, 
pp. 127 and 15. Collins & Brother. New 
York, 1SS0. 

This book is intended to meet a want of first 
grade classes in the public schools of New York. 
In the course of study adopted in these a general 
review of the subject matter of all is first taught. 
The discovery, exploration and colonization of 
the continent are first treated ; then follow chap- 
ters on the American Revolution ; the first, 
second, third and fourth, four administrations, 
17S9-1S65 ; on the last three administrations, 
7S65-1S76 ; an appendix contains the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and its amendments. 

The book is arranged in sections with cross 
references, and in topical divisions with summa- 
ries of the text, to which are added questions. 

HEALTH AND HEALTH RESORTS. By 
John WILSON, M.D., late Medical Inspector 
of Camps and Hospitals in the United States 
Army. 161110, pp. 2S8. Porter & COATES. 
Philadelphia, 1SS0. 

Many years since a gentleman of fortune and 
much experience in foreign lands remarked to 
the writer that after paying many visits to the 
famous spas of Europe for his own health and 
that of his family, he had come to the conclusion 
that there was nothing to be had of sanitary 
value that could not be found in this country. 



LITERARY NOTICES 



77 



This is essentially the conclusion of the medical 
gentleman who in this volume gives the results 
of his observation of the different phases of in- 
validism seen at foreign health resorts and his 
doubt whether it would not be as well for very 
sick people to rely upon the resources of their 
own land. The old Latin proverb of " possunt qui 
posse videntur " applies here, and the moral be- 
lief in the alleged curative powers goes far towards 
physical re-establishment, and here we presume 
lies the secret of the Lourdes miracles. The 
latent power of the will asserts itself and re- 
sumes its disputed sway over nature itself. Of 
such was a case in the experience of a famous 
New York physician. A lady had been long 
bedridden ; refused to rise, proclaiming her in- 
ability to move her limbs. Her physician was 
equal to the occasion : taking the bed covering 
in his hand he was about to strip them from the 
body of the patient, when she in shocked 
modesty rose unaided. 

Of the curative powers of mineral waters, 
however, there can be no doubt, nor when it is 
remembered that a very large percentage of the 
human frame is fluid is it surprising that these 
are natural remedies ? Dr. Wilson's chapter on 
their principles is of peculiar importance in 
these days of indiscriminate use without regard 
to properties or quantities. The advantages of 
the various European spas are commented upon 
and the localities described. This work is well 
worth reading by those contemplating a Euro- 
pean tour in quest of health. 



REGISTER OF BOOKS RECEIVED 

The Centennial Celebration of General 
Sullivan's Campaign against the Iroquois 
IN 1779, held at Waterloo, September 3. 1879. 
Prepared by Diedrich Willers, Jr. 8vo. Pub- 
lished under the auspices of the Waterloo 
Library and Historical Society. Waterloo, 
N. Y., 1880. 

Eminent English Liberals in and out 
of Parliament. By J. Morrison Davidson. 
i2mo. James R. Osgood & Co. Boston, 1880. 

Centennial of the Capture of Major An- 
dre. Oration at Tarrytown, Thursday, Sep- 
tember 23, 18S0. By Hon. Chauncey M. 
Depew. (Pamphlet), 8vo. John Polhemus, 
Printer. New York, 1880. 

Old Time Child-Life. By E. H. Arr. i2mo. 
J. B. Lippincott. Philadelphia, 1881. 

Manifesto of the Sociedade Brazileira 
Contra a Escravidao. Brazilian Anti-Sla- 
very Society. (Pamphlet), 8vo. Reprinted 
from the Rio News. Rio de Janeiro, 1880. 



Consolidated Table. Exhibiting by decades 
and geographical divisions the agricultural pro- 
gress of the Nation in cheapening the food of 
America and Europe. By Samuel B. Ruggles. 
Printed for New York Chamber of Commerce. 
Folio. New York, 1880. 

The Memorial History of Boston, In- 
cluding Suffolk, Mass., 1630-1880. Edi- 
ted by Justin Winsor. In four volumes. 
Vol. 1. The early and colonial periods. Roy- 
al 8vo. James R. Osgood & Co. Boston, 
1880. 

Address at the Unveiling of the Statue 
of Alexander Hamilton in Central Park 
New York, November 20, 1880. By Hon. 
Chauncey M. Depew. (Pamphlet), 8vo. John 
Polhemus. New York, 1880. 

Act and Bull. A paper submitted to the 
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Phila- 
delphia, Nov. 4, 1880. By Lewis A. Scott. 
8vo. Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of 
Philadelphia. (Pamphlet), 8vo. 1880. 

Japanese Fairy World. Stories from the 
wonder lore of Japan. By William Elliott 
Griffis. Small 4to. James H. Barhyte. Schen- 
ectady, N. Y., 1880. 

The Huguenots of La Rochelle. An his- 
torical sketch from the French of L. Delmas. 
By G. L. Catlin. i2mo. A. D. F. Randolph 
& Co. New York, 1880. 

William Wilberforce. By John Stoughton, 
D.D. i2mo. A. C. Armstrong & Son. New 
York, 1880. 

Pierce's Colonial Lists — Civil, Military and 
Professional Lists of Plymouth and Rhode 
Island Colonies, 1621-1700. By Ebenezer 
W. Pierce. 8vo. A. Williams & Co. Boston, 

1881. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

History of the United States, Volume I, 
1783-1801. By James Schouler. Small 8vo. 
W. H. and O. H. Morrison. Washington, 
D. C. 

Hubbard's Newspaper Directory of the 
World. H. B. Hubbard, Editor and Pro- 
prietor. New Haven, Conn. 

A Description of Louisiana. By Father 
Louis Hennepin. Translated from the origi- 
nal edition of 1683 by John Gilmary Shea. 
250 copies printed. 8vo. Robert Clarke & 
Co. Cincinnati, Ohio. 



78 



MEMORIAL NOTICE 



MEMORIAL NOTICE 
ERASTUS C. BENEDICT, 

Chancellor of the University of the State of New York. 

Read before the New York Historical Society, 
December 7, 1880 

Erastus C. Benedict, for nearly forty years a 
member of this Society, for over thirty-seven 
years an active member of its Executive Com- 
mittee, filling at times the offices of its Secretary 
and Chairman, serving the Society during part of 
that period as second and then as first Vice-Presi- 
dent, and at the close of his life its Foreign Cor« 
responding Secretary, died on the 22d of October 
last at the age of eighty. 

We cannot part from one who has been thus 
long and closely associated with this Society, 
identified with its progress, devoted to its inter- 
ests, and intimate with its members, without 
placing our mourning tribute on his freshly 
heaped grave, without speaking that word of ap- 
preciation of his worth and of his self-denying 
works in the cause of education and charity that 
such a life and character as his demands. 

We shall miss from these, his accustomed 
haunts, his genial face, his pleasant smile, his 
courteous manner, his persuasive words, his wise 
suggestions, his untiring energy. 

His ear, indeed, cannot hear, nor can his 
heart respond to our words of loving apprecia- 
tion ; but we owe it to ourselves to show that we 
recognize and honor high and noble qualities, 
and to so use the legacy that he has left of his 
good name as to draw others on to like lives of 
usefulness and self- consecration. 

Mr. Benedict was born in Branford, Connecti- 
cut, on the 19th of March, 1800. His father 
was then a practising lawyer, but about that time 
decided to enter the Presbyterian ministry, and 
preached his first sermon January 15, 1802, and 
then moving to this State was settled consecu- 
tively in New Windsor, Orange County, in 
Franklin, Delaware County, and about 1815 in 
Chatham, Columbia County. He was a man of 
remarkable eloquence, drawing large crowds, 
and moving them by his addresses with wonder- 
ful power. His wife, the mother of Erastus, 
was eminent during her long life of ninety years 
for her earnest and practical Christian spirit, the 
brightness and activity of her intellect, the vi- 
vacity of her disposition. 

Mr. Erastus Benedict was the seventh in de- 
scent from the first settler of the family in Amer- 
ica, who landed in Massachusetts Bay in 1638, 
and moved thence to Connecticut and Long 
Island, and, after filling many important posts in 
the several towns where he resided, died fu!> of 
honors, as well as of years, at the age of seventy- 
three, his wife surviving him and living to the 
age of one hundred, and imparting to her grand- 



son the incidents of their early life, which were 
recorded by him in 1755, and have thus been 
preserved and transmitted. 

Of the six ancestors of Mr. Benedict in the 
direct line, the first four were deacons in their 
respective churches, a position, in those primi- 
tive days of sparse settlements, of far more ec- 
clesiastical importance than at present ; and the 
last two, his grandfather and father, were or- 
dained ministers, and all of them lived to good 
old age, the youngest dying at sixty-one. 

It was with this inheritance of virtue and re- 
ligion, this hereditary disposition towards the 
right and the good, as well as under the direct 
spiritual influence of his pious parents, that he 
began his life journey. 

I know there is a popular sentiment that the 
children of religious parents are more apt than 
others to go astray and become atheists or profli- 
gates, and that this is especially so with the sons 
of clergymen. It is a fallacy, a gross and un- 
founded perversion of the truth. It is contrary 
to reason, to revelation, to fact. Those who 
recognize as the natural sequence of events that 
the children of Mahomedans should become Ma- 
homedans, and of Buddhists Buddhists, that the 
children of Romanist or Protestant parents 
should follow the religion of their fathers, yet 
ridicule the belief that the religion thus ingrained 
with the earliest thoughts and moulded into the 
young formative life can be a vitalizing power to 
control and regulate the being. Experience 
shows that it is. That the child, with the exam- 
ple of true faith and an humble walk daily be- 
fore him, is the most apt to adopt these as his 
patterns, and to strive to emulate them. The 
membership of our churches, our theological 
seminaries, our pulpits, derive their largest, most 
constant, and most reliable supply from this 
source of the religious household and the influ- 
ence of the home family circle. And while 
there are doubdess striking exceptions which at- 
tract attention, and by their noticeable character 
have given currency to the fallacy ; while there 
may be found an Aaron Burr descendant of Jon- 
athan Edwards, yet it would be as absurd to at- 
tribute to the religion of the parent the atheism 
or profligacy of the child as to argue that because 
John Newton came to the ministry from the deck 
of a slave ship that slave ships would form the 
best school for furnishing ministers of the Gos- 
pel. If there be any truth or power in the idea 
of heredity, let us claim and have the benefit of 
it for Christianity also, and not allow all its power 
and its logic to be used exclusively against it. 

The young lad grew up in his country home 
with these surroundings and under these influ- 
ences, and at the early age of sixteen was al- 
ready a teacher taking charge of a common dis- 
trict school, beginning, where wise beginning 
only can be made, at the foundation, and ac- 



MEMORIAL NOTICE 



79 



quiring thus the knowledge and experience of the 
wants of children and the duties of teachers and 
of the scope of a system of education for the peo- 
ple which qualified him for his subsequent use- 
ful labors and exalted position in connection 
with the cause of education in this State. At 
eighteen he entered the Sophomore Class of Wil- 
liams College, graduating in 1821. He became 
then principal of an academy at Jamestown, and 
subsequently of one at Newburgh ; and then for 
a year was a tutor at Williams College, where he 
had under his instruction Mark Hopkins, since 
President of that institution, whose fame as an 
educator of youth and an eloquent upholder of 
the truths of revealed religion, as well as a pro- 
found metaphysician, stands without a superior, 
almost without a peer, among the men of this 
generation. 

Since 1S55 he has been one of the Trustees of 
his Alma Mater. He was chosen a School 
Trustee in 1842 when the common school sys- 
tem was extended to the city of New York, and 
served faithfully in that capacity until 1850, 
when he became a member of the Board of Edu- 
cation, and was its President for several years 
until 1863, when he resigned. In 1855 he was 
chosen one of the Regents of the University of 
the State of New York, and in 1878 was made 
its Chancellor — the highest position within the 
State in connection with education — and that 
position he held at the time of his death. 

He came to the quarter-deck, but it was by 
the way of the forecastle not through the cabin 
windows. He passed through each gradation 
from scholar and teacher in a country district 
school to Chancellor of the Regents of the Uni- 
versity. He was thoroughly qualified, not by 
mere theory, but by personal insight and practi- 
cal observation, to organize well and wisely this 
beneficent system which brings within the reach 
of all, even the poorest and humblest, the bless- 
ings of education. 

Who can rightly weigh or measure the im- 
portance of this system in a land of republican 
institutions ? To any people knowledge is hap- 
piness and wealth and power. It exalts the in- 
tellect, it brings man into association with books, 
and thus gives him friends that never fail nor 
weary ; it supplies to him the choicest thoughts 
of the wisest of all generations ; it teaches him 
all that men everywhere can teach ; it trains his 
powers of thought and expression to give him 
command over his fellows. These blessings it 
brings to all. But when each citizen is a sov- 
ereign, and by his vote has equal weight with 
the best and most learned in determining our 
course and policy, then it is patriotism to make 
each vote wise and intelligent, and the man who 
does most to achieve that end deserves well of 
his country. There is no man in our whole 
land, throughout its length and breadth, who 



during the past forty years has done more for 
that great patriotic end than Mr. Benedict. 

He had the State of New York and the city of 
New York for his fields of labor — the Empire 
State and the Metropolitan City. He saw the 
system of common schools extended to this city 
and became one of the first trustees upon whom 
devolved the inauguration and establishment of 
this system here. And as we see the great and 
successful results that have been attained, that 
the schools under the charge of the Board of Edu- 
cation now number 306, where nearly 300,000 
pupils are annually taught, requiring the services 
of 3,000 teachers, and involving the annual ex- 
penditure of $3,800,000 ; and observe that, from 
among his companions in that early work, he 
has been selected to rise through all successive 
gradations of office to the highest — we can real- 
ize how much of that result can with just dis- 
crimination be attributed to his talents and his 
efforts. 

When in 1827 Samuel R. Betts was appointed 
United States District Judge for this Southern 
District of New York, Mr. Frederick J. Betts 
became clerk of that Court, and Mr. Benedict, 
who had been his classmate in college and had 
been admitted to the Bar in 1824, took the posi- 
tion of deputy clerk, which he retained for about 
two years. 

This circumstance directed his attention to the 
Admiralty Law and practice — and in that de- 
partment he achieved a marked success and a 
well merited eminence. 

During nearly five hundred years there was a 
fierce conflict between the advocates of the 
Common Law and of the Admiralty, in the effort 
to restrict the jurisdiction of the latter. 

Probably no contest in reference to any judi- 
dicial question was ever more earnestly and 
ably conducted both in England and America. 
It has resulted in the establishment oV Admiralty 
jurisdiction in both countries on a broad, firm 
basis. In this contest, during the last half cen- 
tury, Mr. Benedict has borne a most prominent 
part. He recognized the Admiralty, with its 
foundation laid in the wise liberal maxims of the 
Civil Law, as embodying the summary of human 
wisdom, and as best calculated to regulate the 
contracts and to redress the wrongs incident to 
the business of a commercial and maritime nation. 
He labored with affectionate zeal to enlarge the 
powers and confirm the authority of the Admi- 
ralty Courts. And he saw, what it is granted to 
so few to see, his labors crowned with success 
and the end achieved. 

All professional men need some side occupation 
as a relief from the mental tension of their regular 
daily labor. Few choose in that respect so 
wi>ely as Mr. Benedict. He found in literature 
and in promoting the cause of education, that 
restful amusement of the mind that enabled him 



8o 



MEMORIAL NOTICE 



to bear the severe strain of his legal work. Pie 
wrote with great facility, and writing was a 
pleasure. He enjoyed the exercise of this 
creative faculty without regard to whether the 
product was to see the light or not. He wrote 
voluminously although he published compara- 
tively few of his productions. To his profession he 
gave a valuable treatise on American Admiralty. 

He described his trip through Europe in an 
easy narrative style, that interested all readers 
and required six editions to meet the popular 
demand. 

With ripe scholarship and deep christian feel- 
ing he selected and translated the choicest hymns 
of the middle ages, bringing within the reach of 
all those noble expressions of devotion and 
piety. How well these three leading efforts of 
his pen illustrate the many-sided, benevolent 
character of the man ; recognizing his obligation 
to his profession, seeking to convey instructive 
pleasure to the masses, and opening to all a rich 
mine of religious feeling and instruction. He 
also bestowed considerable labor on a genealogy 
of the Benedict family, to which he wrote a pre- 
face. In 1840 he delivered the annual address 
before the Alumni of Williams College. In 
1879 he rea d m London a paper on the differ- 
ence in the rule as to limit of liability in colli- 
sions at sea, between England and all other 
countries. His discourse, delivered before this 
Society on its fifty-ninth anniversary in 1863, is 
remembered by many now here as a learned and 
powerful vindication of our pilgrim ancestors 
from unwarranted attacks made upon them, and 
as establishing their just claims against the un- 
founded pretensions on behalf of Sir Ferdinand 
Gorges and of George Popham, to the glory of 
American colonization. 

His address at the University Convocation at 
Albany, July 9, 1878, is the crowning literary 
work of his life. It should be in the hands and 
library of every citizen of this State. It gives 
the garnered fruit of his life-long experience in 
connection with education expressed in aptly 
chosen words and happy illustrations, and ad- 
vises, with a wisdom we should all reverently 
heed, what we should do in the future to advance 
the interests of this sacred cause. 

In a life so occupied with the labors of exten- 
sive professional engagements, and the claims of 
the cause of education, we suppose he might well 
have demanded exemption from those other calls 
of religion and charity and citizenship which 
require time and thought and care. Time fails 
me to do more than to enumerate the list of 
those associations in which Mr. Benedict was 
not merely an associate, but an active working 
member — for he was so organized that where he 
was he must work. He was a member of the 
International Association for codifying the law 
of nations. He was one of the members of the 



association for improving the condition of the 
poor, from its organization in 1848 ; one of the 
Governors of the Woman's Hospital ever since 
its incorporation ; one of the trustees of the 
West Side Savings Bank, and a manager of the 
American Art Union during its existence. He 
was a member of the Common Council of this 
city in 1840. 

In 1S43 and again in 1864 he was elected to 
the State Assembly, and in 1872 to the Senate of 
this State, and he was also for many years an 
elder in the Dutch Reformed Church, and faith- 
ful and zealous in discharging the duties inci- 
dent to that position. 

Lord Bacon wisely says : '* that there is 
nothing more awakens our resolve and readiness 
to die, than the quieted conscience, strengthened 
with opinion that we shall be well spoken of 
upon earth by those that are just and of the 
family of virtue." 

This source of strength in the good opinion 
of his fellow men was given to our departed 
friend in no stinted measure. Unsought honors 
pressed upon him throughout his life. And now 
this universal voice of regret and of sadness at 
his loss, these good words that are ' ' spoken of 
him by those that are just and of the family of 
virtue," which come to us from every quarter, 
attest that, with modest self-consciousness, he 
could rightly summon this opinion to his aid 
when he looked upon the slow, but inevitable 
approach of that hour which must be his last. 

But he had, beyond and above that, the 
quieted conscience, the well-grounded faith, the 
knowledge that his Redeemer liveth, wherewith 
to "awaken his resolve and readiness to die." 
and he looked forward to that great change with 
unfaltering gaze ; and, when his summons came, 
he passed with intellect unimpaired, with will 
unshaken, with natural vigor unabated, from life 
to death. 

And now as we close these words of remem- 
brance and part from one whose presence among 
us has conferred so much of happiness and bene- 
fit upon us and upon all those among whom he 
dwelt, I find no parting words more fit than 
those which he himself has rendered from a 
noble Latin hymn : 

This body take to cherish, Earth — 

As to thy gentle bosom's dust 
These limbs, to which thou gavest birth, 

These noble relics, we entrust. 

For here once dwelt a living soul 

Created by the breath divine, 
And wisdom, Jesus did control, 

These mortal relics did enshrine. 

Protect thou Earth the body then 

Within the grave in silence laid — 
For God will call to Him again 

What was in His own image made. 

George F. Betts 



MAGAZINE OF AMI ORY 



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MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. VI FEBRUARY 1881 No. 2 



THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 

WASHINGTON in his will made disposition of all of his private 
papers by the following- clause : 

"Item. To my nephew Bushrod Washington, I give and 
bequeath all the papers in my possession which relate to my civil and 
military administration of the affairs of this Country ; I leave to him also 
such of my private papers as are worth preserving ; and at the decease 
of my wife, and before, if she is not inclined to detain them, I give and 
bequeath my Library of books and pamphlets of every kind." 

The manuscripts thus devised by Washington to the son of his 
brother John Augustine, to whom was also bequeathed the Mount 
Vernon estate, fell at the death of Judge Washington, in 1829, by the 
thirteenth article of his will, to his nephew, George Corbin Washing- 
ton, from whom, by two purchases under acts of Congress of 1834 and 
1849, tne y were acquired by the government and now form part of its 
archives in the custody of the Department of State. 

The portion first purchased, embracing the Army records and the 
letters and documents of public interest, were at that time in the hands 
of Mr. Sparks for the purposes of his work — The Writings of George 
Washington — and under his supervision the letters and documents were 
arranged and indexed in the most admirable manner by the Reverend 
Thaddeus Mason Harris ; the Army records also, were then classified 
by Peter Force by the direction of the Secretary of State. The second 
purchase comprised the papers of a more personal character, princi- 
pally relative to the earliest and latest years of Washington's life ; 
but they are nevertheless important to the history of the revolu- 
tionary times and of the establishment of the Federal Government. 
They were used by Marshall and by Sparks, but still more by Irving, 
who gained from them the details upon which he dwelt more carefully, 
as better suited the scope of his work. .Among this latter series are the 
journals to which these notes relate. 



82 THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 

The years of Washington lacked but three of three score and ten ; 
daily records in his own hand have been preserved of about one-fourth 
of that period, covering some of the most momentous parts of his life ; 
unhappily they are not continuous but are interrupted by long intervals. 
In them he has left us his portrait, and it is the portrait of the Washing- 
ton of tradition. These journals, his voluminous correspondence, and 
the estimation of his contemporaries make up a testimony as to the accu- 
racy of that portrait, which cannot be impeached ; a greater body of 
authoritative material concerning any one of the great men of history 
does not exist. This, in the presence of his journals and letters, must be 
felt; and this, in view of an unaccountable spirit of detraction, which 
is from time to time manifested, it seems proper to state. 

The early formation of his character enabled him in youth to assume 
the management of important public affairs. While yet a lad, at the 
age of thirteen, he determined, once for all, upon maxims for the con- 
duct of life ; they are entitled " Rules of Civility & Decent Behaviour 
In Company and Conversation," and his observance of them is dis- 
tinctly to be traced throughout his career. Not only in morals and 
manners, but also in precise and economical methods of work was he 
early established ; in all matters his habits appear to have been rather 
the result of selection than of experience. In these journals the devel- 
opment of his methods may be seen ; they are written with greatest 
attention to order and neatness, and form an epitome of his civil and 
military administration of the affairs of the country. 

The earliest journal is entitled : " A Journal of my Journey over the 
Mountains, began Fryday the nth. of March 1747/8." 

It continues in brief daily entries of the incidents of his progress and 
novel experiences until " Wednesday )^e 13th of April 1748." This, the 
first of his expeditions, was undertaken at the age of sixteen, in company 
with George Fairfax, for the purpose of surveying and defining lots upon 
a tract of land among the Alleghanies, the property of Lord Fairfax. It 
covers one line more than twenty-four pages of a little skin-bound book, 
which measures three and three-fourths by five and seven-eighths inches. 
Beginning at the back or last leaf of the same, in accordance with a 
method he frequently observed, of using one book as a register 
for two analogous subjects, and extending over eighteen and a half 
pages, are careful memoranda of the results of each day's work. 
Between the diary and the technical notes the space, not entirely filled, 
is devoted to notes of other surveys, to verses indicating a hopeless 
youthful attachment and to the drafts or copies of letters to " Dear 



THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 83 

friend John," " Dear friend Robin," " Dear Richard," and " Dear Sally," 
which are referred to by Irving. These letters, however effusive, are 
dignified and by no means sustain the Washington of Thackeray. A 
companion volume in size and binding for 1749 and 1750 contains only 
surveying records, evidences of his constant occupation in the pro- 
fession he had chosen. 

The only serious mutilation which has been observed in the Wash- 
ington manuscripts and which occurred before it came into the posses- 
sion of the government, is in the Journal of the voyage to the Barbadoes, 
with his brother Lawrence ; remnants of forty-two leaves exist, of 
which but thirty-two, more or less impaired, contain sufficient of the 
narrative to render them of value. They embrace a tabular record or 
log of the weather, winds, speed and course of the vessel, its position as 
to latitude and longitude, and the usual ship-board observations of sail 
sighted and other incidents which entertain a voyager ; also a diary, in 
which was put down what he learned of navigation, which he seems to 
have studied attentively during the long weeks at sea. 

Here is one of the latest entries in the outward bound portion: 

Wednesday, October 30, 175 1. "This morning arose with agreeable 
assurances of a certain steady trade wind which after neer five weeks 
buffiting and being toss'd by a fickle and merciless ocean, was gladden- 
ing knews." He remained at Barbadoes from Tuesday, November 6, 
until Sunday, December 22, enjoying, with his brother, the most hospit- 
able attentions, such as visitors of their position would naturally receive, 
and which are circumstantially described in the diary. Upon the return 
voyage he wrote out his observations, concerning the people and the 
natural characteristics of the island, which are singularly acute for one 
of his age — he was then nineteen — showing that his opinions were 
clearly formed as to society and that he already possessed that love for 
agriculture which at all times made absence from his estate irksome to 
him. 

For the period between 1751 and 1760, no manuscript records are 
known to have been preserved, but an account should here find place 
of two journals of 1753 and 1754, which have been printed. They form 
an essential part of the history of the struggle between England and 
France in North America and caused Washington to become con- 
spicuous in Europe as well as at home. 

The first is of his expedition from October 31, 1753, to January 16, 
1754, as bearer of despatches from the Governor of Virginia to the 
Commandant of the French forces on the Ohio, which was prepared, on 



84 THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 

his return, from u rough minutes " taken on the way and printed by order 
of Governor Dinwiddie, at Williamsburg, earl}* in 1754. Of this impres- 
sion, it is said by Field, '-that but two copies are known to exist;" one 
of them, once the property of Richard Peters, was sold in the spring of 
1SS0, with the second part of the Brinley Library. It has been printed 
several times. Sparks states that M it was copied into nearly all the 
newspapers of the other colonies." It was reprinted at London in 1754; 
by Sparks in Vol. II., pages 432-447 of The Writings of Washington; 
at New York in 1S60, with notes by J. G. Shea, to accompany Mr. 
Lossing's Diary of Washington from 1789 to 1791 ; and in fac-simile 
of the London edition by Sabin, as one of his series of reprints in 1865. 
In the second of the Journals, Washington recounted the story of the 
Campaign on the Ohio under orders from the Colonial Government to 
prevent the aggressions of the French. It was his first military expedi- 
tion and during it, in the battle at Great Meadows, occurred his first 
engagement. We have of this only the extracts beginning April 2, the 
day he set out with his command from Alexandria, and terminating 
abruptly June 2j, 1754. Six daj~s after the latter date, on the 3d July, 
Fort Necessity, to which he had retired, capitulated. It has been gen- 
erally believed that this journal fell into the hands of the French at 
Braddock's defeat. There are reasons for the conjecture, however, 
that it was found after the fort was abandoned among the articles hidden 
by Washington, which, under the agreement entered into with him, 
ought to have been respected, and that it was transmitted bv Captain 
de Villiers with his own journal to France. Whatever its historv, which 
is likely never to be explained, all knowledge of it appears to have been 
derived from the following publication, in which it was employed as a 
piece justificative, issued b}~ the French Government, in support of its 
position in the questions of dispute with England. " Memoire con- 
tenant le precis des faits, avec leurs pieces justificatives, pour servir 
de reponse aux ' Observations ' envoyees par les Ministres d'Angle- 
terre, dans les cours de l'Europe." Imprimerie Royale, 1756. A copy 
of this work, M found in a French prize, taken and carried into St. 
Christophers," was brought to New York, where it was translated, and 
in two distinct editions was printed by H. Gaine in 1757, under title: 
M A memorial containing a summary view of facts with their authori- 
ties, in answer to observations sent by the English ministry to the courts 
of Europe." Besides the above editions, with the same imprint, there 
was another at New York by J. Parker, and one at Philadelphia bv J. 
Chatten, all in 1757. It was published at London in the same year, 



THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 85 

under title : " The conduct of the late ministry," and was reissued 
there, presumably from the same plates, two years later, with the new 
title: "The Mystery reveal'd ; or, Truth brought to Light." 

The journal was appended to Livingston's "Review of the Military 
Operations in North America," printed at Dublin in 1757. In 1847 an 
imperfect copy of one of Gaine's New York editions of the " Memo- 
rial," completed in manuscript by Mr. Sparks, was reprinted in full in 
Vol. II., Nos. 3 to 6, of "The Olden Time." The French government 
had for its object in publishing this journal to affect public opinion 
against the English by casting odium upon Washington, who was in 
command of the small body of Colonial troops and Indian allies at the 
battle of Great Meadows. The extracts therefrom, and the construc- 
tion placed upon them by the French editor, together with the articles 
of capitulation of Fort Necessity, were adduced in proof that Wash- 
ington was guilty of the assassination of Jumonville, in the Great 
Meadows affair. By the blundering and ignorance of Van Braam, 
Washington's " master of fence," who was with him on that perilous 
expedition, the only one of the party at all acquainted with the French 
language, the preamble to the articles containing the charge of assas- 
sination was by him hurriedly and inaccurately translated, leading 
Washington to subscribe to his own indictment. 

Of the Braddock campaign and the incidents of his life thereafter 
until 1760 we have no diary. The next in order of the manuscript 
journals is one begun January 1, 1760, and ended May 22, of the same 
year, which shows him as a farmer. He has noted therein the occur- 
rences in his family, visits made and received, the state of his fields, of 
the weather, and accounts of his stock. Washington has been consid- 
ered deficient in humor. On Friday, February 15th, he wrote: 

" A small fine Rain from No. Et. wet the Top of my Hay that had 
been landed last night. It was all carted up however to the Barn & the 
wet and dry seperated. Went to a Ball at Alexandria where Musick and 
Dancing was the chief Entertainment, however in a convenient Room 
detached for the purpose abounded great plenty of Bread and Butter, 
some Biscuets with Tea, & coffee which the Drinkers of coud not Dis- 
tinguish from Hot water sweetened — Be it remembered that Pocket 
handkerchiefs serv'd the purposes of Table Cloths & napkins and that 
no apologies were made for either.* The Proprietors of this Ball were 
Messrs. C , L & R W , but the Doctr. not getting it con- 
ducted agreeable to his own taste would claim no share of the merit 
of it." 

* " I shall therefore distinguish this Ball by the stile & title of the Bread & Butter Ball." 



86 THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 

Succeeding" these fragmentary records comes the first systematic 
series of journals, which was continued in one form from 1760 to 1775 ; 
of which all but those for 1762 and 1767 have been preserved. Wash- 
ington employed for this series copies, interleaved with blank paper, of 
" The Virginia Almanac," compiled by " Theophilus Wreg, Philom." 
and others, published annually at Williamsburg, with the exception of 
the year 1766, when he used " The Universal American Almanac, or 
Yearly Magazine, by Andrew Aguecheek, Philom.," printed at Philadel- 
phia. From 1760 to 1767 the entries related solely to his plantations. In 
1768 he began the journal with the caption on every diary page, " Where 
and how my time is spent," under which, with the variation, " Where, 
how, or with whom my time is spent,' 7 the record runs until June 19, 1775, 
when, for obvious reasons, it was discontinued. It is unnecessary to dwell 
upon this series, full as it is of biographical interest. The distinctive 
features of the earlier volumes are in these, to a large extent, continued. 
They are records of facts, not of opinions. Social engagements are 
their chief topics while he attended the Congresses of 1774 and 1775 ; 
and the same characteristic is notable concerning his diary of the later 
time of the Convention for framing the Constitution. 

The journal resumed May 1, 1781, was not carried beyond November 
5th. In this commemorative number the two volumes in which that 
fragment is contained are, it is believed, for the first time printed. As 
will be seen in the short note by which it is prefaced, of which a fac- 
simile also is given, Washington lamented that he had not preserved an 
account of events from the beginning of the war. 

After an interval of nearly three years another volume was opened 
to hold the narrative of a journey, extending from September 1 to Octo- 
ber 4, 1784, the purposes of which were stated in the first entry, in his 
own words, as follows ; 

" September, 1784. Having found it indispensably necessary to visit 
my Landed property west of the Apalachian Mountains, and more espe- 
cially that part of it which 1 held in copartnership with Mr. Gilbert 
Simpson. — Having determined upon a tour into that country, — and 
having made preparations for it, — I did on the first day of this month 
(September) set out on my journey." 

Of the final series of journals, there are in the possession of the Gov- 
ernment eleven volumes, two others are known to be extant, and there 
is probably a third. These volumes are uniform in size with the three 
last mentioned — that is to say, they are thin, oblong in form, bound in 
half sheep, measuring seven by four and seven-eighths inches, and are 



THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 87 

numbered respectively 1 to 11. The entries are continuous from Jan- 
uary 1, 1785, to February 2, 1789. Two of the series, numbered 13 and 

14, it is understood, were presented to a friend by Judge Bushrod 
Washington. These have been printed in at least three editions under 
the editorial care of Mr. Lossing. The first, issued in 1858 as No. II of 
the Bradford Club publications, comprised only the contents of volume 
13, October I, 1789, to March 10, 1790; the second was published by 
C. B. Richardson & Co., of New York, in i860, and contained both the 
above and volume 14, covering from October 1, 1789, to June 1, 
1791, and the journal of the first expedition to the Ohio edited by Mr. 
Shea, before described ; the third edition appeared as a publication of 
the Virginia Historical Society in 1861. The second and third editions 
are identical and from the same plates. 

There are indications that the habit of making " rough minutes " for 
a diary, to be expanded and written out in permanent form, which Wash- 
ington observed while upon his first tour to the Ohio, was followed 
through life. The Library of Congress possesses an original journal of 
Washington running from Tuesday, May 8th, to Thursday, November 

15, 1787, of which a fair and somewhat enlarged transcript is to be found 
in one of the volumes of the final series in the Department of State. 
Similar in size to the above, which may be called " minutes," there are 
among the archives thirteen leaves, evidently of sheets of letter paper, 
folded, cut, and pinned together, continuing the account of his Southern 
tour from June 2 to July 4, 1791, the larger part of which is to be found 
in the second and third of Lossing's editions of the Diary. These 
" minutes" failed, perhaps, to be entered in the usual form for preserva- 
tion, and they are left unfinished. The last entry was written at Lan- 
caster, Pennsylvania : 

" Monday \July\ ^th. This being the anniversary of American Inde- 
pendence, and being kindly requested to do it, I agreed to halt here this 
day and partake of the entertainment which was preparing for it. In 
the forenoon I walked about the town — At half passed 2 o'clock I 
received, and answered an address from the Corporation and the com- 
plimts. of the Clergy of different denominations — dined between 3 & 4 
o'clock — drank Tea with Mrs. Hand about [ ] " 

Again public duties caused a discontinuance of the diary which for 
six years and a half had been faithfully kept. Only once during his 
second term as President was the practice revived. The insurrection 
in western Pennsylvania called Washington from the seat of Govern- 
ment at Philadelphia to Fort Cumberland, "the rendezvous of the 



88 



THE JOURNALS OF WASHINGTON 



militia," whereupon he recorded a full and detailed narrative of his 
travels from September 30 to October 20, 1794. But one other article 
remains to be mentioned, and that is a daily record, principally of the 
weather, from February 10 to December 13, 1799. ^ * s on small sheets 
of note paper pinned together. Upon a leaf fastened to the first page 
Bushrod Washington has written, " The last writing of Genl. Washing- 
ton." The last entry at the end of the forty-seventh page, made at 
night, is this: 

[December] " 13. Morning Snowing & abt. 3 Inches deep — wind at No. 
Et. & mer. 30. Contind. snowing till 1 oclock — and abt. 4 it became per- 
fectly clear — wind in the same place but not hard — mer. 28 at night." 

Washington died in the night of the next day, 14th December, 1799* 

THEODORE F. DWIGHT 




WASHINGTON'S BOOK PLATE 



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THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS ON HARLEM HEIGHTS 

The name of Morris is familiar to American ears as that of a wide- 
spread family who, from the early colonial period, have held large 
estates and high positions of honor and trust. It maybe found inscribed 
on that immortal scroll, the Declaration of American Independence. 
All of the branches in this country, although not immediately con- 
nected, are descended from the same parent stock. According to 
learned genealogists, they all derive from a powerful Chieftain of 
Britain, the founder of the fourth royal tribe of Wales. The name 
is a compound of the Welsh words Mawr-rwyce, which is translated 
to mean strong or brave in battle. 

Roger Morris, the original owner of the house which became later 
famous as Washington's headquarters on Harlem Heights, was of 
a different branch from the neighboring family of Morris of Mor- 
risania. He was the third son of Charles Morris of the Manor 
house, Wandsworth, England, and Sarah Haldimand, his wife, and was 
born on the 28th of January, 1727. Cadet of a house, whose natural 
instincts led to the profession of arms, he entered the British army at 
an early age, and in the year 1764 was first heard of in America as an 
aid on the staff of General Braddock. He took part in the expedi- 
tion against Fort Duquesne, and was among the wounded on that fatal 
day. 

George Washington of the Dominion, as the Colony of Virginia was 
styled, had been deprived of his rank as Colonel in the army of the 
colony by the reorganization of that force ordered by the Governor 
for the purpose of bringing it fully within his own control; an arrange- 
ment by which no officer was commissioned of higher rank than captain. 
Washington refused to serve in such subordinate capacity. He was 
then at the age of twenty-three years, known not only in his native 
province but throughout the colonies as a young man of mark, and on 
more than one occasion had approved himself to those in authority as 
worthy of the most important trusts. His conduct in thus refusing to 
serve on the eve of an active campaign, one in which his own neighbors 
and former companions in arms, were to take part, and above all wherein 
the safety of the colony was so nearly involved, might, and in the case 
of any other man most probably would, have given rise to strictures of 



90 THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

a character least tolerable to a soldier. His course in this case was 
dictated by a high sense of honor, and a misconstruction of his motives 
was made impossible by the firm stand he now took in resisting the 
aggressions of the Royal Governor on the dignity and rights not only 
of Virginia but of all the colonies. That strong feeling of self-respect 
which then impelled him found expression in a later time in his refusal 
to receive a letter from Lord Howe addressed to him as G. Washington, 
Esq., &c, &c. Even then was stirring within him that spirit of American 
independence, that yearning for American nationality which in after 
years he vigorously and often expressed in public addresses and private 
correspondence, when State jealousies had brought the struggling Con- 
federacy to the brink of ruin. In such estimation was he held that 
General Braddock offered him a place in his own military family. As 
aid-de-camp he made the campaign, and, as is well known, his skill and 
dispositions brought back to Fort Cumberland the wreck of the army 
which Braddock's disregard of his counsels had involved in a disaster 
the result of which threatened British dominion in America. 

Washington's acquaintance, if not intimacy, with Roger Morris, thus 
begun in the wilderness and on the battle-field, was renewed at a later 
date and under softer surroundings, which have somewhat of a roman- 
tic flavor. The disputes as to relative rank between officers bearing the 
royal commission and those appointed by the colonial governors 
assumed such shape and importance that in the year 1756 Washington, 
who had been duly commissioned by the Governor as commander of the 
Virginia troops, found his authority as such disputed by a captain of 
British regulars whose force did not exceed thirty men. This absurd 
assumption brought the affair to an issue. Washington was deputed 
by the authorities of Virginia to lay the whole matter before General 
Shirley, then commander-in-chief of the royal forces with headquarters % 
at Boston, in the Massachusetts Bay colony. 

In the summer of 1756, accompanied by his aid Captain Mercer, and 
Captain Stewart and a retinue of servants such as became his wealth, 
rank, and official errand, Washington started northward on his mission. 
No man was more widely or more favorably known throughout the 
colonies. The hero of Fort Duquesne, whom the Indians believed to 
bear a charmed life, had a personal presence and dignity of bearing 
which commended him to the favor of those among whom he now 
came for the first time. The most distinguished honors and hospitali- 
ties were showered upon him at every point on his journey. We may 
well believe that with qyes early trained in the school of the engineer 



THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 91 

and surveyor, and accustomed to weigh the strategic value of position, 
he took in every feature of the topography of the country. At times 
in his joyous journey the fair landscape may have passed unheeded, and 
the salutations of welcome which greeted him have fallen on inattentive 
ears, as with foreboding prescience of the burden that was to be laid 
upon him in the near future he reflected on the possibilities of a sterner 
mission which it might be his part to fill. 

At New York the party were entertained for some days at the house 
of Beverly Robinson in the Highlands. Robinson, a native of Virginia, 
had lately married Susannah, the eldest daughter of Frederick Phillipse, 
owner of the Manor of Phillipsburgh, an estate granted to his grand- 
father by Governor Fletcher, which comprised a great portion of West- 
chester County and parts of Dutchess and Putnam. The entail, how- 
ever, had been broken by the now obsolete legal process known as fine 
and common recovery, and the estate divided among the heirs at law, 
among whom was Mary Phillipse, sister of Mrs. Robinson and heiress 
in her own right of fifty thousand acres of land. Beautiful, and 
accomplished, this young heiress is credited in the gossip of the day 
with having proved so attractive to Washington that he not only tarried 
for several days on his way to Boston, but that on his return he sought 
the fair damsel and lingered under the spell of her charms. Some assert 
even that he made her an offer of marriage, which was rejected ; this 
story may probably be set down as a later-day Tory invention. How- 
ever susceptible Washington may have been to feminine charms, and 
that he was keenly so is readily admitted, he was not the man to leave 
his wooing to another. It is a fact well known to the Fairfax and Cary 
families, and of which epistolary evidence remains, that at this time he 
was the sworn knight of Sally Cary of Virginia, the lady who after- 
wards became the wife of George William Fairfax. It is not recorded 
in the chronicles of the time whether or no Captain Roger Morris was 
a guest at the Robinson house at the time of Washington's visits, but it 
is probable. Society in New York was limited in number, and Morris, 
hearing of the presence of his old companion in arms, to whom he 
owed his safe retreat from the field of Duquesne, would have eagerly 
sought him at a house where his own presence was undoubtedly wel- 
come. Thus for the second time the two men are brought in contact. 
Captain Morris was a suitor for the hand of Miss Phillipse, whom he 
married at the Phillipsburgh Manor House in March, 1758. The occa- 
sion was one of great pomp, ceremony, and prolonged festivity. After 
his marriage Captain Morris went on active service, and was with Wolfe 



92 THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

at Quebec. In 1760 he was brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel, and in 1764 
sold out his commission and settled in New York, where he became a 
member of the King's Council, and was as well and honorably known 
in the civil as he had been formerly in the military service of the Crown. 

The estate which Colonel Morris purchased on New York Island, 
and upon which he erected the mansion house known in revolutionary 
history as the Roger Mojris house, and to New Yorkers of a later day 
as the Jumel house, is situated at the upper end of Manhattan Island. 
The house, which still stands, unchanged, a noble specimen of the 
homes of the colonial gentry, is almost opposite to the intersection of 
Tenth avenue and 161st street with the old Kingsbridge road. It fronts 
to the southward, and its eastern portico and balcony overlook from its 
precipitous height the Harlem River, Westchester and the Sound, and 
command a view of the Harlem Plains to their southerly limit at 
McGowan's Pass. 

The locality, from its connection with Revolutionary events, requires 
a more extended description. A marked feature in the geological 
structure of Manhattan Island is the ridge of rock which forms its 
backbone ; beginning at Spuyten Duyvil Creek, this ridge extends 
southward on the west side of the island as far as Inwood (old Tubby 
Hook), where it sinks abruptly almost to the level of the river, and 
again rising sharply is prolonged southwardly, with occasional ravines 
opening upon the Hudson River, to the Point of Rocks, now 
127th street, where it breaks off as suddenly, Here again the lands fall 
almost to the level of the river ; the narrow pass known as the Hollow 
Way, which separates this part of the island from the Bloomingdale or 
Vandewater heights below, expands south-eastwardly into the Harlem 
plains and reaches the East River. At its upper half, just below Tubby 
Hook, is the lofty hill rising precipitously from the Hudson River, 
on the plateau of which, covering the summit, Fort Washington was 
erected ; a position which dominated the river and adjacent country. 
Facing the Hudson River, the bluff is bold and almost inaccessible, 
while toward the Harlem River and Spuyten Duyvil Creek the ground 
slopes gently in some places to roiling meadows and marshy banks, 
and in others presents to the stream an almost vertical wall of rock. 

The island of Manhattan for purposes of military offence and defence 
is naturally divided by the Harlem Plains, a low and almost level tract 
of land which extends from the East River at about the north side of 
the present 108th street, whose southerly boundary was formed at that 
time by Harlem Creek, a narrow but deep current of tide-water which 






THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 93 

penetrated the land and was the outlet of a stream now obliterated 
which had its source at the foot of Vandewater's, now Bloomingdale 
Heights. The low lands skirting the northern edge of these heights 
along their base to the Hudson River, debouched through a narrow 
pass called the Hollow Way. On the opposite or northern side of 
the Hollow Way rose sharply from the plain the ridge called Harlem 
Heights, from whose southern extremity, at its base, projecting and to 
some extent overlapping Vandewater's Heights to the south, towered 
the Point of Rocks to the eminence upon the summit, where now 
stands the convent of the Sacred Heart. The general contour of the 
upper end of the island is that of a range of rocky hills whose face 
toward the Hudson River is almost precipitous, broken by ravines 
opening to the river, the summit being comparatively a level plateau 
whose eastern edge was a wall of rock at the foot of which flowed the 
Harlem River. Between the two ridges which marked the course of 
this wall of rock lay a valley formed by a depression of the hills on either 
side of which it was prolonged to the northward until it descended 
into the Dyckman Meadows which lay at the foot of the ridge which 
guarded it on the west, and extended from the eminence known then 
and now as Fort George (from the earthwork so called which crowned 
its summit), the last high ground on the Harlem side, and which com- 
manded the road and the river. The old King's Bridge road, then the 
only road which led from the island, crossed Harlem Plains in a north- 
westerly direction from McGowan's Pass, followed the base of the hills 
to the present 144th street, and ascending gained the plateau, along 
which it passed to the head of the valley above mentioned, whose course 
it followed to the meadows at the foot of Fort George, which it tra- 
versed, turning eastwardly toward the Harlem River on a course dif- 
ferent from that on which it is to-day laid out to the King's Bridge, 
which still spans the stream at the same point as in the colonial days 
and gave access to Westchester County. There were no bridges 
connecting the island with the main land save King's Bridge and one 
below and a short distance from it called indifferently Queen's, Farmers', 
and later Dyckman's Bridge. Spuyten Duyvel creek, the prolongation 
of the Harlem, wound through the meadows to the Hudson. The 
southern edge of Westchester was steep, rugged, and rocky as that of 
the island opposite. The ridge which forms the westerly line of that 
portion of Manhattan, now called Washington Heights, is severed from 
its upper prolongation by a valley at Tubby Hook which enters the 
meadows at the foot of Fort George. Upon the highest point of the 



94 THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

V 

southerly part of the heights was situated Fort Washington, an earth- 
work erected by the Americans in 1776. Its ruins are still visible on 
the line of i82d street, within the grounds of James Gordon Bennett, at 
a height of two hundred and thirty feet above the river. It was an 
earthwork of small extent, with a covering redoubt strengthened by 
batteries on the plains below commanding the King's Bridge and Road. 
The position was impregnable save to direct assault, and could only 
be turned from the rear by a detour to the eastward through Long 
Island Sound and a march on the main land. It was strengthened by 
three lines of works extending across the island, the first at about 146th 
street, the second at 153d, and the third at 160th street, still unfinished 
at the time the island was abandoned. The whole island, with the 
exception of the plains, was heavily timbered at the beginning of the 
Revolution, but this feature soon changed. The large increase of pop- 
ulation by the British force caused a great demand for fuel, which was 
increased by the intense and prolonged cold of the succeeding winter, 
that of '7Q-'8o being memorable from the fact that a train of artillery and 
infantry crossed the bay from Staten Island to New York on the ice. 
The forests disappeared under the blows of the woodcutter's axe. It is 
stated that the only tree in the city proper which antedates the Revo- 
lution is an English elm, which stands at the northwest corner of the 
old City Hall, whose massive trunk, infirm with years, is bound with 
iron, but which at each recurring spring feels the sap of youth stir in 
its sturdy limbs, and casts a shade grateful to idlers who lounge beneath 
it. There is also an ancient balsam poplar at Grade's Point, formerly 
Horen's Hook, of which a description appeared in the Magazine (III. 
692). This is believed to be the only other tree of as great age. 

On the 27th of August, 1776, the British forces under General Howe 
defeated the Americans in the battle of Long Island. Washington made 
a masterly retreat to New York where he awaited the movements of 
the enemy. Howe's force was greatly superior in numbers, and his fleet 
gave him command of the water and choice of the point of attack. 
The point selected was Kipp's bay, at the foot of what is now 34th 
Street. Early on the morning of the 15th September the British troops 
were embarked in boats in Newtown creek and moved across the East 
river in regular order towards the easy landing place which the depres- 
sion of ground here afforded. The disembarkation was protected by 
five frigates, which had taken up position within musket shot of the shore. 
The guns of the frigates gave notice of the advance, and Washington, 
who was at the morning in Harlem, rode down to Kipp's Bay, the 



THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 95 

objective point of the British, which was covered by a redoubt, as was 
also the shore of the river as far down as Corlear's Hook (Grand street), 
the whole line being guarded by two brigades of Continental troops and 
militia, under Generals Parsons and Fellows. He arrived in time to see 
them in full flight, terrified by the sound of the British cannon from the , 
ships lying within musket shot of the shore, thus leaving the enemy's 
troops, who approached in boats concealed by the smoke of the guns, to 
land unopposed. On this occasion the traditional Washington asserted 
himself ; enraged at the cowardice of his men, he rode into the hottest 
fire, and was with difficulty turned back to a place of safety by his aids. 
The army was at once retreated to the heights of Harlem, where it was 
encamped, the strength of the position justifying the hope Washington, 
writing on the same day, expressed to Congress " that the enemy would 
meet with a defeat if in case of an attack the generality of our troops 
would behave with tolerable bravery." Putnam, escaping from the 
lower part of the city with his men, but leaving behind him the greater 
part of his material and stores, joined the army on the heights, while 
the British threw a line across the island from Kipp's Bay to Blooming- 
dale (94th street), their left resting upon the Hudson and covered by 
three frigates, which had advanced as far up the river as the foot of 
the ravine at the lower extremity, Bloomingdale (about 97th street). 

The lines of the American army were posted on Harlem Heights, the 
right on the Hudson, the left on the Harlem River, and the advance 
guard at Point of Rocks, with a picket at its foot, most probably thrown 
forward into the plain, and possibly advanced as far as the crest of 
Vandewater's heights opposite. The advanced post of the British lay 
that night at the Apthorpe house (94th street and 9th avenue). 

Early the next morning, the 16th, a small party of rangers, led 
by Colonel Knowlton, who had been ordered out by Washington to 
reconnoitre and gain intelligence, approached the British advanced 
posts under cover of the woods, by way of Vandewater's heights, and 
as they were cautiously feeling their way through the thick forest, 
shrouded in the dim and vaporous light, in which the shadows of the 
chill September dawn were yet striving with the approaching day, 
came suddenly into collision with a superior force of British light 
infantry. Knowlton's men for a time stood their ground, but borne 
back by weight of numbers gave way slowly, and fell back upon their 
lines at Point of Rocks. The sound of the musketry roused the Ameri- 
can camp, staff officers hurried to the front, troops were hastily formed 
to repel the threatened attack of the enemy, who now appeared on the 



96 THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

top of Vandewater's Heights, where they halted a moment, waked the 
echoes with the taunting notes of their bugles, as though engaged in a 
hunt, then plunged down the hill into the Hollow way between in pur- 
suit of the retreating Americans. But the hunt was not over yet. 
Washington, advised of the state of affairs, rode down from the Morris 
house in hot haste to the Point of Rocks, where, learning the number of 
the enemy, and seeing the temper of his own men and their eagerness 
to engage, he ordered an attack to be made on the flank of the British, 
and at the same time sent another force to pass, under cover of the 
wood, to their rear. Now the quarry turned at bay ; Knowlton's 
rangers reformed their broken ranks and advanced against the enemy, 
who had formed behind a fence at the foot of the hill. Leitch, Knowl- 
ton, and Crarey pressed eagerly forward ; the British bugles, which 
rung out the notes of the chase so cheerily in the morning, now 
wailed the retreat, and the bravest of the braggart Light Infantry, 
obeying the summons with an alacrity which manifested the strict dis- 
cipline of the corps, scrambled up the hill, scourged by a withering 
fire in the rear from the pursuing Americans, who, fighting under the 
eye of their chief, burned with desire to avenge the disaster of Long 
Island, and atone for their misconduct at Kipp's Bay. The affair 
developed in magnitude. Washington pressed forward reinforce- 
ments ; the Forty-second Highlanders came to the aid of the hunted 
light infantry. Howe at the Apthorpe House was roused from his 
sense of security by the sound of the firing, which steadily increased 
in volume as it drew near his quarters. Donop's grenadiers and yagers 
with two field pieces came to the rescue of their comrades, but the 
British retreat had almost become a rout, and it was not until Leisingen's 
grenadiers with Block's and Mingerode's men and the Fifth Regiment 
of foot, who had been trotted up from their post below for three miles 
" without a halt to draw breath," arrived upon the ground, that the tide 
of victorious pursuit was stayed, and the Americans under orders from 
Washington, who did not wish to bring on a general engagement, with- 
drew, with a defiant cheer, to their own lines. They had met and 
defeated the best troops in the British army. For once the Forty- 
second Highlanders, the famous Black Watch who had stood with 
Wolfe at Quebec, and have since distinguished themselves on a hundred 
fields, were checked by an impetuosity equal to their own. The effect 
on the morale of the American army was electric and enduring. Leitch 
and Knowlton, mortally wounded on the field, died, and were buried 
with the honors of war. Washington in general orders, dated from 




PLAN OF ARRANGEMENT FOR THE NIGHT OF MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 16TH, 1776 



98 THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

the Morris house, September 17, 1776 (parole Leitch, countersign Vir- 
ginia), thanked the troops for their gallant conduct of the day pre- 
vious, paid a grateful and merited tribute to the gallant Knowlton, and 
censured some inferior officers for presuming to direct in matters 
which had already been otherwise ordered by the commander-in-chief. 

The positions held by the brigades are shown by the General Orders 
issued on the evening of the 16th September after the battle, prescrib- 
ing the arrangements for the night upon the heights commanding the 
Hollow Way from the North River to the main road leading from New 
York to King's Bridge ; General Putnam to command upon the right 
or North River, General McDougall in the centre, with directions to 
post guards upon the heights from Morris house to his camp, and proper 
guards, not less than twenty men from each regiment, were detailed to 
prevent a surprise ; General Spencer on the left from McDougall's 
brigade to the Morris house. In case the enemy should attempt to 
force the pass that night, General Putnam was ordered to apply to Gen- 
eral Spencer for a reinforcement. Thus carefully were Washington's 
provisions made in view of the events of the day. 

One result of this success was that the Americans remained unmo- 
lested in their intrenchments, gathered at their leisure the abundant 
crops on the fertile plains of Harlem, and held possession of the bar- 
racks there until they retired to the White Plains in Westchester. So 
secure did Washington feel in his position that by general orders of the 
26th September he prolonged his left flank into the Harlem Plain to the 
Kortright house with the left front at present 120th street and Eighth 
avenue. In a letter from Robert H. Harrison, of the General's staff, to 
the President of Congress, dated King's Bridge, October 30, 1.30 P. M., 
written by the direction of Washington, who was on a visit to the 
several posts of the army, preparing for a new line of defence, Congress 
is informed of the advance of the enemy by way of Frog's Neck and 
New Rochelle, and their intention to take their route to White Plains 
and thence to draw a line to the North River. His General Orders 
were dated from the Morris house from the 16th September until the 
21st of October, on which day the last was promulgated, and may all 
be found in Force's Archives. (His last from New York City was dated 
on the 15th September, 1776.) Washington had already withdrawn the 
bulk of his army in the direction of White Plains on learning of 
General Plowe's movement by way of Long Island Sound. 

Landing at Frog's Neck, and subsequently at Eastchester, the British 
advanced inland with the evident purpose of getting into the American 



THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 99 

rear, and thus cutting off communication with the Eastern States. A 
garrison was left at Fort Washington in deference to the judgment of 
General Greene, who commanded at Fort Lee, on the opposite side of 
the Hudson. Greene was of the opinion that the post was tenable, and 
that in case of emergency the men and stores could be brought 
off in safety. Washington's apprehensions were shortly justified 
by the result. On the 5th of November, 1776, Howe turned sud- 
denly from North Castle, to which strong position Washington had 
retired after the fight at White Plains, and marched to the Hudson at 
Dobbs Ferry ; thence he advanced rapidly toward King's Bridge and 
Fort Washington, which was held by Colonel Magaw and a gar- 
rison of twenty-eight hundred men. The fort was threatened and par- 
tially invested by a strong force of Hessians under Knyphausen ; Gen- 
eral Greene was still firm in his belief that the post might be held or the 
garrison brought off at the last moment, when it was discovered that 
two British frigates at anchor in Tappan Zee held command of the river. 
On the 15th of November Howe summoned the garrison to sur- 
render, a demand which was promptly rejected. On the 16th he 
advanced to the attack. The fort was assailed on three sides by the 
British, whose forces, coming from Kingsbridge, from Fort George and 
along the heights by way of the Morris house, converged toward it. 
The outposts and bastions were quickly stormed, and their defenders 
hastened in a disorderly crowd to the main work, which, unprovided 
with casemates, bomb-proofs or any adequate protection for a number 
so disproportioned to its capacity with which it was now thronged, and 
exposed to a heavy cross fire of rifles and artillery, was no longer 
tenable. Colonel Magaw surrendered with his men and munitions of 
war. This was the heaviest loss the Americans suffered during the 
war. As an evidence of the strong interest which Washington took in 
his men, and the vein of daring amounting almost to rashness, which 
lay beneath the surface of his self-contained and undemonstrative 
character, reference may here be made to the narrative of Gray- 
don, who in his memoirs says : " After the enemy had taken pos- 
session of the first American line things remained quiet for an hour or 
two. In this interval General Washington, with Generals Greene, 
Putnam, Mercer and other principal officers, came over the North 
River from Fort Lee, and crossed the island to the Morris house, 
whence they viewed the position of our troops and the operations of 
the enemy in that quarter. It is a fact not generally known, that 
the British troops took possession of the very spot on which the 



IOO THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

commander-in-chief and the general officers with him had stood in fifteen 
minutes after they left it. In this statement Gray don is supported by 
Greene in his letter to Putnam of the 17th November. He says: "As 
we stepped on board the boat the enemy made their appearance on the 
hill, where the Monday action was" (16th Sept., 1776). " The enemy 
came up the Harlem River and landed a party at headquarters (Morris 
House), which was upon the back of our people in the lines." This was 
Washington's last visit to the Morris house during the war. His next 
was made after the peace, when he was President of the United States. 

It was actuated by no feelings of idle curiosity that the writer, in 
company with the editor of this Magazine and the artist whose illustra- 
tion accompanies this article, climbed the hill at Fort Lee, and from the 
lofty eminence of the Palisades looked across the river to the scene of 
the historic events now presented. The slope of Vandewater's heights, 
where every stone and tree stood out distinctly in the clear light of an 
autumn day lay below ; the Hollo way between it and Point of Rocks 
is unchanged in its general features; to the northward lies the low 
rocky projection of Fort Washington point, near which are still visible 
the remains of the redoubt which guarded the landing place on the 
river. The fort itself was long since leveled to make room for streets 
and mansions ; but the hill-slopes are covered with the verdure of a 
forest which has replaced that so long ago sacrificed to the exigencies 
of war, while the smoke from swift-moving engines and peaceful factories 
drifts among the tree-tops, a welcome substitute for the sulphurous 
canopy which hung over the landscape, where Washington and his 
Generals, from the very elevation on which we stood, witnessed the sur- 
render of the fort, of which General Greene says : " I feel mad, vexed, 
sick, and sorry." The investigations of Mr. Edward de Lancey (Magazine, 
I. 81) brought to light an excuse for the mortified General, in the proof 
that treason had quite as much to do with its capture as British courage. 

With the capture of Fort Washington the whole island fell into the 
possession of the British. The Hessian mercenaries, whom the Elector 
of Hesse-Cassel hired to King George III., were encamped on the 
heights of Harlem ; and General Knyphausen, their commander, occu- 
pied the Morris house as his headquarters, and it continued to be so 
used by the British and Hessians until the evacuation of the island on 
the 25th of November, 1783. 

Notwithstanding the various uses to which the building had been 
subjected by the exigencies of war, it still remained a desirable resi- 
dence. For a time after the revolution it was occupied by Dr. Isaac 






THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE IOI 

Ledyard, a distinguished patriot, but in June, 1785, it passed into other 
hands, and became a house of public entertainment. Talmage Hall, 
who the same year undertook the eastern line of stages from New York 
to Boston, starting from the old City Tavern, at the corner of Broadwav 
and Thames street, opened the Morris House as the first stopping place 
on the route, and asked besides for the patronage of parties from town. 
He describes the building as an elegant house, and dwells particularly 
on the advantages of the octagon room, a rear extension, which still 
remains, as " very happily calculated for a turtle party," and otherwise 
desirable for transient visitors, as well as permanent boarders. The 
later history of this celebrated mansion, and a recital of the romantic 
incidents which cluster about it, would fill a volume, and must be left. 
to another pen. 

The act of attainder passed by the Legislature of the State of New 
York in 1779, included among those named Colonel Roger Morris and 
Mary, his wife. Upon the acknowledgment of the independence of 
the United States, it became operative, and was enforced with rigor. 
Colonel Morris' plate and furniture were sold in the city of New York 
in 1793; the Morris house, with its adjacent demesne, was sold, tinder 
the direction of the Commissioners of Forfeiture, in 1779, and passed 
out of the possession of his family. In consequence of his fidelity to 
the Crown, Colonel Morris received a compensation for his losses. 

It is not proposed to enter into the complications which arose in 
regard to the confiscation of the estate of the Philipsburg heiress, as the 
result of a secret anti-nuptial settlement. The rights of their heirs were 
purchased by John Jacob Astor, who realized from the State the hand- 
some sum of $500,000. The Morris house passed through several 
hands, and finally became the property of Stephen Jumel. an 
eccentric French merchant, in whose possession it remained until his 
death. He devised the estate to his widow, who is reputed to have 
married Aaron Burr. Since her decease the property has been the 
subject of prolonged and harrassing litigation. To-day it is held by 
one of her descendants. 

The issue of the marriage of Col. Roger Morris and Mary Phillipse 
were: Amherst, born 1763, who entered the Royal Navy, where he 
attained the rank of Commander, and died unmarried April 29, 1802 ; 
Henry Gage, of York, and afterward of Beverly, also entered the navy 
and became a Rear- Admiral; Joanna, who married Thomas Couper 
Hincks, and Maria, who died unmarried September 25, 1836. 

When the British evacuated the City of New York Colonel Morris and 



102 THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 

his wife went to England, where they resided during the remainder of 
their lives. Colonel Morris died on the 13th of September, 1794, at the 
age of sixty-seven ; his wife, who survived him for many years, died on 
the 18th day of July, 1825, at the advanced age of ninety-six years. 
After her death the long dormant question of the Attainder Act of 
1779, so far as its operation affected the rights of her children, came 
before the Courts for adjudication. 

Washington in his diary, written after his election to the Presi- 
dency, mentions one later visit to this scene of his military life. This is 
his entry : 

" Saturday \ \oth July, 1790 — Having formed a party, consisting of 
the Vice President, his lady & son & Miss Smith, the Secretary of State, 
Treasury & War, & the ladies of the two latter ; with all the gentlemen 
of my family, Mrs. Lear and the two children, we visited the old posi- 
tion of Fort Washington, and afterwards dined on a dinner provided 
by Mr. Marriner at the house lately of Col. Roger Morris, but confis- 
cated & in the occupation of a common farmer." 

Marriner was a celebrated host of the patriots, who had a public 
house in New York before the war, later kept a tavern at Harlem, noted 
for many curious incidents. On this occasion he sent the dinner to the 
hill which the President was visiting. 

The main features of Manhattan Island above the Hollow Way 
remain to a great extent unchanged by the march of improvement, that 
modern iconoclast which ruthlessly sweeps from its path all things, 
however venerable by time or association, which have ceased to be 
available for utilitarian purposes. The projecting extremity of the 
Point of Rocks, where the Continental advanced guard kept watch 
and ward over the smiling plain beneath, has vanished before the potent 
breath of giant-powder ; a stately boulevard passes over its former site. 
Where the Kingsbridge road climbed the long hill from the plains 
beneath, the serpentine course of St. Nicholas avenue gives easy access 
to the plateau above. Yet the inquiring eye of the lover of history, 
versed in local lore, may still discern some of the outlines of the breast- 
works at which their fathers toiled in that long-ago autumn ; and the 
elevated railroad, last and most audacious feat of the modern engineer, 
newest harbinger of New York growth, to-day carries its thousand 
visitors, who to-morrow will be daily passengers, to the very foot of 
the lawn which was once trod by the majestic form of Washington. 

Above Tubby Hook there is even less change ; with the exception of 
a few residences along the front overlooking the Hudson, the country 



THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 103 

presents the same features now as then. The Blue Bell tavern, the 
roadside inn where Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey, riding into town 
from his country home, first heard of the suicide of Sir Danvers 
Osborne but a few hours arrived to his new government; where Hes- 
sian soldiers caroused for many a weary year ; to which Washington 
turned his longing eye from the heights of Westchester on his famous 
reconnoissance in the summer of 1781, and at whose homely door 
he is reported to have halted on his triumphant entry into New York in 
1783, stood until May, 1876, on the west side of the road, near the lane 
which leads into the Bennett grounds. 

Fort Washington, in the original survey of which Lossing, in his 
admirable Field book, says Washington himself assisted on the 7th June, 
1776, was not seriously commenced until the 9th August of the same 
year, when it was ordered by a council of officers at the earnest solici- 
tation of General Putnam. It was a five-sided earthwork, without 
casemates or bomb-proofs. Its name was changed after its capture by 
the British to Fort Knyphausen, which it retained during the war. 
The outlines are now hardly visible. 

The location of the White House, to which Washington alludes in his 
general orders, and which in his journal published in the present number 
of the Magazine he also designates by the name of Morris' White 
House, is not precisely known. It no doubt was a building on the 
Morris estate. From Washington's description, it appears to have been 
between the main house and the fort above. 

A little building, now known as the Century House, the front of 
which the Kingsbridge road once passed, may now be found some dis- 
tance to the eastward of its present line near Harlem Creek, and is 
used as a river-side hostelry. At the foot of a blind wood road, which 
winds through the valley that intersects Inwood Heights, is a very old 
wooden building, which local tradition dates back to the revolution, 
called the Spring-house, from the clear stream of water which bubbles 
up from the foot of the hill, under the shadow of which it is situated. 
Banks of oyster shells bear witness to the good taste of the Hessians 
who camped in its vicinity. Bullets, grape-shot, time-worn belt-plates, 
buttons and rusty bayonets may still be found by the careful seeker of 
such relics. Knowlton, Leitch and Henley, all of whom gave their 
lives for their country in this memorable campaign, sleep in unknown 
and unmarked graves upon this historic ground, while the grand high- 
way of the stateliest pleasure ground of the world is grimly guarded 
by the colossal images of alien forms monstrous in perennial bronze ; 



io4 



THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 



gaunt shapes haunt the pathways and peer through the vistas of the 
shrubbery ; and high above all towers the apochryphal form of an epi- 
cene angel. A careless people forgets its heroes and martyrs, and over 
the very ground which holds the sacred dust raises images to gratify 
ephemeral vanity, satisfy vaulting ambition and pander to the lust of 
greed. 

WILSON CARY SMITH 

Note — Force's Archives, Fifth Series, Vol. II., 607, gives a " Return of Brigades under the 
more immediate Command of His Excellency George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army in the service of the United States of America. Harlem Heights, Head Quarters, Sep- 
tember 30 1776." The number of rank and file, present and fit for duty, is here given by brigades. 

General Parsons's, 883 ; General Clinton's, 11 30 ; General Scott's, 6o3 ; Commandant Sar- 
gant's, 559 ; Commandant Hands's, 915 ; General Nixon's, 1067 ; General Wadsworth's, 1469 ; 
General McDougall's, 1052 ; General Heard's, 983 ; Commandant Glover's, 864 ; General Fel- 
lows' 892 ; General Bedle's, 1573 ; General Mifflin's, 1631 ; Reed's, Weedon's and Chester's Regi- 
ments, ion ; Light Horse, 122, Total, 14,759. The total on the muster rolls, including sick,, 
absent on command and on furlough, 25,802. 




104 



THE ROGER MORRIS HOUSE 



gaunt shapes haunt the pathways and peer through the vistas of the 
shrubbery ; and high above all towers the apochryphal form of an epi- 
cene angel. A careless people forgets its heroes and martyrs, and over 
the very ground which holds the sacred dust raises images to gratify 
ephemeral vanity, satisfy vaulting ambition and pander to the lust of 



greed. 



WILSON CARY SMITH 



Note — Force's Archives, Fifth Series, Vol. II., 607, gives a " Return of Brigades under the 
more immediate Command of His Excellency George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army in the service of the United States of America. Harlem Heights, Head Quarters, Sep- 
tember 30 1776." The number of rank and file, present and fit for duty, is here given by brigades. 

General Parsons's, 883 ; General Clinton's, 11 30 ; General Scott's, 6o3 ; Commandant Sar- 
gant's, 559; Commandant Hands's, 915; General Nixon's, 1067; General Wadsworth's, 1469; 
General McDougall's, 1052 ; General Heard's, 9S3 ; Commandant Glover's, 864 ; General Fel- 
lows' 892 ; General Bedle's, 1573 ; General Mifflin's, 1631 ; Reed's, Weedon's and Chester's Regi- 
ments, ion ; Light Horse, 122, Total, 14,759. The total on the muster rolls, including sick,, 
absent on command and on furlough, 25,802. 





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APPENDIX 



I05 



WASHINGTON'S GENERAL ORDERS 



Head Quarters — Roger Morris House 

September 16 to October 21 

1776 

EXTRACTS RELATING TO POSITIONS AND 
LOCALITIES. 

From Force's American Archives 

Sep 16 — Arrangement for this night. The ar- 
rangement for this Night upon the heights com- 
manding the hollow Way from the North River 
to the Main Road leading from New York to 
Kingsbridge — General Clinton to form next to 
the North River, and extend to the left. Genl 
Scott's Brigade next to Gen Clinton's. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Sayers of Colonel Griffith's Regi- 
ment, with the three companies intended for a 
reinforcement to-day, to form upon the left of 
Scott's Brigade. General Nixon's, Colonel Sar- 
gent's divisions, Colonel Weedon's and Major 
Price's Regiments are to retire to their quarters 
and report themselves ; but to hold themselves 
in readiness to turn out at a minute's warning — 
General McDougall to establish proper guards 
against his brigade upon the heights, and every 
regiment posted upon the heights from Morris' 
house to General McDougall's camp, to furnish 
proper guards to prevent a surprise, not less 
than twenty men from each Regiment, Gen 
Putnam commands upon the right flank to night. 
Gen Spencer from McDougall's Brigade up to 
Morris House. Should the Enemy attempt to 
force the pass to-night, Gen Putnam is to apply 
to Gen Spencer for a reinforcement, (p. 381) 

Sep 18 — General Parsons's, General Scott's 
and Colonel Sargent's Brigades are to march over 
King's Bridge and take General Heath's orders 
for encamping. Colonels Shee, Magaw, Haslett 
and the Regiment under Colonel Brodhead are 
to return to Mount Washington and be under 
the immediate care of General Mifflin. 

Colonel Ward's Regiment from Connecticut 
may for the present be annexed to the Brigade 
commanded by Colonel Sargent — 

Generals Mifflin's, McDougall's, Heard's, 
Wadsworth's and Fellow's Brigades, and the 
Brigades under the command of Colonels Silli- 
man and Douglass are to have each a Regiment 



in the field this evening, by Mr. Kortright's 
house, (p. 383) 

Sep 19 — The Companies from Maryland under 
command of Major Price, are to join Colonel 
Smallwood's Battalion and General McDougall's 
Brigade. * * * 

General Nixon with his brigade is to remove 
over to the Jersey, and will receive his orders 
from General Greene with respect to his en- 
camping, &c. Such men of his brigade as are 
now on duty must be relieved. 

The picket guards which are to occupy the 
outposts most advanced to the enemy, are to 
consist of eight hundred men, officered with two 
Colonels, two Lieutenant Colonels, two Majors 
and Captains and subalterns in proportion. 
They are to be furnished by detachments from 
the several brigades below Kings-Bridge, and so 
every day till further orders, (p. 4T4) 

Sep 20 — The tents &c are to be sent to Gen- 
eral Spencer's, at Mr. Kortright's house, who 
will cause them to be delivered to the regiments 
standing most in need of them, which regiments 
are to be answerable for them when called for. 

General Greene is to appoint some careful 
officer at Burdett's Ferry to examine passengers 
and see that none come over but such as have 
proper passes. General Mifflin is to do the same 
on this side, to prevent disaffected or suspected 
persons from passing. If Captain Johnson and 
the other gentlemen who were employed in this 
business at New York incline to engage in it 
again, they are to have the preference given 
them— (p. 415) 

Sep 22 — The Brigadier is to see that a chain 
of Sentries extend from the North River to Har- 
lem River beyond which no stragglers are to 
pass — 

The General approves the Sentence (of death 
on a military offender) and orders that he be shot 
at head of the army on the grand parade near 
Kortright's house to-morrow morning at eleven 
o'clock. The men of the several regiments be- 
low King's Bridge not upon fatigue or guard are 
to march down at that hour ; the Provost Mar- 
shal to attend, (p. 448) 

Sep 24— The Quarter Master and the Chief En- 
gineer are to mark the ground to-morrow on which 
the barracks and huts are to be built this side 



io6 



APPENDIX 



King's Bridge — Major Henly, Aid de Camp 
to General Head &c — his remains will be in- 
terred this afternoon at five o'clock from the 
Quarters of Major David Henly, Acting Adju- 
tant General, below the hill where the redoubt 
is thrown upon the road, (p 502) 

Sep 26 — Upon any alarm or approach of the 
enemy towards our lines. General Mifflin with 
his brigade, is to possess our left flank from the 
Hollow way by Colonel Sargent's late encamp- 
ment to the Point of Rocks, on the left front of 
our lines, and till the regiment commanded by 
Colonel Weedon is brigaded to be joined by the 
same. General McDougall's Brigade is to repair 
to the plains back of General Mifflin, and be 
ready to support him or the picket in front, as 
occasion may require. General Bell's Brigade 
is to repair to the lines which cross the Road by 
Colonel Moylan's lodging and to extend their right 
flank to the middle redoubt by Mr. Kortright's 
house, occupying the same. Generals Wads- 
worth and Fellows are to take the remaining 
part of these lines, with the redoubt therein, on 
the North River. These three brigades to de- 
fend these lines or wait there for orders. Gen- 
eral Heard's is to parade, and be ready to march 
wherever ordered — General Putnam is to com- 
mand in front of the lines by Mr. Kortright's ; 
General Spencer in the rear of them. (p. 568) 

Sep 28 — That the approach of the enemy to 
the front of our lines may be communicated as 
speedily as possible, two field pieces are to be 
fired, by order of the Brigadier of the day, at 
the redoubts on the road by Colonel Moylan's ; 
this to be repeated by two others at Head Quar- 
ters, and the like number at Mount Washington. 

General Saltonstall is to order in four of the 
militia regiments under his command who are to 
encamp on the hill opposite to Fort Washington, 
towards the point opposite to the encampment 
on the other side Harlem River, (p. 605) 

Sep 29 — A Court Martial consisting of the 
following members are to meet tomorrow at ten 
o-clock at the White House near Head Quarters 
for the trial of &c. (p. 606) 



Sep 30 — A working party of twelve hundred 
men exclusive of those at Mount Washington to 
parade at the usual place at seven o'clock in the 
morning properly officered for the Engineers' de- 
partment. Fellows' and Wadsworth's brigades 
to take their posts at Quartermaster Stone's 
quarters nigh to General Spencer's quarters 
(p. 606) 

October 1 — After Orders. The following 
troops to parade at five o'clock on the grand pa- 
rade and there receive orders from General Put- 
nam — Light Infantry of the Pennsylvania 
Battalions — General Mifflin's Brigade to furnish 
a Lieutenant Colonel and three hundred men, 
General Wadsworth's Brigade to furnish two 
hundred men to be commanded by Colonel Silli- 
man. General McDougall's Brigade to furnish 
a Lieutenant Colonel and two hundred men. 
(p. 842) 

October 14 — Colonel Bailey's regiment is im- 
mediately to join General Clinton's Brigade at 
present under the command of General Glover — 
Colonel Lippets' regiment is to join General Mc- 
Dougall's Brigade. The brigades which will then 
remain on the island will be in two divisions, the 
first composed of Heards' Bealls and Weedon's 
to be under the command of Major General 
Putnam ; the Second consisting of Lord Stir- 
ling's Wadsworth's and Fellows' to be under the 
command of Major General Spencer 

General Putnam will attend particularly to all 
the works and necessary places of defence, from 
the line which was intended to be run across 
from Head Quarters inclusively, up to and in- 
cluding the works on the island above that place, 
as far as hath usually been considered as be- 
longing to this division of the army. He will 
also attend particularly to the works about Mount 
Washington and to the obstructions in the river, 
which should be increased as fast as possible. 

General Spencer is to take charge of all the 
works from Head Quarters to our front lines to 
the South and attend particularly to all weak 
places seeing they are secured as well as time 
and circumstances will permit, (p. 1119) 






THE WASHINGTON LETTERS 

The second series of the letters of Washington, hitherto unpublished, 
is begun in the present number. The order of publication followed in 
the first series, chronological from the earliest Colonial to the last writ- 
ten in 1783, will be strictly conformed to. Many of those now presented 
have been for a long time awaiting their place in the present number 
under this arrangement. Those who have kindly contributed copies of 
their rare treasures will recognize the absolute necessity of the delay 
in the appositeness of their place in connection with others of the same 
period. Indeed one of the most satisfactory results of the collection is 
attained in -the juxtaposition of letters brought from widely different 
sources and now for the first time set side by side for examination. 

Many of those now presented are of unusual interest to the general 
reader from their connection with the earlier less known years of 
Washington's life, and their illustration of the growth of his character, 
while every line written by him during his period of active service is 
invaluable to students of the revolutionary period. 

In accordance with the practice of the last two years the publication 
will be continued in August. This year the continuation will include 
all the letters written to General Varnum, over twenty in number, con- 
cerning the affair at Red Bank in the fall of 1777, which are in the pos- 
session of Dr. Henry E. Turner, of Newport, Rhode Island. 

Numerous letters are supposed to exist in the Southern States. 
Washington in his Journal of 1781 makes special allusion to a number 
written from the Head of Elk to his friends on the Eastern Shore with 
appeals for aid in the transportation of his troops. It is earnestly hoped 
that the Southern friends of the Magazine will communicate informa- 
tion with regard to these. 

Thanks are again tendered to those persons throughout the coun- 
try who have generously aided in the prosecution of the undertaking 
to gather in copies of all the outstanding letters, and the appeal is now 
renewed. It is extremely desirable that the present series should be as 
complete as possible, as when it is closed the publication will be begun of 
the collection of those written after the peace ; letters which have an 
interest and value of an entirely different character from their bearing 
upon a correct understanding of the early beginning of our political 
system, 

EDITOR 



io8 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



WASHINGTON'S JOURNAL 

From the Original Manuscript in the Library of 
the Department of State, at Washington 

MAY TO AUGUST, I 78 1 
MAY 

I begin at this epoch, a concise jour- 
nal of military transactions, &c. I 
lament not having attempted it from the 
commencement of the war, in aid of my 
memory — and wish the multiplicity of 
matters which continually surround me 
— and the embarrassed state of our 
affairs which is momently calling the 
attention to perplexities of one kind or 
another, may not defeat altogether, or 
so interrupt my present intention and 
plan as to render it of little avail. 

To have the clearer understanding of 
the entries which may follow, it would 
be proper to recite, in detail, our wants 
and our prospects — but this alone would 
be a work of much time and great mag- 
nitude. It may suffice to give the sum 
of them, which I shall do in a few 
words, — viz. — 

Instead of having magazines filled 
with provisions, we have a scanty pit- 
tance scattered here and there in the 
different States. — Instead of having our 
arsenals well supplied with military 
stores, they are poorly provided, and the 
workmen all leaving them — Instead of 
having the various articles of Field 
equipage in readiness to deliver, the 
Quartermaster-General (as the denier 
resort, according to his acct) is but 
now applying to the several States to 
provide these things for their troops 
respectively. Instead of having a regu- 
lar system of transportation upon credit, 
— or funds in the Quartermaster's hands 



to defray the contingent Expences of it, 
we have neither the one nor the other ; 
and all that business, or a great part of 
it, being done by military Impress, we 
are daily and hourly oppressing the peo- 
ple, — souring their tempers, and aliena- 
ting their affection — Instead of having 
the Regiments compleated to the new 
establishment (and which ought to have 
been so by the — of — agreeable to the 
requisitions of Congress, scarce any 
state in the Union has, at this hour, an 
eighth part of its quota in the field — and 
little prospect, that I can see, of ever 
getting more than half. — In a word — 
instead of having everything in readi- 
ness to take the Field, we have nothing 
— and instead of having the prospect of 
a glorious offensive campaign before us, 
we have a bewildered and gloomy de- 
fensive one — unless we should receive a 
powerful aid of ships — Land Troops — 
and money from our generous allies — 
& these, at present, are too contingent 
to build upon. 

May \st — Induced by pressing neces- 
sity — the inefficacy, & bad tendency of 
pushing Military Impresses too far — and 
the impracticability of keeping the army 
supplied without it, or money, to pay the 
transportation — I drew for 9000 dollars 
of the sum sent on by the State of Mas- 
sachusetts for payment of their Troops ; 
and placed it in the hands of the Q: M: 
General with the most positive orders to 
apply it solely to this purpose. — 

Fixed with Ezekiel Cornell Esqr. a 
member of the Board of war (then on 
a tour to the Eastward to inspect some 
of the Armoury's &c.) on certain arti- 
cles of cloathing — arms — and military 
stores which might be sent from hence 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



IO9 



to supply the wants of the Southern 
army. — 

Major Talmadge was requested to 
press the C — s Senr & Junr to continue 
their correspondence — and was author- 
ized to assure the elder C — that he 
should be repaid the sum of 100 Guineas, 
or more, with interest ; provided he ad- 
vanced the same for the purpose of 
defraying the expence of the corres- 
pondence, as he had offered to do. — 

Colo. Dayton was also written to, and 
pressed to establish a corrispondence 
with New York by way of Elizabeth- 
town for the purpose of obtaining intel- 
ligence of the Enemys movemts. and 
designs ; that by a comparison of accts, 
proper & just conclusions may be 
drawn. — 

May 2d — No occurrence of note. — a 
very fresh and steady gale of wind all 
day from the So. East. — upon its shift- 
ing (about dusk) it blew violently, & 
continued boisterous through the night 
or greatest part of it. — 

May 4//1 — A letter of the Baron de 
Steuben's from Chesterfield Court House. 
Virga. dated the 21st ulto. informs that 
12 of the Enemy's vessels but with a\ hat 
Troops he knew not, had advan J up 
James River as high as Jamest iwn. — 
that few militia were in arms — a id w 
arms to put into their hands. — tha t he 
had moved the public stores from Rich- 
mond &c into the interior country. — 

A letter from the Marqs. de la Fay- 
ette, dated at Alexandria on the 23d, 
mentioned his having commenced his 
march that day for Fredericksburg — 
that desertion had ceased, & that his 
detachment were in good spirts. 

May ^th — Accounts from Brigadr 



Genl. Clinton at Albany, dated the 30th 
ulto. & 1 st Inst't, filled me with anxious 
fears that the Garrison of fort Schuyler 
would be obliged to evacuate the Post 
for want of Provisions — and that a mu- 
tiny in the other Troops was to be appre- 
prehended — In consequence of this 
alarming piece of information, I directed 
the Q M. Gl to send 50 Barls. of flour 
& the like qty. of salted meat imm'y up, 
for the Garrison of Fort Schuyler — but 
of the latter there being only 24 in store, 
no more could be sent. — 

May 6th — Colo. Menonville, one of 
the adjut. Generals in the French army 
came to Head Quarters by order of 
Count de Rochambeau to make arrange- 
ments for supplying the Troops of His 
most Christian Majesty with certain pro- 
visions contracted for by Doctr. Frank- 
lin — This demand, tho' the immediate 
compliance with it, was not insisted up- 
on, comports illy with our circumstances ; 
& it is exceedingly embarrassing. — 

The D Q Mr. at Sussex Ct House 
concieving that the Provision Magazine 
& other stores at that place were ex- 
posed to a surprize, and in danger of 
being destroyed by the Indians & Tories 
who were infesting the settlement at 
Minisink, I directed Colo. Dayton to 
send a guard there from the Jersey Bri- 
gade near Morristown. — 

Mr. John Flood (at present a liver at 
lower Salem) whom I had sent for to 
obtain from him an acct. of the Har- 
bours in the sound from Frogs point 
Eastward, arrived ; and gave the infor- 
mation wch. is filed in my office. 

Other letters arriving this evening late 
(more expressive of the wants of the 
York Troops at Albany, & the Posts 



no 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



above.) I ordered ioo, out of 131 Barrls 
of Flour which were in store, to be 
immediately sent up ; & again called 
upon the Q M Genl in the most pointed 
terms to send active men to forward on, 
by every means they could devise, the 
salted provn in Connecticut ; & flour 
from Sussex Ct Ho. &c. 

That the states might not only know 
our wants, which my repeated & press- 
ing letters had recently, & often com- 
municated, but, if possible, be impressed 
with them and adopt some mode of 
transporting it to the army, I resolved to 
send Genl. Heath (2d offir. in commd) 
to make to the respective legislatures 
East of York state, pointed representa- 
tion ; & to declare explicity that unless 
measures are adopted to supply trans- 
portation, it will be impossible to subsist 
& keep the troops together. 

May >jth — The wind which blew with 
great force from the So. East the last 
two days was accompanied this day by 
incessant rain and was a most violent 
storm. — & is supposed to have done 
damage to ships on the coast. 

May qth — Went to the Posts at West 
Point, and found by enquiry of General 
Heath that all the meal (meat ?) depos- 
ited in the advanced redoubts for con- 
tingent purposes would not, if served 
out, serve the army two days — that the 
Troops had drawn none that day — & 
that none remained in the common 
Magazine. 

May 10I/1 — The Q M Genl represent- 
ing that it was not in his power to get 
the salt meat of Connecticut transported 
— even for the money that was put into 
his hands for this purpose — the people 
now alledging that they had no forage — 



when the badness of the roads was an 
excuse when they were called upon by 
the Executive of their state in the month 
of March — and that nothing but military 
force could effect the transport for our 
present wants. Parties were ordered 
out accordingly and the officers com- 
manding them directed to receive their 
Instructions from him. 

May nth — Major Genl. Heath set out 
this day for the Eastn. States, provided 
with Instructions, and letters couched in 
strong terms — representing the distresses 
of the army for want of provisions and 
the indispensable necessity of keeping 
up regular supplies by the adoption of a 
plan which will have system and per- 
manency in't — 

This day also I received advice from 
Colo Dayton that 10 ships of the line, 
and 3 or 4000 Troops had sailed from 
New York. — the intelligence was imme- 
diately communicated to Congress, and 
to the French Genl. & admiral at R Isld. 

May 12th — Colo. Dayton's intelligence, 
so far as respected the sailing of Troops, 
was confirmed by two sensible deserters 
from Kings bridge ; which place they 
left yesterday morning at two o'clock — 
they add the detachment consisted of 
the Grenadrs (Bh) — the corps of Anspach 
(two Battalions) & the 37th & 43d Brit- 
tish regiments, amounting, as is supposed, 
to about 2000 men under the command 
of Majr Genl. Redeisel. — 

May 13th — Received letters from 
Count de Rochambeau advising me of 
the arrival of his son — & from Count de 
Barras informing me of his appointment 
to the Command of the French squadron 
at Rhode Island — both solliciting an In- 
terview with me as soon as possible — 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



III 



appointed in answer, Monday the 21st 
inst. & Wethersfield, as the time & place 
of meeting. 

May \\th — About noon intelligence 
was reed, from Genl. Patterson at West 
Point, that the Enemy were on the No. 
Side of Croton in force — that Colo. 
Green, Majr. Flag, and some other offi- 
cers with 40 or 50 men were surprized & 
cut off at the Bridge — & that Colo. 
Scammell with the New Hampshire 
Troops had marched to their assistance — 
I ordered the Connecticut Troops to 
move on & support those of New Hamp- 
shire — In the evening, information was 
brot. that the Enemy (consisting of about 
60 horse, & 140 Infantry) had retreated 
precipitately — & that several of our sol- 
diers had been inhumanly murdered. — 

May i$t/i — Information dated 12 
o clock yesterday reports 15 sail of ves- 
sels & a number of Flat boats to be off 
Fort Lee. — ordered a detachment of 200 
men to march immediately to support 
the Post at Dobbs's ferry — countenance 
the militia, & cover the country in that 
neighbourhood — 

Intelligence from C-Senr., dated 729 — 
a detachment is expected to sail to-mor- 
row from New York, and said to consist 
of the Anspach Troops — 43d B. Regi- 
ment, remainder of the 76th. — 80th, 17th 
Dragoons, & Infantry of the same — to be 
conveyed by 7 ships of the line, 2 fifties 
& 3 forty fours which are to cruize of the 
Capes of Virginia. — He gives it as the 
opinion of C — Junr. that the above de- 
tachmt does not exceed 2000 men — 
that not more than 4000 remain — wch 
is only (he adds) to be accounted for on 
the supposition of their expecting a re- 
inforcement immediately from Europe. 



May 16th— Went to the Posts at West 
Point — received a particular acct. of the 
surprize of Colo Green & the loss we 
sustained which consisted of himself & 
Major (Flag) killed — three officers & a 
surgeon taken prisoners (the latter & 
two of the former wounded) — a sergeant 
& 5 R & F. killed— 5 left wounded— & 
2,7, made prisoners & missing — in all 44 
besides officers — 

The report of the number of shipping 
&ca at Fort Lee was this day contra- 
dicted in part — the number of vessels 
being reduced, & said to be no higher 
than Bulls-ferry — in consequence of this 
intelligence Lt. Col Badlam who marched 
with the detachment of 200 men pur- 
suant to the orders of yesterday & had 
reached Stony point halted — but was 
directed not to return till the designs of 
the enemy were better understood. 

May 17th — Received a letter from 
Captn Lawrence, near Dobbs's ferry, 
informing me that abt. 200 Refugees 
were building a block house & raising 
other works at Fort Lee. — order'd the 
detachment which had halted at Kings 
Ferry & another forming under Colo. 
Scammel to advance down & endeavor 
to annoy if they could not prevent 
them. 

A Letter from Genl. Foreman of Mon- 
mouth (dated the 14th Inst) informs me 
that the British fleet from New York 
consisting of seven ships of 60 Guns & 
upwards — 12 large Transport vessels, & 
10 top sail schooners & sloops made sail 
from Sandy hook the 12th, with the wind 
at So. East. — but veering round to the 
southward, & westward, it returned with- 
in the hook and lay there till 10 o'clock 
next day when it again sailed — by two 



112 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



o'clock it was clear of the hook — and 
steering southward. — 

May 1 2>th — Received letters from Gen- 
erals Schuyler and Clinton giving an 
acct. of the threatened Invasion of the 
Northern Frontier of this State from 
Canada, and of the unfavourable pros- 
pects from Vermont. — and of the des 
truction of the Post of Fort Schuyler — 
the indefensible state of the works occa- 
sioned thereby — & submitting for con- 
sidn the propriety of removing the Gar- 
rison to the German Flatts which he 
(that is Clinton) was requested to do if 
itappear'd to be the sense of the Gov- 
ernor & other principal Gentn of the 
State that it would be eligable. 

Set out this day for the Interview at 
Weathersneld with the Count de Rocham- 
beau & Admiral Barras. — reached Mor- 
gans Tavern 43 miles from Fishkill 
Landing after dining at Colo. Vande- 
bergs. — 

May igt/i — Breakfasted at Litchfield — 
dined at Farmington — & lodged at 
Weathersneld at the House of Joseph 
Webb Esqr. (the Quarters wch were 
taken for me and my suit. — 

May 20th — Had a good deal of private 
coversation with Govr Trumbull who 
gave it to me as his opinion that if any 
important offensive operation should be 
undertaken he had little doubt of our 
obtaining Men & Provision adequate to 
our wants. — In this opinion Colo. Wads- 
worth & others concurr'd. 

May 2 1st — The Count de Rochambeau 
with the Chevr de Chastellux arrived 
about noon — the appearance of the 
British Fleet (under Adml Arbuthnot) 
off Block Island prevented the attendance 
of the Count de Barras. 



May 22a 1 — Fixed with Count de Ro- 
chambeau upon a plan of Campaign — 
in substance as follows — That the French 
Land force (except 200 men) should 
march so soon as the Squadron could 
sail for Boston — to the North River — & 
there, in conjunction with the American, 
to commence an operation against New 
York (which in the present reduced state 
of the Garrison it was thought would 
fall, unless relieved; the doing which 
wd enfeeble their Southern operations, 
and in either case be productive of 
capital advantages) or to extend our 
views to the Southward as circumstances 
and a naval superiority might render 
more necessary and eligable. — The aid 
which would be given to such an opera- 
tion in this quarter — the tardiness with 
which the Regiments would be filled for 
any other. — the insurmountable difficulty 
& expence of Land transportation — the 
waste of men in long marches (especially 
where there is a disinclination to the 
Service — Objections to the climate &ca) 
with other reasons too numerous to de- 
tail, induced to this opinion. — The heavy 
stores & Baggage of the French army 
were to be deposited at Providence un- 
der Guard of 200 men (before men- 
tioned) — & Newport Harbour & Works 
were to be secured by 500 militia. — 

May 23a 7 — Count de Rochambeau set 
out on his return to Newport, while I 
prepared and forwarded dispatches to 
the Governors of the four New England 
states calling upon them in earnest & 
pointed terms, to compleat their Conti- 
nental Battalions for the Campaign, at 
least, if it could not be done for the war 
or 3 years — to hold a body of militia 
(according to the Proportion given them) 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



"3 



ready to march in one week after being 
called for — and to adopt some effectual 
mode to supply the Troops when assem- 
bled with Provisn. & Transportation. 

I also sollicited the Governors of the 
States of Massachusetts & Connecticut 
earnestly for a Loan of Powder & the 
means of Transporting it to the Army. 

A Letter from Genl. St. Clair came to 
hand with accts. of an apparent inten- 
tion of the enemy to evacuate New 
York. 

May 2\th — Set out on my return to 
New Windsor — dined at Farmington and 
lodged at Litchfield 

May 2$th — Breakfasted at Squire 
Cogswells — dined at Colo. Vandeburgs 
& reached head Quarters about sunset 
where I found letters from Generis. 
Schuyler & Clinton full of uncertain in- 
formation respecting the enemys landing 
at Crown point & intention to penetrate 
on the Hudson & Mohawk Rivers. — this 
uncertainty respects the number, not the 
fact — the latter seeming to be beyond a 
doubt — In consequence of this informa- 
tion I ordered the Companies of Van- 
Scaicks Regiment at West point to hold 
themselves in readiness to move at an 
hour's warning. 

May 26th — Received a Letter from the 
Honble Jno. Laurens minister from the 
United States of America at the Court 
Versailles — informing me that the sum 
of 6,000,000 of Livres was granted as a 
donation to this country — to be applied 
in part to the purchase of arms — cloaths 
— &ca for the American Troops and the 
ballance to my orders. & draughts at long 
sight. — and that a Fleet of 20 Sail of the 
Line was on its departure, for the West 
Indies 12 of which were to proceed to 



this Coast where it was probable they 
might arrive in the month of July. — He 
also added that the Courts of Petersbg. 
& Vienna had offered their mediation in 
settling the present troubles wch. the 
King of France, tho' personally pleased 
with, could not accept without consult- 
ing his allies. — A Letter from Doctr. 
Lee inclosing extracts from his Brother 
Wm. Lee Esqr. dated the 20th of Feby 
holds out strong assurances of Peace 
being restored in the course of this yr. 

May 2W1 — The commanding officer 
of artillery — & the chief Engineer were 
called upon to give in estimates of their 
wants for the intended operation against 
New York. — The intention of doing this 
was also disclosed to the Q M General 
who was desired to give every attention 
toward the Boats, that a number of them 
might be prepared; & provide other mat- 
ters necessary to such an undertaking 
— especially those things which might be 
called for by the Artillery, & the En- 
gineering departments. 

May $\st — A Letter from Count de 
Rochambeau informed me that the 
British fleet had left Block Island- 
that Adml. de Barras would sail with 
the first fair wind for Boston (having 
900 of his soldiers on Board to man his 
fleet) — and that he should commence his 
march as soon as possible but would be 
under the necessity of Halting a few 
days at Providence — 

A Letter from Major Talmage, inclos- 
ing one from C. Senr. & another from S. 
G. dated the 27th. were totally silent on 
the subject of an evacuation of New 
York ; but speak of an order for march- 
ing the Troops from Long Island — and 
the Countermand of it after they had 



U4 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



commenced their march ; the cause for 
either they could not assign — Neither C. 
Senr. nor S G, estimate the enemys 
regular force at New York & its depen- 
dencies at more than 4500 men includ- 
ing the new Levies ; but C — says it is 
reported that they can command five & 
some add 6,000 militia & refugees. — S. 
G. disposes of the Enemys force as 
follows. — 

At Fort Washington & towards ) Regts 

New York — 2 Hessn. Regts.. i 
Laurel Hill— Fort George 57th [ ■ 

B J 

Haerlam — at a place called } 

Laurel Hill 38 D. ) 

At Homes hook & towds. the ) 
city — 22d & 42d B: Regts. . ) 
In the city Hessian Regim .... 2 

On Staten Island 2 

Total on this Isld. 1200 

On Long Island 

1st B Grenadrs, New Town. 1 

2d . . Ditto .... Jamaica 1 

Worms Hessian Yagers 
(called by him 6 or 700) No. ) 

side of the Plains j 

Light Dragns. 17th Regt. at ) 

Hempstead Plains ) 

Loyds neck — detachmts. from — 

New Corps abt. 6 or 700 14 

The detachment which left Sandy 
hook the 13th Inst, according to S. G.s 
acct. — consisted of the Troops on the 
other side — though it is thought he must 
be mistaken in naming the 46th & 86th 
Regimts. — the first of them being a Con- 
vention Regimt. and the other not in 
America. — By accts. from Deserters the 
37th Regt. went with the detachment 
and must be in place of the 46th as the 
80th must be in that of the 86th. — 



Suppos'd. 

43 British Regiment 300 

Anspach. 2 Battalions 700 

Part of the 86th ., „ 150 

Part of the 46th 150 

Hessian Yagers — abt 150 



i45° 



JUNE 

June 1 ^/—Received Letters from Gen- 
erals Schuyler & Clinton, containing 
further, but still indistinct accts. of the 
enemys force at Crown point. — 

Letters from Doctr. Smith of Albany, 

& Shepherd principal armourer at 

that place, were intercepted, giving to 
the enemy with acct. of our distresses, 
the strength and disposition of our 
Troops — The disaffection of particular 
settlements — the provision these settle- 
mts. had made to subsist them — their 
readiness to join — them. — the genl. tem- 
per of the people. — and their earnest 
wishes for their advance in force — assur- 
ing them of the happy consequences 
which would derive to the Kings arms if 
they would move rapidly to Albany. — 
In consequence of this information I 
directed the Q M. General to pro- 
vide craft for, and the 6 Companies of 
Van Scaicks Regiment and Hazens to 
proceed immediately to Albany ; and 
put themselves under General Clintons 
orders. — 

June \th — Letters from the Marqs. 
de la Fayette of the 25th ulto. informs 
that Lord Cornwallis had formed a junc- 
tion with Arnold at Petersbourg — that 
with their united force he had marched 
to City point on James River — and that 
the detachment which sailed from New 
York the 13th of May had arrived in 
James River and were debarking at 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



"5 



Westover. — and that he himself had re- 
moved from Wilton to Richmond. 

The Duke de Lauzen arrived this 
afternoon with Letters from Count de 
Rochambeau and Admiral Count de 
Barras, with the proceedings of a coun- 
cil of war held on Board the Duke de 
Burgogne proposing to continue the 
Fleet at Rhode Island under the protec- 
tion of 400 French Troops & 1000 Mili- 
tia in preference to the plan adopted at 
Weathersfield ; requiring my opinion 
thereon which was given to this effect — 
that I conceived the first plan gave a 
more perfect security to the Kings fleet 
than the latter, and consequently left the 
Land force more at liberty to act, for 
which reason I could not change my 
former opinion but shou'd readily ac- 
quiesce to theirs if upon a re-considera- 
tion of the matter they adhered to it — 
accordingly, that delay might be avoided, 
I enclosed letters (under flying seals) to 
the Governors of Rd: Island & Massa- 
chusetts to be made use of or not, re- 
questing the militia ; and pressed the 
march of the Land Troops as soon as 
circumstances would admit of it. — 

June $th — Governor Rutlidge of 
South Carolina came to Head Qrs with 
representations of the situation of south- 
ern affairs, and to sollicit aids — I com- 
municated the plan of campaign to him 
. — and candidly exposed the true state of 
our circumstances which convinced him 
— or seemed to do so — that no relief cd. 
be given from this army till we had ac- 
quired a naval superiority and cd. trans- 
port Troops by Water. — 

June ith — A Letter from the Govr. 
of Virginia dated at Charlottesville the 
28th ulto. representing the distressed 



state of Virginia & pressing my repair- 
ing thither, was received — other letters 
(but not official) speak of Lord Corn- 
wallis's advance to Hanover Court House 
— that the Marquis was retreating before 
him towards Fredericksburg — and that 
General Leslie was embarked in James 
River about 1200 men destined, as was 
supposed, to Alexandria whither it was 
conjectured by the letter writers Lord 
Cornwallis was pointing his march. — 

Accts. from Pittsburg were expressive 
of much apprehension for that quarter 
as a force from Canada was expected 
thither by way of the Lakes and the 
Alligany River. 

A Letter from the Executive of Pen- 
sylvania afforded little hope of assistance 
in the article of Provision or other things, 
from that state. — and was more produc- 
tive of what they had done, than what 
they meant to do. — 

June gth — A Captn. Randolph — sent 
by General Clarke from Pittsburg, ar- 
rived here with letters & representations 
of his disappointments of men, and the 
prospect of failure in his intended Ex- 
pedition against Detroit unless he could 
be aided by the 9th Virginia Regiment 
& Heths company at Pittsburg — but the 
weakness of the Garrison & other con- 
siderations would not admit this — nor 
did it appear to me that this reinforce- 
ment would enable him to undertake & 
prosecute the Plan. 

June nth — Received Letters from 
the Marqs. de la Fayette containing in- 
formation of Lord Cornwallis's move- 
ments from Westover. and that, at the 
date of his letter — the 3d Inst. — he had 
advanced to the North Anna. — but his 
design was not sufficiently understood — 



n6 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



supposed Fredericksburg. — The Marqs. 
was retreating before him with abt. 3000 
men Militia included — the Enemy's force 
exclusive of Leslie's detachment being 
estimated at five or 6000 men. 600 of 
wch were Horse. 

yune 13th — To facilitate the build- 
ing, and repairing of Boats, a number of 
Carpenters was ordered from the line of 
the army to the Q. M. G: to aid the ar- 
tificers of his department in this impor- 
tant business. — and Major Darby with a 
Captain 5 subs — 6 Sergts. and 100 Rank 
and file were drawn from the army in 
order to collect and take care of ye pub- 
lic Boats. 

June \\th — Received agreeable accts. 
from General Greene of his successes in 
South Carolina — viz — that Lord Rawdon 
had abandoned Cambdenwith precipita- 
tion, leaving all our wounded taken in 
the action of the 25 th of April last, to- 
gether with 58 of his own too bad to re- 
move. — that he had destroy'd his own 
stores — burnt many buildings and in 
short left the Town little better than a 
heap of Rubbish — That Orangeburg, 
Forts McH. & Granby, had surrendered ; 
their Garrisons including officers con- 
sisting of near 700 men — That ninety 
six & Fort Augusta were invested — that 
he was preparing to march to the Former 
— and that, Lord Rawdon was at Nel- 
sons ferry removing the stores from that 
place which indicated an Evacuation 
thereof. — 

June 16th — Directed that no more 
Invalids be transferred till further orders. 
— that a detachment be formed of the 
weakliest men for garrisoning West 
point and that a camp be marked out by 
the Chief Engineer and Q M Genl 



near Peekskill to assemble the Troops 
on. — 

June i&ta — Brigaded the Troops, and 
made an arrangement of the army, which 
is to march for the new Camp in three 
divisions — the 1st on Thursday the 21st. 
— the 2d on the 23d. — and the 3d on 
the 24th. inst. 

To strengthen the detachment in- 
tended for the garrison of West point, I 
had previously called upon the State of 
Connecticut for 800 militia. 

June 20th — Rec d. Letters from 

Genl. Clinton at Albany inclosing the ex- 
amination of two Prisoners taken at 
Crown point by wch. and other intelli- 
gence it appears that no Troops had 
landed at that place and that the enemys 
shipping only, had ever been there — In 
consequence, the Continental Troops to 
the No.ward were ordered to be in readi- 
ness to join the army on the shortest no- 
tice and Governor Clinton informed 
thereof that the new levies of the State 
and nine months men might be hastened 
to relieve them. — 

June 2\th — A Letter from the Count 
de Rochambeau, dated at Windham the 
20th. advises me of his having reached 
that Town, that day, with the first di- 
vision of his army — that the other 3 di- 
visions were following in regular succes- 
sion — that he expected to Halt the 
Troops two days at Hartford, but would 
come on to my camp from that place 
after the arrival of the division with 
which he was. 

By a Letter from Govr. Trumbull it 
appear'd that the assembly of Connecti- 
cut had passed some salutary Laws for 
filling their Battalions & complying with 
my requisitions — but it is to be feared 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



11/ 



that their list of deficiencies, which the 
respective towns are called upon to make 
good by drafts to compleat the Batta- 
lions is short of the number wanting for 
this purpose. 

June 2$th — a letter from Genl. Heath 
of the 1 8th. holds up favourable Ideas 
of the disposition prevailing in the State 
of Massachusetts Bay to comply with 
everything required of them. Joined 
the army at its Encampment at Peeks- 
kill — Mrs. Washington set out at the 
same time towards Virginia — but with 
an intention to Halt at Philadelphia if 
from information & circumstances it was 
not likely she should remain quietly at 
Mt. Vernon, a Letter from Count de 
Rochambeau informs me that he shall be 
with his first division at Newtown on the 
28th. where he purposed to assemble his 
force & march in Brigades while the 
Duke de Lauzens Legion continued to 
move on his Left flank. 

Had an interview with Govr. Clinton, 
Lieut. Govr. Courtlandt & Generals 
Schuyler & Tenbrook ; in which I 
pressed the necessity of my recalling the 
Continental Regiments from Albany, & 
the Posts above & of the States hastening 
up their levies for 3 years and nine 
months — and agreed to order 600 militia 
(part of the quota required of Massa- 
chusetts bay) from the counties of Berk- 
shire and Hampshire to march imme- 
diately to Albany which was accordingly 
done & Govr. Hancock advised of it. — 

Genl Stark was directed to repair to 
Saratoga & take command of the Troops 
on the Northern & Western frontier — 
and Genl. Clinton called upon in pointed 
terms to have the Continental Troops 
under his command in the most perfect 



readiness to join the Army. — rec a Let- 
ter from the Minister of France advising 
me of the arrival of between 3 & 4000 
Troops abt. the 4th Inst, at Charles 
Town — that 2000 of them had debarked 
& that the rest were said to be destined 
for St. Augustine & New York. — that 
George Town was evacuated — & the en- 
emy in Charlestown weak (not exceeding 
450 men before the reinforcement ar- 
rived — which latter must be a mistake, 
as the Ministers informant added, that 
Lord Rawden had got there after a pre- 
cipitate retreat from a Post above — and 
that the American parties were within 5 
miles of the Town. — Lord Rawdens 
Troops alone amounted to more than the 
number here mentioned) 

Having suggested to the Count de 
Rochambeau the advantages which might 
be derived to the common cause in gen- 
eral — and the Southern States in par- 
ticular, if by arming the Fantasque & 
bringing the 50 gun ship to Rhode Isld. 
(which then lay at Boston) the fleet of 
his most Christian Majesty at Newport 
could appear in Chesapeak bay I re- 
ceived an answer from the French Ad- 
miral through the General that he was 
disposed to the measure provided he 
could obtain a loan of the French Guard 
(of 400 men which were left at Newport 
& which were granted) and 4 pieces of 
heavy artillery at Brentons point which 
the Count could not spare — but that the 
fleet could not be ready to sail under 20 
days from the date of his letter (the 
21st) — thus, uncertain, the matter stands. 

June 28/// — Having determined to sur- 
prize the Enemy's Posts at the No. end 
of Yk. Island, if the prospt. of success 
continued favourable, & having fixed 



n8 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



upon the Night of the 2d. of July for 
this purpose. — and having moreover com- 
bined with it an attempt to cut off De- 
lancy's and other light Corps without 
Kingsbridge and fixed upon GenL Lin- 
coln to commd the first detachment & 
the Duke de Lauzen the 2d. everything 
was put in train for it and the Count de 
Rochambeau requested to file of from 
Ridgebury to Bedford & hasten his 
mar[ch] — while the Duke de Lauzen was 
to do the same & to assemble his com- 
mand (which was to consist of abt. 3 or 
400 Connecticut State Troops under the 
command of Genl Waterbury — abt. 100 
York Troops under Captn. Sacket — Shel- 
dens Legion of 200, and his own proper 
Corps.) — Genl. Lincolns command was 
to consist of Scammells light Troops and 
other detachments to the amount of 800 
Rank & file properly officerd — 150 Wa- 
termen — and 60 Artillerists. 

June 2Q)th — Reed a letter from the 
Marqs. de la Fayette informing me that 
Lord Cornwallis after having attempted 
to surprize the Virginia Assembly at 
Charlottesville and destroy some stores 
at the Forks of James River, in which 
he succeeded partially had returned to 
Richmond without having effected any 
valuable purpose by his manoeuvres in 
Virginia. — In a private letter he com- 
plains heavily of the conduct of the Baron 
de Steuben whom he observes has ren- 
dered himself extremely obnoxious in 
Virg. 

JULY 

July 2d — Genl. Lincoln's detachment 
embarked last night after dark at or near 
Tellar's point ; and as his operations 
were to be the movement of two nights 
he was desired to repair to Fort Lee this 



day and reconnoitre the enemy's works. 
— Position and strength as well as he 
possibly could & take his ultimate deter- 
mination from appearances — that is — to 
attempt the surprize if the prospect was 
favourable — or to relinquish it if it was 
not, and in the latter case to land above 
the mouth of Spiken devil & cover the 
Duke in his operation on Delancys 
Corps. 

At three o'clock this morning I com- 
menced my march with the Continental 
Army in order to cover the detached 
Troops — and improve any advantages 
which might be gained by them — made a 
small halt at the New bridge over Croton 
abt. 9 miles from Peekskill — another at 
the Church by Tarry Town till Dusk (9 
miles more) and compleated the remain- 
ing part of the mar[ch] in the night — ar- 
riving at Valentines Hill (at Mile square) 
about sunrise. 

Our Baggage & Tents were left stand- 
ing at the Camp at Peekskill. 

July $d — The length of Duke Lau- 
zens march & the fatigue of his Corps, 
prevented his coming to the point of ac- 
tion at the hour appointed. 

In the meantime Genl. Lincolns Party 
who were ordered to prevent the retreat 
of Delancy's Corps by the way of Kgs 
Bridge & prevent succour by that route 
were attacked by the Yagers and others 
— but on the march of the Army from 
Valentines Hill retired to the Island. — 
Being disappointed in both objects from 
the causes mentioned I did not care to 
fatigue the Troops any more but suf- 
fered them to remain on their arms while 
I spent good part of the day in recon- 
noitering the Enemys works. — In the 
afternoon we retired to Valentines Hill 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



II 9 



& lay upon our arms — Duke Lauzen & 
Waterbury lay on the East side of the 
Brunx river on the East Chester road. — 
Our loss in this days skirmishing was 
as follows — viz : — 

{The figures are not given.] 

July 4th — Marched & took a position 
a little to the left of Dobbs ferry & 
marked a Camp for the French Army 
upon our left. — Duke Lauzen marched to 
the White pin. & Waterbury to Horse- 
neck. — 

July $th — Visited the French Army 
which had arrived at Northcastle. 

July 6th — The French Army formed 
the junction with the American on the 
Grounds marked out — The legion of 
Lauzen took a position advanced of the 
plains on Chittendens Hill west of the 
River Brunx — This day also the Min- 
ister of France arrived in Camp from 
Philadelphia. 

July Sth— Began a Work at Dobbs' 
ferry, with a view to establish a commu- 
nication there for the transportation of 
provision and stores from Pennsylvania. 

July gth — Received a Letter from the 
Marqs de la Fayette informing me of 
Cornwallis's retreat to Williamsburg — 
that he had pushed his rear and had ob- 
tained advantages — having killed 60 & 
wounded an hundred, with small loss. — 

Southern acct though not official 
speak of the reduction of Augusta and 
Ninety six by the arms of Major Genl 
Greene. — 

July 10th — A Letter from Governor 
Trumbull inclosing ye proceedings of a 
convention of Eastern Deligates gives 
better hope of a regular supply of pro- 
vision than we have been accustomed to 
for more than two years as the business 



seems to be taken up systematically and 
regular modes adopted to furnish sup- 
plies at stated periods. — 

General Heath also writes very fa- 
vourably of the disposition of the Eastn 
States — but .still we are without the rein- 
forcements of men required of them. 

The Boats undertaken by General 
Schuyler, are, by his letters, in a prom- 
ising way — as those at Wappings Creek 
also are by the Q. Mr. Genl's report. — 

Hazen's and the 1st York Regimt 
who had been ordered to West point 
arrived there, but not till the latter had 
mutinied on acct. of their pay & several 
had deserted. — The other York Regi- 
ment were detained at Albany to bring 
down the Boats & boards 

July 13th — The Jersey Troops arrived 
at Dobbs's Ferry agreeable to orders — 
Some French Frigates made an attempt 
on the Enemy's Post at Loyds Neck 
but without success not being able to 
land in the night. — 

July 14th — Near 5000 men being or- 
dered to march for Kin gsb ridge, to cover 
and secure a reconnoitre of the Enemys 
works on the No. end of York Island, 
Harlaem river, & the Sound, were pre- 
vented doing so by incessant rain — 

July 15 th — The Savage sloop of war 
of 16 Guns — the ship Genl. Washington, 
lately taken by the Enemy — a ten Gal- 
ley — and two other sma[ll] armed Ves- 
sels passed our post at Dobbs Ferry 
(which was not in a condition to oppose 
them) — At the same time three or four 
river Vessels with 4 Eighteen pounders 
— stores &c had just arrived at Tarry- 
town and with infinite difficulty, & by 
great exertion of Colo. Sheldon, Captn. 
Hurlbut, (who got wounded) — Captn. 



120 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Lieut. Miles of the Artillery — & Lt. 
Shayler were prevented falling into the 
hands of the Enemy as they got aground 
ioo yards from the Dock, and were set 
fire to by the Enemy, but extinguished 
by the extraordinary activity & spirit of 
the above Gentln — two of the Car- 
riages however were a good deal dam- 
aged by the fire — 

The Enemy, however, by sending 
their armed Boats up the River took the 
Vessel of a Captn Dobbs laden with 
Bread for the French Army — clothing 
for Sheldons Regiment & some passen- 
gers. — this was done in the Night. — it 
being after sunset before the vessels 
passed the Post at Dobbs ferry. — 

July 16th — The Cannon & Stores 
were got out of the Vessels & every- 
thing being removed from Tarrytown, 
two French twelve pounders, & one of 
our 1 8 prs were brought to bear upon the 
ships which lay of Tarrytown, distant 
about a mile, and obliged them to re- 
move lower down & more over to the 
West shore. — 

July 17 th — The vessels being again 
fired at in the position they took yes- 
terday, run up the river to Teller's 
point, & there come to burning the 
House of the widow Neyall. — (Noyelles). 

July 1SI/1 — I passed the North River 
with Count de Rochambeau — Genl. de 
Beville, his Qr. Mr. Genl. & Genl. Du- 
portail in order to reconnoitre the En- 
emy Posts and Encampments at the 
North end of York Island — took an Es- 
cort of 150 Men from the Jersey Troops 
on the other side. 

From different views the following dis- 
coveries were made — viz : — That two 
Ships of 20 Guns & upwards lay oppo- 



site to the mouth of Spiken devil — one 
pretty near the East shore, the other 
abt the same distance from the West ; 
the first is intended to guard the mouth 
of Spiken devil equally with the No. 
River. — Below these & directly oppo- 
site to Fort Washington (or Knyphausen) 
lay two transports with about 6 Guns 
& few men in each, the Eastermost 
ship seems designed to Guard the land- 
ing at the little bay above Jeffereys Rock. 
— About the center of the Ground lead- 
ing to Jeffrey's Rock or point a Guard 
mounts — 

It appears to be no more than a Ser- 
geants guard, with one centry in front, 
where there is a small Work — the Guard 
House standing within — 

These are all the Guards — and all the 
security I could discover upon the No. 
River — on the right flank of the En- 
emy. — the shore from Jeffreys rock 
downwards was quite open and free — 
without Hutts of any kind — Houses or 
Troops — none being encamped below 
the heights — There did not even ap- 
pear springs, or washing places any 
where on the face of the Hill which were 
resorted to. — 

The Island is totally stripped of Trees, 
& wood of every kind ; but low bushes 
(apparently as high as a mans waste) ap- 
pear in places which were covered with 
wood in the year 1776. 

The side of the Hill from the Barrier 
below Fort Tryon, to the Bay opposite 
to fort Knyphausen is difficult of access ; 
but there seems to be a place abt 200 
yds above the bay, which has the best 
appearance of a landing, and is most 
private — but a hut or two on the heights 
abt. 200 yds above Fort Knyphausen, & 






ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



121 



a little above the old long Battery, which 
was thrown up in 1776 must be avoided 
by leaving it on the left in getting to the 
Fort last mentioned. 

In the hollow below Morris's heights 
(between that & Haerlam) is a good 
place to land ; but near the York road 
opposite there appeared to be a few 
Tents — and many Dragoon Horses 
seemed to be at Pasture in the low land 
between the heights. — a landing perfect- 
ly concealed but not so good, might be 
made a little higher up the river, and 
nearer to those heights which ought to 
be immediately occupied — (between the 
old American lines and the aforesaid 
hollow) 

From the point within the mouth of 
Spiken devil, the way to the Fort on 
Cox's Hill seems difficult, and the first 
part of it covered with bushes — there is 
a better way up from the outer point, but 
too much exposed to a discovery from 
the ship which lays opposite to it, and 
on acct of its being less covered with 
wood. — 

The ground round the Fort on Cox's 
hill is clear of Bushes — there is an abatis 
round the work, but no friezing ; nor 
could I discover whether there is a ditch. 
— At the No. Et corner there appeared 
to be no Parapet — & the whole seemed 
to be in a decaying state — the gate is 
next the No. River. 

Forts Tryon, Knyphausen & Ft. George 
on Laurell, with the Batteries in the line 
of Pallisading across from River to river 
appeared to be well friezed, ditched & 
abattied — In a word to be strong and in 
good repair. 

Fort No. 8. is also abatied & friezed 
at the Top — the gate is next Haerlam 



river — there arc no Houses or Huts on 
the side of the Hill from this work till 
you come near old Fort Independence. 

On McGowans heights there appears 
(by the extent of the Tents) to be two 
Battns encamped. — supposed to be Brit- 
ish Grenadiers — a little in the rear of 
this and on the (enemys) left, are a num- 
ber of Huts — but whether they are In- 
habited or not could not be ascertained 
— there being different opinions on this 
point from the nearest view we could get 
of it. — On the height opposite to Morris' 
White House there appeared to be an- 
other Regt. (supposed to be the 38th. 
British) Between this and Fort Knyp- 
hausen (abt. half way) are two small En- 
campments contiguous to each other — 
both together containing two or 3 and 40 
Tents. — Hessians — On Laurel Hill near 
Fort George is another Encampment in 
view abt 40 Tents & Huts which appear 
to be Inhabited also — by (it is said) — the 
57th Regiment. — 

The other, and only remaining En- 
campment in view, discoverable from 
the west side of the river, is betwn the 
Barrier and King's bridge — in the Hol- 
low between Cox's Hill and the heights 
below — 

One hundred Tents could be counted 
in view at the same time, and others 
might be hid by the Hills — At this place 
it is said the Jagers — Hessians & Ans- 
pach lay. — 

July igt/i — The Enemys shipping run 
down the river, and left the navigation 
of it above once more free for us. — In 
passing our Battery at Dobbs's where 
were 2 Eighteen & 2 twelve pounders — 
and two Howitzers, they reed, consider- 
able damage ; especially the Savage sloop 



122 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



of war which was frequently hulled, and 
once more set on fire ; occasioning sev- 
eral of her people, and one of our own 
(taken in Dobbes sloop, and) who gives 
the acct to jump over board — several 
people he says were killed & the ship 
pierced through both her sides in many 
places and in such a manner as to ren- 
der all their pumps necessary to free the 
water. 

July 20th — Count de Rochambeau 
having called upon me, in the name of 
Count de Barras, for a definite plan of 
Campaign, that he might communicate 
it to the Count de Grasse — I could not 
but acknowledge, that the uncertainties 
under which we labour — the few men 
who have joined (either as recruits for 
the Continental Battns or Militia) — & 
the ignorance in which I am kept by 
some of the States on whom I mostly 
depended. — especially Massachusetts 
from whose Govr. I have not received a 
line since I addressed him from Weath- 
ersfd the 23d of May last. — rendered it 
impracticable for me to do more than to 
prepare, first, for the enterprize against 
New York as agreed to at Weathersfield 
— and secondly for the relief of the 
Southern States if after all my efforts, & 
earnest application to these States it 
should be found at the arrivl of Count 
de Grasse that I had neither men, nor 
means adequate to the first object — to 
give this opinion I was further induced 
from the uncertainty with respect to the 
time of the arrival of the French Fleet 
& whether land Troops would come in it 
or not as had been earnestly requested 
by me & inforced by the Minister of 
France. 

The uncertainty of sufficient aids of 



men & means from the States to whom 
application had been made, and the dis- 
couraging prospect before me of having 
my requisitions complied with — added 
to an unwillingness to incur any expense 
that could be avoided induced me to de- 
sire Genl. Knox to suspend the Trans- 
port of the heavy cannon & stores from 
Philadelphia lest we should have them to 
carry back again or be encumbd with 
them in the field. — 

July 21st — Wrote to the Count de 
Grasse in a Cypher of the Count de Ro- 
chambeau's, giving information of the 
junction of the allied Armys — the Po- 
sition they had taken — our strength 
and that of the enemy's — our hopes & 
fears — & what we expected to do un- 
der different circumstances. — This let- 
ter was put under cover to Genl. For- 
man, who was requested to have a look- 
out on the heights of Monmouth, and 
deliver it himself upon the arrival of 
the Fleet — and who was also requested 
to establish a chain of Expresses for 
quick communication between Mon- 
mouth and Dobbs's ferry — the Expence 
of which I would see paid. 

Again ordered abt. 5000 men to be 
ready to march at 8 o'clock, for the pur- 
pose of reconnoitering the enemy's Posts 
at Kingsbridge — and to cut off, if pos- 
sible, such of Delaney's Corps as should 
be found without their lines. 

At the hour appointed the march com- 
menced in 4 columns on different roads. 
— Majr. Genl. Parsons, with the Connec- 
ticut Troops & 25 of Sheldon's horse, 
formed, the right column (with two field 
pieces) on the No. River road : — the 
other Two divisions of the Army, under 
the Majr. Generals Lincoln & Howe, 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



123 



together with the corps of Sappers and 
Miners, and 4 field pieces, formed the 
next column on the Saw mill river road. 
— The right column of the French (on 
our left) consisted of the Brigade of 
Bourbonnis, with the Battn of Grena- 
diers and Choissairs, 2 field pieces, & 
2 twelve pounders — their left column 
was composed of the Legion of Lauzen, 
— one Battn. of Grenadiers, & Chois- 
sairs of Soussonnis, 2 field pieces & 2 
Howitzers — General Waterbury, with 
the Militia, and State Troops of Con- 
necticut, were to march on the East 
Chester Road, and to be joined at that 
place by the Cavalry of Sheldon, for the 
purpose of Scouring Frog's Neck. — 
Sheldon's Infantry was to join the Le- 
gion of Lauzen for the purpose of Scour- 
ing Morrissania, and to be covered by 
Scammell's light Infantry who were to 
advance thro' the fields & way lay the 
Roads — stop all communication & pre- 
vent Intelligence getting to the Enemy. 

At Mile Square (Valentine's hill) the 
left column of the American Troops and 
right of the French formed their junc- 
tion, as did the left of the French also 
by mistake, as it was intended it should 
cross the Brunx by Garrineaus, & re- 
cross it at Williams's bridge. — 

The whole Army (Parsons's division 
first) arrived at Kingsbridge about day- 
light. & formed on the heights back of 
Fort Independance — extending towards 
delancy's Mills. — While the Legion 
of Lauzen & Waterbury proceeded 
to scour the Necks of Morrisania & 
throgs to little effect, as most of the 
Refugees were fled, & hid in such ob- 
scure places as not to be discovered ; & 
by stealth got over to the Island adjacent, 



& to the enemy's shipping which lay in the 
East River. — a few, however, were caught 
and some Cattle & Horses brought off 

July 22d — The enemy did not appear 
to have had the least intelligence of our 
movement — or to know we were upon 
the heights opposite to them till the 
whole Army were ready to display. 

After having fixed upon the ground, 
& formed our line, I began, with General 
Rochambeau and the Engineers, to re- 
connoitre the enemy's position and works, 
first from Tippet's hill opposite to their 
left — and from hence it was evident that 
the small redoubt (Fort Charles) near 
Kingsbridge would be absolutely at the 
command of a battery which might be 
erected thereon. — It also appeared 
equally evident that the Fort on Cox's 
hill was in bad repair, & little depend- 
ence placed in it — there is neither ditch 
nor friezing to it, and the No. East 
Corner appears quite easy of access (oc- 
casioned, as it would seem) by a rock. — 
the approach from the inner Point (men- 
tioned in the reconnoitre from the Jer- 
sey shore) is secured by a ledge of 
Rocks, which would conceal a party from 
the observation & view of the ship till it 
got within abt. 100 yds of the Fort, round 
which for that or a greater distance 
the ground has little covering upon it 
of bushes — there is a house on this side 
under Tippets hill, but out of view, I 
conceive, of the crossing place most fa- 
vourable to a partizan stroke — From 
this view and every other I could get of 
Forts Tryon, Knyphausen & Laurel hill, 
the works are formidable. — 

There is no Barracks or huts on the 
East side of the Hill on which Forts 
Tryon and Knyphausen stands — nor are 



124 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



there any on the hill opposite except 
those by Fort George. — Near the Blew 
bell there is a number of Houses, but 
they have more the appearance of Sta- 
bles than Barracks. — In the hollow, 
near the Barrier gate, are about 14 
or 15 Tents; which is the only Encamp- 
ment I could see without the line of 
Pallisading, as the large one discov- 
ered on the 1 8th through the brake of 
the Hill betwn Fort Tryon & Coxs's hill 
was not to be seen from any view I had. — 
A continued Hill from the Creek East 
of Haerlam River, & a little below Mor- 
ris's White House, has from every part 
of it the command of the opposite 
shore, and all the plain adjoining within 
range of shot from batteries which may 
be erected thereon — The general width 
of the river along this range of Hills 
appears to be from one to two hundred 
yards — the opposite shore (tho' more or 
less marshy) does not seem miry, & the 
banks are very easy of access — how far 
the Battery under cover of the block 
Ho. on the hill No. West of Harlaem 
town is capable of scouring the plain is 
difficult to determine from this side, but 
it would seem as if the distance was too 
great to be within the range of its shot 
on that part of the plain nearest the 
Creek before mentioned, & which is 
also nearest the height back of our old 
lines thrown up in the year 1776. — It 
unfortunately happens that in the rear 
of the (continued) hill before men- 
tioned there is a deep swamp, and the 
ground, East of that swamp are not so 
high as the heights near Harlaem river 
— In the rear of this again is the Brunx, 
which is not to be crossed without Boats 
below De Lancy's Mills. 



July 23d— Went upon Frogs Neck to 
see what communication could be had 
with Long Isld, the Engineers attending 
with Instrumts. to measure the distance 
across, found it to be — yards. 

Having finished the reconnoitre with- 
out damage — a few harmless shot being 
fired at us — we marched back about Six 
o'clock by the same road we went down 
& a reversed order of March, and ar- 
rived in Camp about Midnight 

This day letters from Genls. Greene 
and the Marqs. de la Fayette came to 
hand ; the first informing of his having 
taken all the Enemy's posts in Georgia 
except Savanna — and all those in So. 
Carolina except Charles Town & Ninety 
Six — the last of wch he was obliged to 
abandon the siege of, on acct of the 
relief which was marching to it, conse- 
quent of the late reinforcemt. received 
at Charles Town — The second, that 
Wayne's affair with Lord Cornwallis on 
the 6th Inst was partial on our side, 
as a part of our force was opposed to 
the enemy's whole army — that on our 
side the loss in killed, wounded and 
missing amounted to 5 Capt : 1 Captn 
Lieut 4 Lieutts 11 Sergts & 118 R& 
file. — that the enemy's loss was com- 
puted at 300 at least — that our loss of 
two field pieces proceeded, the horses be- 
longing to them being killed, — and that 
Lord Cornwallis had retreated to the 
South side of James River from the 
Peninsula at James Town. — 

July 29th — A Letter from the Marqs. 
de la Fayette (commanding in Virginia) 
informed me that after Lord Cornwallis 
had crossed James River he detached 
Tarleton with a body of horse into 
Amelia County with a view, as was sup- 






ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



25 






posed, to destroy some stores which had 
been deposited there, but which had 
been previously removed — that after this 
the enemys whole force removed to 
Portsmouth with a design it was said to 
embark part of them — and that he had 
detached Generl Wayne to the South 
side of James River to cover the Coun- 
try, while the enemy lay in it, and to 
march Southerly if they did not — he 
himself with the main body of his Army 
having taken a position at a place called 
Malvin hill not far from Shirley. 

Part of the Second York Regiment 
came down from Albany with such of 
the Boats as had been undertaken by 
Gen Schuyler, & were finished — the light 
Infantry Company of the Regiment was 
ordered down with the next Boats — & 
the remainder of the Regiment to bring 
down the rest when done. 

About this time, the discontents in 
the Connecticut State line occasioned by 
some disappointment of a Committee 
sent from it to the assembly, in set- 
tling an Acct of Subsistence &c be- 
gan to increase, & put on a more se- 
rious face ; which induced me to write a 
second letter to the Govr of that State 
— the distress of the Line for want of a 
small portion of the pay due it contrib- 
uted not a little to irritate them. 

July 30th — Ordered the Jersey Mili- 
tia, who were directed to assemble in 
the first instance at Morristown to Dobbs 
ferry and there join the remains of the 
Jersey Brigade. — and receiving Letters 
from Govr Clinton & Genl Clinton 
complaining that none of the Massachu- 
setts Militia repaired to Albany agree- 
able to my requisition, I again addressed 
Govr. Hancock in pointed terms to send 



them on — & complained of not having 
reed answers from him to any of my 
letters since the Conference with Count 
de Rochambeau and a communication of 
the plan of operation which was agreed 
on at Weathersfield the 2 2d. of May last. 

Received a Letter from the Count de 
Barras, refering to one written by him to 
Genl. Rochambeau in cypher ; pointing 
in stronger terms than heretofore, his 
disinclination to leave Newport till the 
arrival of Adml de Grass — This in- 
duced me to desist from further repre- 
senting the advantages which would re- 
sult from preventing a junction of the 
enemy's force at New York ; & blocking 
up those which are now in Virginia, lest 
in the attempt any disaster should hap- 
pen, & the loss of or damage to his fleet, 
should be ascribed to my obstinacy in 
urging a measure to which his own judg- 
ment was opposd, & the execution of 
which might impede his junction with 
the West India fleet, & thwart the views 
of the Count de Grasse upon this coast. 
— especially as he gave it as a clear opin- 
ion, that the West India fleet, might be 
expected by the 10th of next month. 

July 3 1 st — Governor Trumbull in- 
formed me, that in order to facilitate the 
collection of a Specie Tax for the pur- 
pose of sending money to the Troops of 
the Connecticut line Gentlemen were 
sent to the different Towns of the State 
to try by personal influence & exertion 
to hasten it to the army — and that he & 
some of his Council had removed to 
Hartford to forward on the Recrts for 
the Continental Regiments — and the 
Militia — and in a word to promote the 
operations of the Campaign as much as 
in them lay — . 



126 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



LETTERS OF WASHINGTON 



SECOND SERIES 

THIRTY 

NOW FOR THE FIRST TIME 

PUBLISHED 

1754 TO 1777 

I 

Reprinted from the Baltimore Repertory for 
March 181 1* 

Wills Creek 24 April 1754 

May it please your Excellency, 

It is with the greatest concern I ac- 
quaint you, that Mr. Ward, ensign in 
Captain Frents' company, was obliged to 
surrender his small fortress in the Forks 
of Monongahela, at the summons of 
Captain Contrecceur, commander of the 
French forces who fell down from Ve- 
nango with a fleet of 360 canoes and 
battoes, conveying upwards of one thou- 
sand men, eighteen pieces of artillery, 
and large stores of provisions and other 
necessaries — Mr Ward having but an in- 
considerable number of men not (ex- 
ceeding 30) and no cannon to make a 
proper defence was forced to give up 
the fort on the 17th instant — They suf- 
fered him to draw out his men, arms, 
and working tools, and gave leave that 
he might retreat to the inhabitants with 
them. I have heard of your excellency's 
great zeal for his majesty's service, and 
for all our interests on the present occa- 
sion ; therefore I am persuaded you will 
take proper notice of the Indians' moving 
speech and think their unshaken fidelity 
worthy your consideration. 

I have arrived thus far with a detach- 



ment of 159 men ; col Fry with the re- 
mainder of the regiments and artillery 
is daily expected. In the mean time we 
shall advance slowly across the moun- 
tains, making the roads as we march, 
fit for the carriage [of] the great guns 
&c. and are designed to proceed as far 
as the mouth of Red Stone Creek which 
enters the Monogahela about 37 miles 
above the fort (the French have taken) 
from whence we have water carriage 
down the river ; there is a store-house 
built by the Ohio Company at the place, 
which for the present may serve as a 
receptacle for our ammunition and pro- 
visions 

Besides the French herein mentioned, 
we have credible information that another 
party are coming up Ohio. We also 
have intelligence that 600 of the Chip- 
poways and Ottoway Indians are march- 
ing down Scioto Creek to join them. 

I ought first to have begged pardon of 
your excellency for this liberty of writing, 
as I am not happy enough to be ranked 
among those of your acquaintance. It 
was the glowing zeal I owe my country 
that influenced me to impart these ad- 
vices and my inclination prompted me 
to do it to you as I know you are solicit- 
ous for the public weal and warm in this 
interesting cause — that should rouse 
from the lethargy we have fallen into, the 
heroick spirit of every free-born English 
man to attest the rights and privileges of 
of our king (if we don't consult the bene- 
fit of ourselves) and resque from the in- 
vasions of a usurping enemy,our Majesty's 
property, his dignity, and land 

I hope sir, you will excuse the freeness 
of my expressions, they are the pure 
sentiments of the heart of him who is 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



127 









with all imaginable regard and due re- 
spect, Your Excellency's most obt 
and Very humble Servt 
Geo. Washington 

[His Excellency the Governor of ] 

N. B. I herewith have inclosed for 
your Excellency's perusal a copy of the 
Summons from the French officers, and 
also the Indian's speech which was de- 
livered to and brought by Mr. Ward. 

* Reprinted because of the rarity of the volume. 

II 
Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 
[Fort Cumberland Sep 20 1755] 

Sir, you are hereby desired to give in an 
exact return of all the clothing of every 
kind, arms of all sorts, ammunition, Pro- 
visions, Tents, Pack Saddles, that are at 
Winchester and to be very particular in 
distinguishing the quantity & quality of 
each sort. 

I must also desire that you will provide 
Barracks, Provisions and other absolute 
necessarys for the Recruits as they ar- 
rive at that J)lace of Rendeyvous and, if 
you find any difficulty in getting Provis- 
ions in the neighbourhood of Winchester 
you must send to Conogogee to enable you 
do this I have furnished you with ^20. 

I have left a letter and orders for 
Capt Bell or his subalterns, which I de- 
sire you will deliver or cause to be de- 
livered so soon as he or they come to 
their Rendeyvous which will be the first 
of October, as the letter contains the 
officer's Instructions, the first that arrives 
is ordered to open it. 

Given under my hand at Fort Cum- 
berland the 20th Sept 1755. 

George Washington 
Mr. Commissary Dick 



Sir 



III 

Communicated by Curtis Guild 
Fort Loudon June 16 1757 



This moment the inclosed letters came 
to my hands ; I have not lost a moments 
time in transmitting them to you as I 
look upon the intelligence to be of the 
utmost Importance. If the Enemy is 
coming down in such numbers and with 
such a train of Artillery as we are bid to 
Expect Fort Cumberland must inevitably 
fall into their hands as no Efforts can be 
timely made to save it. I send you sir 
a copy of Council of War held at this 
place ; and I intend to pursue the reso- 
lution therein contained, till I receive 
orders how to act. It is morally certain 
that the next object which the French 
have in view is Fort Loudon and that it 
is yet in a very untenable posture ; they 
have no roads for carriages into any 
other province but thro' this place and 
their lyes here a quantity of stores be- 
longing to his Majesty and this colony 
very much exposed and unguarded. I 
shall not taken up your time sir with a 
tedious detail of the Fort I have de- 
spatched one express to Governor Din- 

widdie and another to Colo. I am 

Your Excellency's Most 

Obed Hble Servt 

Geo Washington 

IV 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 
Mount Vernon in Virginia . 

Sept 30th 1757 
Dear Sir, 

Permit me to recommend Col. Fair- 
fax, the bearer of this to your Friendly 
notice, while he stays in Philadelphia. 



128 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



He is son of our late President, who is 
but just dead, and nearly related to the 
present Lord Fairfax Proprietor of this 
Neck Business calling him to England, 
he is proceeding hence to New York 
hoping to get a Passage in the Packet or 
some ship of War & being a stranger in 
your City wanted Introduction, to whom 
then can I better introduce him than the 
agreeable Mr. Peters. I hope in doing 
this I make use of no unwelcome'liberty — 
if I do your genteel treatment of myself 
made me assume it and must plead my 
excuse. 

My best respects is tendered to the 
Governor & I am with great truth, 
your obedt and obliged 

Humble Servant 
G. Washington 
Rev. Richard Peters 



Communicated by Dr. Pierre C. Van Wyck 
Mount Vernon Sept 30 1757 

Honored Madam — Your letter by Mr. 
Smith I received on my way to Col Fair- 
fax's funeral ; in answer to that part rela- 
tive to my Bro'r Charles' Marriage I shall 
observe, that if there is no other objection 
than the one you mention, it may soon 
be removed ; and that Mrs Thornton if 
she believes I am capable of taking these 
ungenrous advantages, knows little of the 
principles which govern my conduct : — 
however I suppose Mrs Thornton is ac- 
tuated by prudent Motives and therefore 
would be safe. — If she will get any In- 
strument of writing drawn I will sign it 
provided it does not effect me in other 
respects than her Daughters Fortune, if 
my Brother dies under Age. 

I have waited till now, expecting the 



arrival of my Negros Cloaths from Great 
Britain ; but as the season is advancing, 
and risks attending them I can no longer 
depend, and therefore beg the favour of 
you to choose me about 250 yds Oznbitgs 
200 yds of cotton 35 pr Plad Hoes and 
as much thread as is necessary in Mr 
Lewis' Store if he has them if not in Mr 
Jackson's and send them up by Jno who 
comes down with a Tumbler for that 
purpose. 

I set out this afternoon on my return 
to Winchester. 

I offer my Love to Charles, and am 
Hon'd Madam, 

Yr. most Dutiful and affect'e Son 
Go. Washington 

VI 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 

[ ] Jany 5th 1758 

Sir 

I have not leisure at this time to en- 
quire into the Right Mr. Darrell pretends 
to have of altering the form of the Land 
I bought of him. I should be glad 
therefore to know if I receive Deeds ac- 
cording to the present courses & bounds, 
whether it will invalidate in any degree, 
my claim at a future prosecution of it. 

I am your most obedient Servant 
G. Washington 
Capt Geo. Johnston 

VII 
Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 

Camp — at River 26th June 1758 

Sir 

I have just Incamped at this place on 
my [way] back to Fort Cumberland, with 
a weak escort to a large convey of Pro- 
visions &, the intent of this therefore is 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



2 9 



to desire that you will immediately upon 
receipt of it, detach one hundred men, 
and three waggons to our assistance. 
Dont suffer the least delay, I order the 
waggons upon a supposition that you 
have some at Pearsalls in Pay, but if I 
am wrong in this suggestion, be pleased 
to engage any you can, in time, for this 
service as we are plagued in a most ex- 
traordinary manner with bad Teams. 
I am Sir, your most obedient Servt. 
G. Washington 
To Capt. Naggener or Commanding Of- 
ficer at Pearsalls Fort 

VIII 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 
Pearsall, 30 June 1758 
Orders for Sergeant David Wilper 

You are to remain at this place with a 
Corporal and Twelve men for defence of 
the Post, and such of the Country People 
as may resort to it, as also for security 
of the stores &c that now are, or shall be 
lodged here, taking care to pass your re- 
ceipts for them and to produce proper 
vouchers for their delivery again. 

You are to observe strict discipline 
suffer no soldier to straggle from the 
Fort without Leave, nor no Liquor to be 
sold to your men without your permis- 
sion. 

Make regular returns of your com- 
mand to me while I am at Fort Cumber- 
land & to Lieutenant Smith after I have 
marched from that Place unless you re- 
ceive orders to the contrary and apply 
to him for what ammunition you may 
want. In every respect you are to con- 
form to the Rules & Discipline of War 
in the like cases. 



Given under my hand at Pearsall this 
30th day of June 1758 

Mr. Wilper G. Washington 

IX 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 
Camp at Fort Cumberland, 

July 29th 1758 
Dear Sir 

Permit me to return you my sincerest 
thanks for your great assistance at the 
late election, and to assure you that I 
shall ever return a lively sense of the 
favour. I am extreme sorry that you 
neglected your own election in Augusta 
by this means, but I hope you are secure 
in Hampshire. 

Our expedition seems overcast with 
too many Ills to give you any satisfac- 
tion in a transient relation of them. God 
knows what's intended, for nothing 
seems ripe for execution, backwardness 
& I would if I dare, say more, appears 
in all things. 

Tomorrow I am summon'd to a con- 
ference with Col. Bouquet on the Ray's 
Town Road, when I shall warmly urge 
the advanced Season and every other 
argument that the Important matter 
requires to hurry things forward and 
shall endeavor to obtain leave (if possi- 
ble) to advance on with the Virginians 
to the crossing at least, opening the 
Road & constructing Posts as we go. 
I am Dear Sir 

your most obedient Servant 
[ ] G. Washington 

X 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 
Mount Vernon, Oct. 30th 1762 
Dear Sir 

I am sorry to be the messenger of the 



130 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



news, but it is incumbent upon me to 
inform you of the Death of the mare, 
you committed to my care, how she 
died, I am able to give you but a very 
unsatisfactory account for on the 3rd 
Inst I set out for Frederick and left her 
to all appearance as well as a creature 
could be Mr. Green and I observing a 
day or two before, how fat and frolick- 
some she seemed & on my return in 8 
days time I got the news of her death. 
She discovered no visible signs of ail- 
ment as I am told in the morning of the 
7 th, when let out of the stable, but be- 
fore night was swelled to a monstrous 
size & died in a few hours — Bishop (my 
old servant) opened her but could per- 
ceive no hurt bruise or other apparent 
cause of so sudden a death which in- 
clines me to think it was occasioned by 
eating blasted corn, a piece of which I 
had in ground. I wanted to clean and 
never could fence my chariot Horses of 
it, the rest, consequently followed & this 
I am persuaded puffed her up in the 
manner related. She had no foal in her, 
which assures me that she never would 
breed, as I am convinced, she had a 
competent share of Ariels performances, 
not content with which she was often 
catched in amorous mood with a young 
horse of mine, not withstanding my ut- 
most endeavours to keep them under 
you will feel the loss of this accident 
more sensibly but can not be more con- 
cerned at the account, than I was, for I 
had pleased myself with the thoughts of 
delivering her to you in fine order, when 
you returned to below 

We receive the news of your return 
with a great deal of pleasure & if there 
is any thing previous to it in which I can 



be serviceable, I hope you will command 
me, you did me singular services in a 
like case, & why wont you give me an 
opportunity of making a grateful return. 
Mrs. Washington writes to Mrs. Fairfax 
under this cover to whom & Miss Fairfax 
please to offer my best wishes 
I am Dear Sir 
your most obed & Hble Servant 
[ ] G. Washington 

XI 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 

1768 

This ticket (No. 274) shall entitle the 
Posessor to whatever Prize may happen 
to be drawn against its number in the 
Mountain Road Lottery. 

G. Washington 

XII 

Communicated by Ferdinand J. Dreer 

May 30th 1768 
Rev. Sir 

Mr. Magowan who lived several years 
in my Family, a Tutor to Master Custis 
(my son in Law & ward) having taken his 
departure for England, leaves the young 
gentleman without any master at this 
time. I should be glad therefore to know 
if it would be convenient for you to add 
him to the number of your Pupils. He 
is a boy of good genius, about 14 years 
of age, untainted in his morals & of in- 
nocent manners. Two years and up- 
wards he has been reading of Virgil & 
was (at the time. Mr. Magowan left him) 
entered upon the Greek Testament. 

I presume, he has grown not a little 
rusty in both having had no benefit of 
his Tutor since Christmas, notwithstand- 
ing he left the country in March only. 
If he comes, he will have a boy (well 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



131 



acquainted with House business, which 
may be made as useful as possible in 
your Family to keep him out of Idle- 
ness) & two horses to furnish him with 
the means of getting to Church & else- 
where as you may permit, for he will be 
put entirely & absolutely under your 
Tuition & direction to manage as you 
think proper in all respects. 

Now Sir, If you incline to take Mas- 
ter Custis, I should be glad to known 
what conveniences, it may be necessary 
for him to bring & how soon he may 
come for as to his Board & schooling 
(provender for his Horses, he may lay 
in himself.) I do not think it necessary 
to enquire into and- will cheerfully pay 
Ten or Twelve pounds a year, extraor- 
dinary to engage your peculiar care of, 
& a watchful eye to him as he is a prom- 
ising boy, the last of his family & will 
possess a very large Fortune, add to this 
my anxiety to make him fit for more 
useful purposes than Horse Racer. 

This letter will be sent to you by my 
Brother at Frederickburg & I should be 
obliged to you for an answer by the first 
Post to Alexandria near to which place 
I live. 

I am Sir, your most obed Servant 
G. Washington 

P. S. If it is necessary for him to 
provide a Bed, could one be purchased 
in your Neighborhood, it would save a 
long carriage. 

Rev. Bouchier 

XIII 

Communicated by Charles Bruff 

Sir— A P ril 2oth J 773 

As you have usually paid the Int't of 



your Bond at this Court, I have taken 
the liberty of requesting you to do it 
now to Mr. James Hill, as it is not con- 
venient to me, to be down at the Meet- 
ing of Merchants, Mr. Hills receipt for 
the Ten pounds Sixteen shillings due 
at the foot of this Letter will be the 
same as if passed from Sir. 

Yr Most Obedt Servt 

Go Washington 
May 4th 1773 Recv'd the above sum 
of Ten pounds sixteen Shillings of Doc- 
tor James Carter. 

James Hill 

XIV 

Communicated by Win. M. Darlington 
Mount Vernon Feby 12th 1774 
Dear Sir 

Satisfied as I am of the many applica- 
tions you must have had made to you 
for assistants to Survey the Officers and 
Soldiers Lands under the Proclamation 
of Oct'r 1763, I cannot help taking the 
liberty of mentioning my Friend & ac- 
quaintance Captn Thos Rutherford to 
you, as one — To say anything in favour 
of a gentleman, whose character is well 
known, is useless, to you altogether un- 
necessary, as you are as well acquainted 
with Captn Rutherford as I am ; I shall 
only add therefore, that your favours to 
him on this occasion, will be considerd 
in the light of an obligation conferd 
on Dr Sir Yr Most Obedt Servt 

Go Washington 

XV 

From facsimile in New York Manual, 1851 
Mount Vernon 

Mar 6th 1775 
Dr Sir, 

Mr. Fitzhugh delivered me your favr 



132 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



of the 13th ulto. on Tuesday last — but 
as I received it on the Road, I could not 
answer it by him, & wish it was in my 
power to do it satisfactorily now — So far 
am I from having ^£200 to lend, that, 
involved as I am with one expence and 
another particularly on a very heavy 
charge of Seating my Lands over the 
Alligany Mountains in order to comply 
with the conditions of the Grant. I 
would gladly borrow that Sum myself 
for a few Months, so exceeding difficult 
do I find it, under the present scarcity 
of cash to collect enough to answer this 
emergency & at the same time comply 
with my other engagements — This in- 
formation you may rely on as a fact 
from 

Dr Sir 

yr Most Obed. Servt. 
Go Washington 
To Mr. Jno. Washington, 

near Leeds in King George 

XVI 

From the Collection of Henry M. Morris 
Camp at Cambridge Augt 4th 1775 

Dr Sir 

I have been favoured with your Letter 
of the 1 8th ulto by Messrs Ogden & Burr 
& wish it was in my power to do that 
justice to the merits of those Gentlemen 
which you think them entitled to — when- 
ever it is, I shall not be unmindful of 
your recommendations — the two or three 
appointments with which I have been 
honour'd by Congress were partly en- 
gaged before I received your Letter and 
you will please recollect that the ulti- 
mate appointment of all other Officers is 
vested in the Governments in which the 



Regiments were originally raised ; I can 
venture to pronounce therefore, that four 
Commissions in the army will be dis- 
posed of out of the four New England 
Governments ; the good policy and jus- 
tice of which, you may judge of as well 
as I can ; No Volunteers from any other 
Colonies, however deserving they may 
be of notice, or to be considered on acct 
of the Expence which they are run to, 
will stand little chance whilst there is an 
application from any person of the Gov- 
ernment from whence the Regiment 
came. 

Admitting this to be the case & I 
believe hardly any one will doubt it 
had not the Congress better reserve these 
appointments in their own hands ? It 
will be putting the matter upon a much 
larger bottom and giving merit a better 
chance ; nor do I see any inconvenience 
arising from it, as it is highly presumable 
that during the continuance of these 
disturbances, the Congress will be chiefly 
sitting, or acting by a Committee from 
whence commissions might be as easily 
obtained as from a Provisional Assembly 
or Congress — I have taken the liberty 
of suggesting this matter, as I conceive 
the Service will be infinitely promoted 
thereby ; as merit only, without a regard 
to Country will entitle a man to prefer- 
ment, when, & so often as vacancy's may 
happen — Having wrote fully to the Con- 
gress respecting the state of publick af- 
fairs, I shall refer you to that, & am with 
great regard 

Dr Sr 
Yr most Obedt Hble Servt 
Go Washington 
To Colo Lewis Morris 

of New York now at Philadelphia 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



133 



XVII 

Communicated by B. F. de Costa 
Note. — This letter is printed in Sparks' 
Writings of Washington [Vol. V. 68], with the 
omission of the following paragraphs. 

Camp at Cambridge August 29 1775 
Dear Sir 

1 st. After the first paragraph, p. 68, 
ending " than you can easily imagine." 
As we have now nearly completed our 
lines of defence, we have nothing more 
in my opinion to fear from the enemy, 
provided, we can keep our men to their 
duty and make them watchful and vigi- 
lant, but it is among the most difficult 
tasks I ever undertook in my life to in- 
duce these people to believe that there is 
or can be danger till the Bayonet is 
pushed at their breasts ; not that it pro- 
ceeds from any superior prowess, but 
rather from an unaccountable kind of 
stupidity in the lower class of these peo- 
ple, which believe me, prevails but too 
generally among the officers of the Mas- 
sachusetts part of the army, who are 
nearly of the same kidney with the pri- 
vates, and adds not a little to my diffi- 
culties ; as there is no such thing as get- 
ting officers of this stamp to carry or- 
ders into execution — to curry favor with 
the men (by whom they were chosen, 
and on whose smiles they may possibly 
think they may again rely) seems to be 
one of the principal objects of their at- 
tention. 

2d. After the second paragraph as 
printed by Sparks, p. 69, ending, " zV 
impolitic to a great degree." 

I have made a pretty good slam 
amongst such kind of officers as the 
Massachusetts Government abound in 
since I came to this Camp, having broke 



one Colonel and two Captains for cow- 
ardly behaviour in the action on Bunker 
Hill, two Captains for drawing more pay 
and provisions than they had men in 
their company — and one for being ab- 
sent from his post when the Enemy ap- 
peared there, and burnt a house just by 
it. Besides these, I have at this time 
one Colonel, one Major, one Captain, 
and two subalterns under arrest for tryal 
— In short I spare none and yet fear it 
will not all do, as these people seem to 
be too inattentive to everything but 
their interests. 

3d. After the third paragraph as 
printed by Sparks, p. 71, ending, " with- 
out any effect as yet." 

There has been so many great and 
capital errors and abuses to rectify, so 
many examples to make, and so little in- 
clination in the officers of inferior rank 
to contribute their aid to accomplish this 
work, that my life has been nothing else 
(since I came here) but one continued 
round of annoyance and fatigue, in short 
no pecuniary recompense could induce 
me to undergo what I have, especially as 
I expect by showing so little countenance 
to irregularities and publick abuses, to 
render myself obnoxious to a greater 
part of these people. 

But as I have already greatly exceeded 
the bounds of a letter, I will not trouble 
you with matters relative to my feelings 

Note. — There are some trifling variations 
from the text printed by Sparks, which do not 
require notice. 

XVIII 

Communicated by J. Carson Brevoort 

Cambridge, 27th Feb 1776 
Sir, 

We were falsely alarmed a while ago 



134 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



with an acct. of the Regulars coming 
over from the Castle to Dorchester. Mr. 
Bayler whom I immediately sent off is 
just returned with a contradiction of it. 
But as a rascally Rifle man went in last 
night & will no doubt give all the Intel- 
ligence he can, wd it not be prudent to 
keep six or eight trusty men by way of 
Look outs or Patrols tonight on the 
Point next the Castle as well as on Nuke 
Hill. At the same time ordering par- 
ticular Regimts to be ready to march at 
a moments warning to the Hights of Dor- 
chester ; For should the Enemy get Pos- 
session of those Hills before us they 
would render it a difficult task to dispos- 
sess them — better it is therefore to pre- 
vent than to remedy an evil. 

I am yr most obed 

Go. Washington 
To Major Genl Ward, Roxbury 

XIX 

From the Collection of John V. L. Pruyn 

Cambridge March 19, 1776 
My Lord 

I am now to acknowledge the receipt 
of your favor of the nth Instant & to give 
you my congratulations upon your late 
appointment by the Honourable Con- 
gress 

If the intelligence is true and to be 
depended on, which was brought by the 
Gentn to New York, I think with you ; 
that we shall have an opportunity of 
securing & putting the continent in a 
tolerable posture of defence and that 
the operations of the Summers Cam- 
paign will be not so terrible, as we were 
taught to expect, from the accounts and 
denunciations which the ministry have 
held forth to the publick. 



I have the pleasure to inform you T 
that on the morning of the 17 Instant 
General Howe with his army abandon'd 
the Town of Boston without destroying 
It, an event of much importance and 
which must be heard with great satis- 
faction, and that we are now in full 
possession — Their embarkation & re- 
treat were hurried and precipitate, and 
they have left behind 'em stores of one 
thing and another to a pretty considera- 
ble amount, among which are several 
pieces of Heavy Cannon & one or two- 
Mortars which are spiked — The Town 
is in a much better situation and less 
Injured, than I expected from the re- 
ports I had received, tho' to be sure It 
is much damaged and many Houses 
despoiled of their valuable furniture. 

The Fleet is still in King and Nantas- 
ket Roads and where they Intend to 
make a descent next, is altogether un- 
known, but supposing New York to be 
an object of much importance & to be 
in their view, I must recommend your 
most strenuous and active exertions in 
preparing to prevent any designs or at- 
tempts they may have against It. I 
have detached the Riflemen & Five 
Batallions from home to your assistance, 
which will be followed by others as cir- 
cumstances will allow. These, with 
what forces you have & can assemble, 
If there shou'd be an occasion, I trust 
will be sufficient to hinder the Enemy 
from possessing the City or making a 
Lodgement 'till the main body of this 
army can arrive. 

I am My Lord with great esteem 
your Most Obed't Humble Servt 

G. Washington 
[Lord Stirling] 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



135 






XX 

From the Bench and Bar of Missouri 
Headquarters 
Cambridge 24th March, 1776 

Mr. Leonard is a man whose exem- 
plary life and conversation, must make 
him highly esteemed by every person, 
who has the pleasure of being acquainted 
with him. The Congregation of Wood- 
stock know him well, it therefore can be 
no surprise to us to hear that they will be 
loth to part with him. His usefuleness 
in this army is great — he is employed in 
the glorious work of attending to the 
morals, of a brave people who are fight- 
ing for their Liberties, the Liberties of 
the people of Woodstock, the Liberties 
of all America. We therefore hope, that 
knowing how nobly he is employed — the 
Congregation of Woodstock will cheer- 
fully give up to the public a gentleman 
so very useful, and when by the blessing 
of a kind providence this glorious and 
unparaleled struggle for our Liberties, is 
at an end, we have not the least doubt, 
but Mr. Leonard will with redoubled joy 
be received in the open arms of a Con- 
gregation so very dear to him, as the 
good people of Woodstock are. This is 
what is hoped for, this is what is ex- 
pected by the Congregation of Wood- 
stock's sincere well wishers and 

Very Humble Servants 

G. Washington 
Israel Putnam 
To the Church and Congregation at Woodstock 

XXI 

Communicated by James F. Howe 
Head Quarters New York 

July 8th 1776 
Sir. By a letter from his Honor Govr. 



Trumbull received on the 5th Inst. I was 
informed he had ordered three Regi- 
ments of Horse on to this place (under 
your command) with all possible dis- 
patch, and was desired in case they were 
not wanted to inform Colo. Sillaman 
thereof, accordingly I wrote Colo. Silla- 
man acquainting him, it was my desire 
the Men might come on provided they 
could leave or send back their Horse, 
which letter did not go forward so soon 
as I intended. Majr. Starr this morning 
waited on informing me of his arrival 
with 50 of the troop, & that the rest 
were on their March. — I have ordered 
him to find some pasture for his horse 
this day, and immediately ride forward 
and acquaint You, that there is not more 
forage on hand or to be had than is ab- 
solutely necessary for the Use of our 
Working and Artillery Horses, — and that 
it is my desire your Men may be halted 
some way in the Rear of this place, and 
their Horses sent back, otherways the 
Men can only be a Moth & check to the 
service, as they cannot act as Horse Men 
in case of Action, or if they could for- 
age would not be found to support them. 
— I think it absolutely necessary the 
Men should be hear 'till the New Levies 
all arrive, — but for the above reasons 
shall be necessitated to order their re- 
turn unless they can be persuaded to 
come on without their Horse. — I would 
not be supposed by this to discourage 
the troop of Horse from being in con- 
stant readiness in the different States, as 
I am fully persuaded they will be much 
more usefull than the Militia to throw in 
succours to a place on an Emergency. — 
I am pleased to see with what chearfull- 
ness and alacrity the troops from your 



i3 6 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Province step forward to the assistance 
of their Countrymen when ever call'd, & 
doubt not it will continue. Majr. Starr 
will be able to inform you fully from 
what I have mentioned to him the abso- 
lute necessity for the Men, & the utter 
impossibility of keeping the Horse. Bag- 
gage Waggons may be hired to bring on 
Baggage &c for your Men, from any 
place they leave their Horse 

I am Sir Your Most Huml Servt 

Go. Washington 
Col. Seymoure 

XXII 

From the Clinton MSS. in the State Library, 
Albany 
Head Quarters N. York 
Dear Sir 26 th July 1776 

Yours of the 23d Instant is duly Re- 
ceived and am pleased with your timely 
notice of your Situation Strength, move- 
ments, &c &c. and think time is not to 
be lost or expence regarded in getting 
yourselves in the best posture of De- 
fence, not knowing how soon the Enemy 
may attempt to pass you — The Fire 
Rafts you mention are not of the best 
construction but probably are the best 
that can be procured with the dispatch 
Necessary — Cables and Anchors I 
should suppose might easily be pro- 
cured from the Vessels which used to 
be plying up and down the River — and 
are now lying Idle, — Salt Petre from the 
Manufactures in the Country as neither 
are to be had in this place, — the neces- 
sity of the Case will fully Justify your 
taking the former wherever to be found, 
and the safety of the people I should 
imagine would induce them to assist 
you to the latter all in their power. 

I have sent up Lieut Machine to lay 



out and oversee such Works as shall be 
tho't necessary by the Officers there, 
and from your representation of the 
Hill, which overlooks the Fort, — I think 
it ought to be taken possession of Imme- 
diately. — You who are on the spot must 
be a better Judge than I possibly can, 
must leave it with you to erect such 
Works as you, with Col. Clinton and the 
Engineer may think Necessary. — a 
proper Abstract or pay Roll should be 
made out, of the Wages due the Arti- 
ficers, examined and certified by you 
or your Bro when it may be sent here 
and the Money Drawn. — Your method 
of fixing fires, with advanced Guards if 
they are Vigilent must answer the pur- 
pose you intend — Your dismissing all 
the New Englandmen to 300 is a step I 
approve of, — I hope you may continue 
to prevent the Enemy from obtaining 
any supplies or Intelligence and from 
committing any Ravages on the dis- 
tress'd Peasentry on and about the 
Shores, — while you are able to keep 
them in this Situation below the Forts 
they can do little Damage — by every 
conveyance I shall like to hear of your 
Situation and the Enemies Manoevers. 
I am Sir wishing you Success — 
Your Most Huml Servt 

Go Washington 

P. S. Since the above the Q. M. Genl. 
Informs me you may be supplied with 
Turpentine here, and thinks can get Salt 
Petre enough for the present Emergency 

General Clinton 

XXIII 

Communicated by George Jackson Fisher 
Head Quarters, New York 
Sir 17 Aug. 1776 

I am favoured with yours of the 13th 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



137 



& 14th inst. and am pleased to find you 
have been succesfull in procuring Can- 
non for the Defence of Hudsons River ; 
also that there is such a good prospect 
of effectually securing the Pass at Fort 
Montgomery, the mention you make of 
General Clinton's attention to that & 
other important Objects gives me great 
satisfaction, & confirms me in the opinion 
that he is fully qualified for the trust re- 
posed in him by the Congress, in their 
appointing him a Brigadier — I approve 
much of the measure for making a num- 
ber of Matrosses by putting a part of 
the Garrison to exercising the Artillery, 
the same steps'have been taken here. — 
If any material advantages can be de- 
rived from fitting out the two Sloops you 
speak of I shall be glad you have un- 
dertaken it, tho' I confess they are not 
very apparent to me at present — I can- 
not consent to those Vessels being manned 
from among the Levies, unless absolutely 
necessary, if the Officers can inlist them 
out of the Militia I have no obj ection there- 
to — I shall comply with your request in 
furnishing Capt. Benson with a sufficient 
quantity of Powder for the two Armed 
Vessels, & am with due Regard & Esteem 
Sir, Your very Humble Servt 

Go. Washington 
Robert Yates Esqr. 

Chairman of the Committee 

at Poughkeepsie 

XXIV 

From the original in the possession of T. Har- 
rison Garrett, published in the Southern 
Magazine for March, 1874 

Col Morris's on the Heights of 
Harlem 30 Septr 1776 
Dear Lund 

[The following paragraph was omitted from 



this letter as published in the Historical Maga- 
zine, VII. 33 :] 

I therefore in answer to your last 
Letter of the 18th shall say 

With respect to the Chimney I would 
not have you for the sake of a little 
work spoil the look of the Fireplaces, 
tho that in the Parlour must, I should 
think, stand as it does ; not so much on 
acct of the wainscotting, which I think 
must be altered (on acct of the Door 
leading into the new Building) as on 
acct of the Chimney Piece & the man- 
ner of its fronting into the Room. — The 
Chimney in the Room above ought, if it 
could be so contrived, to be an angle 
Chimney as the others are ; but I would 
not have this attempted at the expence 
of pulling down the Partition. — The 
Chimney in the New Room should be 
exactly in the middle of it — the doors 
and every thing else to be exactly an- 
swerably and uniform — in short I would 
have the whole "executed in a masterly 
manner. — 

You ought surely to have a Window 
in the gable end of the New Cellar 
(either under the Venitian Window, or 
one on each side of it. — ) 

Let Mr Herbert know that I shall be 
very happy in getting his Brother ex- 
changed as soon as possible, but as the 
Enemy have more of our officers than 
we of theirs, and some of ours have 
been long confined (& claim ye right 
of being first exchanged) I do not know 
how far it may be in my power at this 
time, to comply with his desires. — 

Remember me to all our Neighbors 
and friends, particularly to Colo Mason, 
to whom I would write if I had time to 
do it fully and satisfactorily — without 



138 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



this I think the Correspondance on my 
part would be unavailing — I am with 
truth and sincerity 

Dr Lund Yr affecte friend 

Go. Washington 
[Lund Washington Esq] 

XXV 

From the Washington Papers in the Collection 

of the late Dr. Joshua I. Cohen, of 

Baltimore, Md. 

Head Quarters Trenton, 
gir 5 Decemr 1776 

I have yours of this morning from 
Bristol. As the most Considerable part 
of the Army is like to be in this Town 
and its Neighbourhood, I think you 
better remove the Treasury as near as 
possible on the Pennsylvania Side of the 
River, when you have fixed upon a 
House, a proper Guard shall be ap- 
pointed. It is very inconvenient for 
officers to go for Money, which is want- 
ed every Moment for one Purpose or 
other, even as far as Bristol. Inclosed 
you have a Letter for Govr Livingston 
which desire Colo Griffin to send over 
to Burlington by a trusty Messenger; if 
Govr Livingston should not be at Bur- 
lington, he will certainly be at Philada 
to which place Colo Griffin (who lodges 
at priestleys) will be pleased to send it. 
I am Sir Yr most obt Servt 

Go Washington 

P. S. Be pleased to forward the in- 
closed for Colo Reed also 

Richard Dallam Esqr. 

XXVI 

Communicated by William W. Carruth 

Head Quarters Jan. 1 1777 
Gentlemen 

Pursuant to powers given me by the 



Honorable Congress I have appointed the 
late Major Lee Colonel of a Regiment 
to be raised in the Defence of America : 
He is apprehensive he may find some 
Difficulty in procuring Arms — Permit 
me to sollicit your Attention to this de- 
serving Officer, and give him all the 
Assistance in compleating his Corps 
not only with Arms but other Neces- 
saries. 

I flatter myself that Colo Lee will not 
be posponed to other Officers who are 
recruiting in your State. Tho' his Es- 
tablishment is different — The common 
good and the Safety of the whole must 
& I doubt will be the Object of your 
Attention. I am Gentlemen 

most truly & respectfully 
Your Obedient Humble Servant 
Go Washington 
The Hon President of Council 
of Massachusetts Bay 

XXVII 

Communicated by S. H. Shreve 

Head Quarters Morris Town 
3d March 1777 
Sir 

A letter from Govr Livingston in- 
forms me that you are yet at Burlington 
— When I ordered You to march with 
such of your Battalion as was then en- 
listed, I hoped that you would soon have 
had it in your power to move ; and am 
not a little uneasy at the delay — The 
times demand every man that can pos- 
sibly be brought into the Field — You 
will loose no time inxoming on, with all 
the men inlisted into your Battalion, to 
Princeton ; where, if your Men are not 
already sufficiently cloathed, the Bar- 
racks are as commodious as those at 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



139 



Burlington ; and there remain till you 
hear farther from me — 

I am Yr. most Hble Servt 

Go Washington 
Col Israel Shreve 

Burlington 

XXVIII 

From the original in the Maryland Historical 
Society 

Head Quarters Morristown 
g- 12th March 1777 

You are hereby required immediately 
to send me an exact return of the State 
of your Regiment, and to march all the 
Recruits you have to Philadelphia, where 
they will be innoculated and receive fur- 
ther orders from the Commanding Offi- 
cer in that City. 

No plea's for delay, drawn from the 
dispersion of the officers and men can 
be admitted. Every Commanding Offi- 
cer should know where his inferior 
Officers, and those where their Recruits 
are ; and shou'd be able to collect them 
in the most expeditious manner — 

You and the Major must come on 
with the Regiment, leaving behind a 
Sufficient number of proper Officers to 
carry on the Recruiting Service ; also 
the Lieut Colo, to direct and hurry them 
on as fast as they get the compliment of 
men respectively assign'd to them. 
I am Sir Your Hble Servt 

G Washington 
Coll. Mordecai Gist, at Baltimore 

XXIX 

From the McLane papers in the N.Y. Historical 
Society 

Sir Head Quarters 28 March 1777 

I have certain information that Lord 



Cornwallis returned from Jersey yester- 
day, and 'tis said they intend an attack 
upon this army with their joint force 
before Genl Green can rejoin us. I 
therefore depend upon your keeping a 
very good look out upon their line, and 
gaining every intelligence from people 
coming out of Town, that I may have 
the earliest notice of their movements or 
intentions I am Sir 

Yr most obt Servt 

Go Washington 
Capt McLean or next in Command 
near Rising Sun 

XXX 

Communicated by Robert Ludlow Fowler 
Headquarters Morristown 

29 March 1777 
Sir 

After returning my sincere thanks to 
you and the other officers of your Bat- 
talion for your services since your arrival 
in this State, I am under the necessity, 
however painful to me, of requesting 
you to remain at your present post a few 
days longer [not having it in my power 
at present to releive you]. I am sensi- 
ble of the disadvantages which must, of 
course, accrue to you and many of your 
Battalion, by being from home the ap- 
proaching season, but when you consider 
our situation and that I only want you 
to stay until the troops (now on their 
march from Philadelphia) arrive, I flat- 
ter myself I need not add a word more 
to induce you to this necessary step, 
than that your marching the first of 
April will leave that useful post entirely 
defenceless. 

If you would agree to remain eight 
days longer, I am satisfied it will answer 



140 



NOTES 



every purpose, and I think cannot mate- 
rially injure you. If you find the men 
are dissatisfied, go at the time appointed. 
You will please order the arms etc to be 
delivered to the persons appointed by 
Lord Stirling to receive them 

I am Sir, Your most obdt Servt 
George Washington 
To Col Rumsey 



NOTES 
LETTER OF MARTHA WASHINGTON 

The original of the following letter 
is in the collection of Mr. Curtis Guild, 
of Boston : 

Mt Vernon Aug 28 1762 
My dear Nancy 

I had the pleasure to receive your 
kind letter of the 25 of July just as I 
was setting out on a visit to Mr Wash- 
ington in Westmoreland whare I spent a 
weak very agreabley I carred my little 
patt with me and left Jacky at home for 
a trial to see how well I could stay with- 
out him though we ware gon but wone 
fortnight I was quite impatiant to get 
home. If I at aney time heard the doggs 
barke or a noise out, I thought thair was 
a person sent for me. I often fancied 
he was sick or some accident had hap- 
pened to him so that I think it is impos- 
possible for me to leave him as long as 
Mr Washington must stay when he comes 
down — If nothing happens I promise 
myself the pleasure of comeing down in 
in the spring as it will be a healthy time 
of the year. I am very much obliged to 
you for your kind invatation and assure 
yourself nothing but my childrens inter- 
est should prevent me the sattisfaiton of 



seeing you and my good Friends I am 
always thinking of and wish it was pos- 
sable for me to spend more of my time 
amongst. It gave me great sattisfaction 
to hear of your dear billys recovery 
which I hope will be a lasting wone ; 
you mentioned in your letter that Col 
More intended hear but we have seen 
nothing of him. We heard at Fredericks- 
burg that he and my brother had been 
thaire but no higher. I should been 
very glad to seen them heare 

We all in joy very good health at 
preasent, I think patty seems to be quite 
well now, Jacky is very thin but in good 
health and learn thaire books very fast. 
I am sorry to hear you are unwell but 
hope your complaint is slight. I have 
no news worth telling you. We are daly 
expect the kind laydes of Maryland to 
visit us. I must begg you will not lett 
the fright you had given you prevent 
you comeing to see me again — If I coud 
leave my children in as good care as you 

can I would never let Mr W n come 

down without me — Please to give my 
love to Miss Judy and your little babys 
and make my best compliments to Mr 
Bassett and Mrs Dawson 

I am with sincere regard 

dear sister 
yours most affectionately 
Martha Washington 
[Mrs. Bassett] 



WASHINGTON'S FIGURE 
The following letter appeared in the 
New York Evening Post : 

Custis, in his " Recollections of Wash- 
ington," says : 

" Of the portraits of Washington, the most of 
them give to his person a fulness that it did not 



NOTES 



I 4 I 



possess, together with an abdominal enlargement 
greater than in the life, while his matchless limbs 
have in but two instances been faithfully portrayed 
— in the equestrian portrait by Trumbull, of 1790, 
a copy of which is in the City Hall of New York, 
and in an engraving by Loisler, from a painting 
by Cogniet, French artists of distinguished merit. 
The latter is not an original painting, the head 
being from Stuart, but the delineation of the 
limbs is the most perfect extant." 

About fifty years ago the writer of this, 
the grandson of an officer of the revolu- 
tion, called to pay his respects to that 
gallant and patriotic old soldier, Colonel 
Benjamin Tallmadge, of Litchfield, who 
was one of Washington's aids during 
most of the war. Of course, the con- 
versation very naturally turned upon the 
scenes and events of those trying days, 
Valley Forge, Andre's execution, and the 
like. Colonel Trumbull's portrait of the 
Chief being mentioned, Tallmadge said, 
laughingly, that the legs in that picture 
were painted from his. He said that the 
demands of the service made it very in- 
convenient for General Washington to 
give as much time in sitting as the painter 
required, that it was frequently remarked 
how much his legs were like those of the 
General, that Trumbull pronounced them 
an exact pattern, and so, with Washing- 
ton's consent he served as a substitute, 
and thus the artist was able to take all 
the time he needed to perfect that part 
of the portrait, which has always been 
greatly admired. J. L. 



WASHINGTON PORTRAITS 

I am not familiar with the history of 
Portraits of Washington, and perhaps that 
is the reason why I was somewhat sur- 
prised, in looking over a lot of old alma- 
nacs in my possession, to find what is 



undoubtedly an excellent wood-cut of 
Washington, resembling the Gilbert Stu- 
art portrait of 1790, though the face is 
turned in the opposite direction, and in 
some minor respects the likeness differs 
from the Stuart portrait. While the en- 
graving appears to have been remarkedly 
good for that day in America, the printing 
is poor, as might be expected from the 
paper and the weak presses of the time. 
The picture is on the last page of " Green- 
leaf's New York, Connecticut & New 
Jersey Almanack, for the year of our 
Lord 1 80 1. Brooklyn printed and sold 
wholesale and retail by T. Kirk." It is 
followed by an 

ODE TO 
(&tn. Washington 

Point of that Pyramid whose solid base 
Rests firmly founded on a Nation's trust, 

Which while the splendid column sinks in dust, 
Shall stand sublime, and fill its ample space ; 

Elected Chief of Freemen : Greater Far 
Than kings whose noble parts are fix'd by birth ! 

Nam'd by thy country's voice, for long-try'd worth 
Her crown in Peace, as once her shield in War. 

Deign, Washington, to hear a British lyre 
That, ardent, greet thee with applausive lays, 
And to the Patriot-hero homage pays. 

O would the Muse his mortal strains inspire, 
That, high above all Greek or Roman fame 
Might sound to heroes unborn thy purer nobler 

[name ! 
Paterson, N. J. W. N. 



— Lotidou Letter, September 30, 1 780, by 
the Grantham P acq uet from Falmouth — 
The whole length picture of General 
Washington for the French King gives a 
sort of presentiment of the surrender of 
the whole continent to the power of 
France. This American Gladiator has 
surrendered himself upon canvas ; and 
the French army, as soon as they can 



142 



NOTES 



get a secure footing on the Continent, 
will surrender himself in propria perso- 
na or lay his already distressed country 
under such contributions as shall make 
his Christian Majesty ample amends for 
the expence he has been at to complete 
their subjugation under the appearance 
of supporting them in their liberties or 
rather in their infamous rebellion against 
the Mother Country. — Rivingtoris Royal 
Gazette Dec. 6, 1780 Editor 



WASHINGTON EPITHETS 
The Father of his Country — This 
epithet seems to have been applied to 
the tyrant before it was given to Wash- 
ington by popular voice. On page 183 
of Hanway's Soldiers Faithful Friend 
printed at London 1776 there is a vig- 
nette of George the Third ; the head of 
the King is enclosed in a wreath of laurel 
and surrounded with the legend G. Ill 
THE FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY 



The Deliverer of America — I recall 
the impressions which I received during 
the short stay I made in the family of the 
Deliverer of America. [At New Windsor 
in 1 781] — Dumas' 1 Memoirs of his own 
time I 35 



A Polyphemus — Our old acquaintance 
Mr Washington we learn is approaching 
us Polyphemus like, with hasty and ample 
strides, his dire intents (supported by 
myriads of heroes and in his train a thir- 
teen inch mortar drawn by eight charm- 
ing lively oxen) are given out to be 
another coup upon Powles Hook. His 
last halt was at Paramus some thirty 
miles off — Rivingtons Royal Gazette, Aug. 
6, 1780 Editor 



The Atlas of America — Among the 
papers of Doctor Solomon Drowne of 
Providence is preserved an interesting 
letter, of which the following is a trans- 
lation. The writer, the Chevalier de 
Silly » was a Second Lieutenant in the 
Regiment of Bourbonnais one of those 
which followed de Rochambeau from 
Newport to Yorktown, 

Henry T. Drowne 

New York 

At Newport the 15 March 1881 
I found myself my dear Drowne on 
duty all of last week which is the cause 
of my delay in replying to your obliging 
letter ; add to this the arrival of the 
celebrated Washington the Atlas of your 
country. Our army received him with 
the marks of distinction due to his rank 
and to his personal qualities ; we had 
not eyes enough to see him with. Man 
is born with a tendency to pride and the 
further he progresses in his career in an 
elevated rank the more his self love 
nourishes this vice in him but so far 
from this Washington although born with 
every superior quality adds to them an 
imposing modesty which will always 
cause him to be admired by those who 
have the good fortune to see him ; as 
for esteem he has already drawn to him- 
self that of all Europe even in the heart 
of his enemies and ours ' tandem oculi 
nostri, videuntur honorem et virtutem.' 

Enfin nos yeux ont vu 
L'honneur et la vertu 

At length our eyes have seen honor and 
virtue. After General Washington she 
who has attracted my attention was the 
amiable Sally Church ; I am in despair 
that I could not be with her as often as 



NOTES 



143 



I could have wished (The King's service 
goes before every thing) Moreover John 
Greene a young companion without a 
touch of the gout has always faithfully 
accompanied her. 

Write an immediate answer my dear 
Drown inform me whether you under- 
stand my letter — I am with the greatest 
friendship your affectionate 

Silly 
Sous Officier 

I pray you to give my compliments to 
your wife. My Brother is your Servant — 
To Mister Solomon Drown 
Doctor at Providence 



WASHINGTON EULOGIES 
The perusal of the very attractive Wash- 
ington numbers of the Magazine have led 
me to think about the large number of 
sermons that have been preached, the 
discourses delivered, and the eulogies 
pronounced on Washington, during the 
years that have elapsed since his death. 
Not long since I made a somewhat care- 
ful examination of one hundred and 
thirty of these sermons, etc., bound up 
in five volumes. Among them were pro- 
ductions of the pens of the Rev. Samuel 
Stanhope Smith, D. D., President of the 
College of New Jersey, Gouverneur Mor- 
ris of New York, President Dwight of 
Yale College, Gen. Henry Lee, the Hon. 
Fisher Ames, the Rev. Dr. Spring of New- 
buryport, Judge Joseph Story, the Hon. 
Solomon Lincoln, and the Hon. B. R.Cur- 
tis. In one of the volumes referred to I 
found the Latin address of President Wil- 
lard of Harvard College, delivered Feb. 
21, 1800, also John Hancock's copy of 
Thomas Paine's Eulogy, the handwriting 
of the owner being in the bold charac- 



ters in which" Hancock wrote his signa- 
ture to the Declaration of Independence. 
Nearly all the sermons were preached by 
New England clergymen. There is one 
preached in Baltimore and one in 
Charleston, S. C. A favorite text se- 
lected for several of the sermons was the 
following : " Know ye not that there is a 
Prince and a great man fallen this day in 
Israel ? ° In several of them there is 
drawn a parallel between Moses and 
Washington. I find also in quite a num- 
ber of them a reference to what was said 
by President Davies in his sermon before 
Capt. Overton's independent company of 
volunteers raised in Hanover County, 
Va., soon after the defeat of Braddock. 
" I cannot but hope Providence has pre- 
served him (i. e., Washington) in so sig- 
nal a manner for some important service 
to his country." In one of the volumes 
is a copy of the proceedings at the cen- 
tennial celebration of the birth of Wash- 
ington, Daniel Webster being the presi- 
dent of the day, and making on the oc- 
casion one of the most eloquent of his 
speeches. I count up also a few Masonic 
addresses. In one delivered by B. B. 
French it is stated that Washington, as- 
sisted by his fellow Masons, laid the cor- 
ner-stone of the Capitol in 1793. When 
the corner-stone of the extension of the 
Capitol was laid, June 24, 1851, Mr. 
French says that he wore, as a Mason, 
the same apron which Washington wore 
on the occasion alluded to. He also says 
that the apron was made and presented 
to Washington by the lady of Lafayette. 
I might refer to Elegies and Odes, and 
original Hymns, and at least one Acros- 
tic, which I find bound up in these vol- 
umes. Some of them are curious speci- 



144 



NOTES 



mens of what, no doubt, their authors 

regarded as high flights of poetic genius. 

Providence J. C. S. 



WASHINGTON EPITAPHS 

Brownsville, Pa. — The note in the Mag- 
azine for August, 1879 (HI. 513), under 
the caption of Washington Epitaphs, 
Brownsville, Pa., contains a few errors 
which I am sure no one would be more 
willing to have corrected than I. C. 

Three supposed nephews or near rela- 
tives of General Washington lie buried 
at Brownsville, none of whom were poi- 
soned by their slaves. 

The history of their connection with 
Brownsville is very interesting, and as it 
is worthy of permanent record, and, so 
far as I know, has not been recorded 
elsewhere, I give it as I have heard it 
from aged and reliable citizens of 
Brownsville. Early in 1818 two broth- 
ers, Archibald 'and John H. Washington, 
from Southampton County, Virginia ; a 
cousin, Edward B. Mechin, from South 
Carolina ; and a Mr. Atkinson or Atch- 
inson, the first three said to have been 
nephews of General Washington, left 
the State of Virginia with about 100 
slaves (the number is variously stated 
by old residents as from 50 to 100). 
Mechin was 28, Archibald Washington 
33, and John H. Washington, 38 years 
of age. 

The main facts of their history are de- 
rived from J. H. Rigdon, Esq., for many 
years a Justice of the Peace in Brown- 
ville, aged 86 years; Mr. Joshua Gibbons, 
aged 80 years ; Mr. Joseph Graff, aged 
72 years ; and Mrs. Samuel Page, aged 
about 79 years — very respectable citi- 
zens of Brownsville, whose memory is still 



strong, and whose word is reliable, and 
who were living at Brownsville in 1818. 
Squire Rigdon and Mr. Gibbons state 
that these four slave-owners were emi- 
grating to Kentucky with their family 
slaves for permane?it settlement there. 
Mr. Graff and Mrs. Page state that they 
were "slave-drivers" who had gathered 
up these slaves from the jails and mar- 
kets to sell again in the West. And yet 
these last witnesses state that the "slave- 
drivers " brought slaves through Browns- 
ville almost invariably tied or handcuffed, 
corralled together like horses, but that 
these slaves were brought here unbound, 
and were allowed by their masters the 
liberty of the town, and were well known 
by name to all the inhabitants before 
they were taken away. Mrs. Page, who 
was a Quakeress, says the slaves were 
remarkably orderly, well-behaved ne- 
groes, and apparently attached to their 
masters, so much so that no one who 
knew the circumstances of their masters' 
death credited any report of their hav- 
ing been poisoned. 

At that time Brownsville was still at 
the head waters of navigation for the 
western country. Nearly all the emi- 
gration westward made this the point 
whence it took boats for places in the 
Ohio and Mississippi Valley. To this 
point, then still known as " Redstone 
Old Fort," Washington directed his 
march in 1753. Here George Roger 
Clark embarked his small force for the 
Illinois country in 1778. Here St. Clair 
and Wayne took boats for their cam- 
paign against the Indians. 

These four slave - owners reached 
Brownsville about the latter part of 
March, 1818. They were evidently men 



NOTES 



145 






of means, as they stopped with their 
slaves at the large stone and rough-cast 
hotel, now standing at the top of Main 
street, and known far and wide as the 
" Workman Hotel," where Atkinson and 
the slaves remained for three months, 
until flat boats could be built for their 
embarkation, boarding the slaves in the 
hotel, and, as Mr. Rigdon says, paying 
all their bills. The hotel was then kept 
by the widow of John Beckley, who was 
drowned in the Monongahela in 181 7. 

When they arrived at Brownsville the 
two Washingtons and Mechin were suf- 
fering with a low fever contracted in 
their journey. They placed themselves 
at once under the treatment of Dr. Jesse 
Pennill, a Quaker physician of skill. 
Their disease rapidly developed into 
what was then commonly called the 
"jail fever," now recognized as the 
" typhus fever ." Dr. Pennill was himself 
soon attacked by the same disease, and 
was obliged to give up his patients to 
attend to his own health. 

Dr. Henry W. Story, also a physician 
of experience, was then employed. Mr. 
Rigdon assisted in nursing the three 
white patients, and is positive that Dr. 
Story pronounced the disease, which so 
rapidly swept these young men into the 
grave, a malignant type of typhus fever. 
Mr. Graff says that Mr. Underwood, 
who laid the bodies out, took him into 
the room to see them, previously washing 
his face in whiskey to prevent i?ifection. 
Mr. Graff also states that fifteen of the 
slaves died of the same disease at the 
same time as George Graff (his father), 
and William Edmundson made the cof- 
fins, and his father's books show this 
fact, and he remembers seeing the par- 



ties buried. Moreover, these three wit- 
nesses state that no indications ap- 
peared, no suspicions were held, and no 
charge was made at the time that the 
victims of the fever were in any way 
foully dealt with, or that the slaves had 
poisoned any of them. Every thing that 
human skill and money could do for their 
recovery was done without avail. Archi- 
bald Washington died April 10th, John 
H. Washington April 13th, and Mechen 
April 15th. It was nearly, if not quite, 
three months after they arrived here 
that Atkinson, who alone survived the 
fever, having finished building his boats, 
embarked the remaining slaves for Ken- 
tucky, taking with him for assistance 
Mr. Jacob Copeland of Brownsville. 
Before reaching Wellsburg, Virginia, on 
the Ohio River, Mr. Copeland was also 
seized with the typhus fever, and died 
at Wellsburg. Not until many years af- 
terwards was it rumored that these four 
white persons had been poisoned by the 
slaves. 

These Washingtons, who themselves 
claimed to be related to the President, 
were evidently men of respectability, 
and it was thought by some at the time 
very proper that their remains should 
be buried in the Episcopal graveyard, 
then the largest and most respectable of 
the three graveyards in Brownsville. But 
this was not allowed. Brownsville was 
at this time a town of about 150 houses, 
and settled largely by members of the 
Society of Friends. There were then 
in and about the town four Friends meet- 
ing houses, and in the town three Prot- 
estant churches. The conscientious op- 
position of the Society of Friends to 
the institution of slavery is well known. 



146 



NOTES 



The Quaker citizens of Brownsville were 
very much exercised over the presence 
of the four slave-owners and their slaves 
in their midst, and a spirit of antagonism 
toward the masters was quickly stirred 
up by one Captain Basil Brashears, a 
very excellent man in other respects, who 
kept a hotel about 75 feet below the 
Workman Hotel on the Main Street. 
When the young men died, according to 
the evidence of the witnesses mentioned, 
Brashears succeeded in having them re- 
fused burial in the Episcopal and Meth- 
odist graveyards for the reason that they 
were slave- owners, and they were conse- 
quently buried in an old graveyard, at 
that time generally used as a Potter's 
field. Before 1800 Thomas Brown, who 
died 1797, or Basil Brown, his brother, 
both of whom owned the town-site in 
part, and from whom this historic spot 
derived its very unhistoric name, donated 
to the town for a graveyard a piece of 
ground lying on the site of old Fort Burd. 
There Thomas Brown himself lies buried. 
In 1818 it was used miscellaneously for 
whites, blacks, and strangers. Here the 
bodies of the three nephews of Wash- 
ington were consigned to the earth. 
Some years after their death their rela- 
tives sent money to Mr. Valentine Gei- 
sey, a prominent merchant of Browns- 
ville, to erect stones over their graves. 
Mr. Geisey enclosed the three graves 
with a high brick wall, in one side of 
which were set three gray sandstone 
slabs, about two feet by four, bearing 
the following inscriptions, which differ 
somewhat from those noted by Mr. 
Craig : 

" In I memory | of | Archibald Wash- 
ington I a native of Virga| he was born 



in the County | of Southampton on the 
25th I of Febry A D 1785, and departed] 
this life the 10th of April | 1818." 

"In I memory | of | John H Washing- 
ton] a native of Virga| he was born in 
County I of Southampton the 8th of ] 
June A D. 1780 and departed] this life 
the 13th of April] 1818." 

"In I memory | of | Edward B Mechen | 
who died at this place | April the 15th 
A D. 1818J aged 28 years and 21 days| 
He was a native of S. C. | " 

The old graveyard has long since 
fallen into decay. The brick wall 
around the graves of the three nephews 
of Washington has disappeared, torn 
down by vandal hands. The property 
is now enclosed by Mr. J. W. Jeffries, 
without a deed or title, but with the 
tacit consent of the Council. The few 
old tombstones, instead of being pre- 
served upright on the spot where the 
graves were made, now form the pave- 
ment from the dwelling house of Mr. 
Jeffries to his stable, with the single ex- 
ception of the stone which marked the 
resting place of Thomas Brown, which 
Mr. Brown's heirs have required to be 
restored to its place, and which, in- 
scribed as Mr. Craig notes it, stands 
against the garden fence of the adjoin- 
ing lot, which Mr. Jeffries owns. 

Whose sons these three nephews of 
Gen. Washington were I have not been 
able to learn. Sparks gives the list of 
Gen. Washington's brothers and sisters, 
but not of their issue. Wells's Wahington 
Genealogy does not contain their names. 
What subsequently became of the slaves 
is not known, but the fact of these three 
respectable gentlemen having been re- 
fused proper burial on account of their 



NOTES 



147 



being at the time of death slave-owners 
is beyond dispute. The charge against 
their slaves of having poisoned them, 
though repeated time and again for the 
past many years, and generally believed, 
rests on no evidence, but is a later day 
suspicion, which the testimony of living 
persons refutes. 

Horace Edwin Hayden 
Brownsville, Pa. 



priation, placed by Congress at the dis- 
position of the Secretary of State for 
the preservation of these national relics 
from further degradation, may be best 
applied. Editor 



Westmoreland, Virginia — The last 
volume of the Proceedings of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society (XVII 
1880) contains an account, by Charles 
C. Perkins, of a visit made by the Sec- 
retary of State General Sherman and 
himself to the birthplace of Washington 
in Westmoreland county. About a half 
mile to the northward of the ruins of 
the old homestead is the old burial place 
of the Washingtons. The following are 
given from the grave-stones : 

" Here lyeth the body of | John 
Washington, Eldest | son to Captain 
Lawrence | Washington, who departed 
I this life ye 10th of January 1696* j 
Aged 10 years and 6 months, | Also 
Mildred Washington | Eldest daughter 
to said I Washington, who departed ye 
1st of August 1696 I Aged 5 months | " 

* It is uncertain whether 1690 or 1696. 

" Here lyes ye body of Jane | wife of 
Augustine Washington | Born at Pope's 
Creek Virginia | Westmoreland ye 24th 
of Xber | 1699 & died ye 24th of 9ber 
1729 j Who left behind her two sons | 
& one daughter." 

Those curious in Washington Gene- 
alogy will do well to consult Mr. Perkins' 
account of the visit, the object of which 
was to determine how the meagre appro- 



WASHINGTON'S HEAD QUARTERS 
DURING THE REVOLUTION 

The Berkeley House j Keith's House j 
House near Coryell's Ferry — Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania — This county has 
the honor of containing three old-time 
dwellings in which Washington Quar- 
tered during the revolutionary war when 
commanding the Continental Army. 
They are all standing, inhabited, and in 
good state of preservation. The first of 
these stands within the limits of Morris- 
ville, opposite Trenton, and not much, 
if any, over half a mile west of the Dela- 
ware. When Washington crossed the 
Delaware with the rear guard of his 
army, Sunday, December 8th, 1776, he 
took up his quarters at the country house 
of Mrs. Berkley, while the troops were 
stationed opposite the crossing. This 
dwelling is what is now called " Sum- 
mer Side," a fine old country seat, owned 
and occupied by John H. Osborne. 

The dwelling, built about 1750, and 
in fine state of preservation, occupies a 
commanding situation, with a farm of 
162 acres belonging to it, and is within 
the site once selected by Congress for 
the Capital of the United States. In 
this house, George Clymer, a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, lived 
and died, and it afterwards belonged to 
the Waddells. Local tradition, seldom 
at fault in such cases, points this house 
out as Washington's quarters immediately 
after he crossed the river, and memen- 



148 



NOTES 



tos of the troops have been found in the 
adjacent fields. 

After Washington had placed his 
troops in position to guard the fords of 
the Delaware and prevent the enemy 
crossing, the headquarters of the army, 
and the quarters of the Commander-in- 
Chief's most trusted lieutenants, were 
fixed at farm houses in the same neigh- 
borhood in Upper Makefield township, 
where they were always within easy 
communication. 

Washington occupied the dwelling of 
William Keith, on the road from Browns- 
burg to the Eagle Tavern ; Greene was 
at Robert Merrick's, a few hundred yards 
away across the fields and meadows ; 
Sullivan was at John Hayhurst's ; and 
Knox and Hamilton were at Dr. Chap- 
man's over Jericho Hill. The troops, in 
the vicinity, were encamped in sheltered 
places along the creeks, and not far re- 
moved from the river. We have no 
doubt the position for head-quarters 
was selected because of its sheltered 
situation, its nearness to the river, and 
its proximity to Jericho Mountain, from 
the top of which, when the leaves are off 
the trees, signals may be seen a long 
way up and down the river. Here 
Washington was near the upper fords of 
the river, at which it was supposed the 
enemy would attempt to cross, and with- 
in a half hour's ride of Newtown, the 
depot of supplies. 

The three old mansions, in which 
Washington, Greene, and Knox quar- 
tered, are still standing in a good state 
of preservation, and their occupancy is 
too well-attested to be disputed. I 
visited these dwellings a few years ago, 
accompanied by a friend familiar with 



the locality. The Keith mansion, which 
we first visited, has undergone no mate- 
rial change, except from the tooth of 
time. Then, as now, the main building 
was a two-story, pointed-stone house, 24 
by 28 feet, built by William Keith in 
1763. The pine door, in two folds, set 
in a solid oaken frame, was garnished 
with a wooden lock, 14 by 8 inches, the 
same which locked out intruders when 
Washington occupied the house. The 
interior, finished in yellow pine, remains 
unchanged, and one room has never 
been despoiled by the painter's brush. 
Washington probably occupied the main 
front room down stairs for an office, and 
the one over it for his chamber. How 
oft he ascended and descended the stair- 
way, between the two rooms, with a 
heavy heart, especially while making 
ready for Trenton ! The same roof, 
now covered with tin, is on the house. 
At that time the front yard was enclosed 
by a stone wall. The property, contain- 
ing 240 acres, and purchased by William 
Keith, of the London Company, nearly 
a century and a half ago, has never been 
out of the family. The situation, on 
the south side of Jericho Mountain, is 
retired, and pleasantly exposed to the 
southern sun. The Merrick house, a 
quarter of a mile away to the east, on 
the road from Newtown to Neely's mill, 
a pointed-stone dwelling, 20 by 20 feet, 
and kitchen adjoining, was bought by 
Samuel Merrick in 1773, and now be- 
longs to Edward, a descendant. When 
Greene occupied it, the first floor was 
divided into three rooms, now all thrown 
into one, and the family lived in the log 
end on the west. As the house was not 
then finished, the General had the walls 



NOTES 



149 



of the rooms down stairs painted in a 
tasteful manner, with a picture of the 
rising sun over the fireplace. At that 
time Samuel Merrick had a family of 
half-grown children, who were deeply 
impressed with passing events, and their 
descendants are full of traditions of the 
times. Greene purchased the confidence 
of Hannah, a young daughter, by the 
gift of a small tea canister, which was 
kept many years in the family. They 
tell how the Rhode Island blacksmith 
lived on the fat of the land while quar- 
tered at the house of their ancestor, de- 
vouring his flock of turkeys, and monop- 
olizing his only fresh milk cow, besides 
eating her calf. At the last supper 
which Washington took with Greene at 
the Merrick house, at which she was 
present, the daughter Hannah waited 
upon the table, and kept the plate from 
which the Commander-in-chief ate as a 
memento of the great occasion. The 
Hayhurst house, where Sullivan quar- 
tered, was on the adjoining farm to 
Keith's, where this plain member of "the 
Wrightstown meeting lived with his fam- 
ily of five small children. The Chap- 
man mansion, the quarters of General 
Knox, and now owned by Edward John- 
son, is on the north side of Jericho Moun- 
tain, a mile from Brownsburg. It is in 
excellent condition, and is the best house 
of the Revolutionary period I have seen 
in the county. Knox occupied the first 
floor of the east end, then divided 
into two rooms, but now one, 25 by 
17 feet. Alexander Hamilton, a youth- 
ful captain of artillery, lay sick in the 
back room. The late Peter Cattell, 
who lived and died on an adjoining 
farm, then a boy of twelve, used to 



speak of seeing Washington at Knox's 
quarters. 

In August, 1777, the Continental army 
tarried thirteen days on the Neshaminy 
hills, Bucks County, on the York road 
from Coryell's Ferry, now New Hope, 
until it should receive notice of the de- 
struction of the British fleet which had 
recently sailed from New York. During 
this time Washington quartered in the 
stone house not far from the north end 
of the bridge over the Neshaminy, and 
on the left side of the York road going 
south. It is now owned by the estate 
of the late John Bothwell and by one of 
his sons, and is a comfortable house of 
the Revolutionary period. The whip- 
ping post was erected on the opposite 
side of the road. While Washington 
quartered in this house Lafayette re- 
ported to him for service in the Conti- 
nental army; and in it was held the first 
council of war at which Lafayette had a 
seat. The troops were encamped around 
Headquarters, within half a mile or so, 
on both banks of the Neshaminy. The 
army marched hence the 226. of August, 
through Philadelphia, and then to en- 
gage the enemy on the field of Brandy- 
wine. W. H. H. Davis 

Doylestown, Pa. 



The Whitemarsh Headqua?-ters — In 
the notice of the Elmar house, Feb- 
ruary number, 1879, of the Magazine 
(III. 158), the editor, following Loss- 
ing's Field Book of the Revolution, II. 
321, assigns the ownership of the house 
in which Washington established his 
headquarters to one Elmar. General 
Reed, writing to President Wharton on 
the 4th November, 1777, dates his letter 



150 



NOTES 



" Head Quarters at George Emlen's 
near Whitemarsh Church." In this let- 
ter he says that " the meadows were 
entirely overflowed so that in retiring 
the guards the men marched near breast 
high in water." Reed's Life of Reed, 
I 335 Editor 



Pannebeckers Mills — Samuel Panne- 
becker, a Pennsylvania Mennonite, owned 
by descent the falling mills on the Per- 
kiemen Creek on the Skippack road. It 
was one of the best known points in this 
section of the country. After the de- 
feat of the Brandy wine on the nth Sep- 
tember, 1777, and the surprise of Wayne 
at Paoli, and Washington's unsuccessful 
manoeuvres to prevent Howe's passage 
of the Schuylkill and cover Philadel- 
phia, the Chief came down the road from 
Potts' Grove with his army of ten thou- 
sand men, and encamped here on Fri- 
day, the 26th September Here, on 
Sunday, the 28th, he heard of the defeat 
of Burgoyne at Stillwater, and the gen- 
eral orders, announcing the glorious 
news to the army was dated from this 
spot. The mills are now the village of 
Shwencksville. Editor 



HOUSES VISITED BY WASHINGTON 

The Van Winkle House, now Pas- 
saic Hotel, Paterson, JV. J. — Surgeon 
Thacher and the Marquis de Chastellux 
describe a man with an enormous head, 
who lived near the Passaic Falls, N. J. 
His head was so large and so heavy that 
it had to be supported by a framework 
at the back of his chair, contrived for 
the purpose, and he was unable to move 
without assistance. Washington called 
to see _him once, and in the course of 



conversation asked him whether he was 
a Whig or a Tory, to which he replied, 
" Well, I do not take an active part on 
either side " The name of this human 
curiosity was Peter Van Winkle, an uncle 
of the late United States Senator Peter 
G. Van Winkle, of West Virginia. The 
family occupied a stone house, still 
standing, at the foot of Bank street, Pat- 
erson, N. J., and of late years known as 
the Passaic Hotel. W. N. 

Paterson, JV. J. 



Garrisons, on the Wesel road, Pater- 
son, N. /.—The "traditional" Wash- 
ington was so faultless, that it is a posi- 
tive relief to hear of his making a prom- 
ise which he never kept. Mrs. Gerre- 
brandt Van Houten {ne'e Garrison), of 
Paterson, N. J., deceased many years 
ago, used to say that when she was a 
child a party of American soldiers were 
encamped on her father's farm, on the 
Wesel road, just below Paterson. Wash- 
ington frequently stopped at her father's 
house, and would take her on his knee, 
and when he left that neighborhood 
promised to send her a " fine doll, with 
big black eyes, just like her own." But 
though she looked long and anxiously 
for the fulfilment of the promise, the 
"fine doll, with big black eyes " never 
came. W. N. 

Paterson, JV. J. 



The Indian Queen, Elizabeth, JV. J. — 
Somewhere about 1787-9 General Wash- 
ington, on one of his journeys to and 
from New York, is remembered to have 
stopped at this once noted old New 
Jersey hostelry. In the Revolution 
time, as well as before and many years 



NOTES 



151 



after, it was kept by Mr. Samuel Smith, 
a citizen of good family and social 
standing. A venerable lady, now in her 
97th or 98th year, viz., Mrs. James 
Barnes, the widow of a Presbyterian 
clergyman, who has lived the greater 
part of her life in the State of Kentucky, 
her present residence, told the writer, 
when visiting this city a few years ago, 
that she had a distinct and very pleasant 
recollection of seeing the General, in her 
young childhood, at the period above 
mentioned, in her father's house, the 
" Indian Queen" tavern. As she was 
playing about the room she attracted the 
attention of Washington, who kindly ca- 
ressed her and patted her on the head. 
And thus this great and good man left 
his memory lastingly impressed upon her 
heart. 

The old tavern, now encased in an- 
other of much larger dimensions, viz., 
the " Sheridan House," of which it is the 
kernel, is still standing in the city of 
Elizabeth. William Hall 



Governor Belcher s house, Elizabeth, N. 
y. — This ancient private mansion, then 
the residence of the distinguished patriot 
and former New York citizen, William 
Peartree Smith, was once honored with 
the presence of Washington, and in an 
early part of the Revolutionary Septen- 
nial. A record of its then worthy occu- 
pant and of his "Port Royal Smith" family 
may be found in the January, 1879, num ~ 
ber of the " New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Record." On the occasion 
of the marriage of his daughter to Elisha 
Boudinot, subsequently Judge Boudinot 
of Newark, and brother of Col. Elias 
Boudinot, President of the first Continen- 



tal Congress, the ceremony taking place 
Oct. 4, 1778, Gen. Washington was pres- 
ent as an invited guest, and Alexander 
Hamilton as groomsman. An alarm of 
a raid by the British was given while 
they were in the house, which Hamilton 
was sent out to inquire about, but which 
proved to be groundless. The facts 
here mentioned were communicated to 
the writer several years since by E. 
J. C. Atterbury, Esq., of Trenton, N. 
J., a descendant of Peartree Smith. 
They have been more recently repeated 
by ex-President Maclean, in his elegant 
and elaborate History of the College of 
New Jersey. This ancient house, sub- 
sequently the residence of Governor 
Aaron Ogden, is still standing and in 
good condition. It is the property of 
ex-Congressman Clark. 

William Hall 



The Doremus House, Pequonnock, N. 
J. — This was near the house where 
Washington had his Pompton Head- 
quarters, in 1 781. — There is now there, 
in decay, and there was then, in its 
prime, a stone farm-house, which was 
the home of Thomas Doremus, of the 
old Holland race. He was the grand- 
father of the venerable Thomas C. Do- 
remus of this city, one of our oldest 
merchants. The aged father of this 
well-known citizen was wOnt to speak, 
and with great delight, of General 
Washington's stopping and lodging over 
night occasionally, in his boyhood 
days, in this, his old paternal stone 
house. These visits were stamped on 
his memory by and with several in- 
teresting little particulars. 

William Hall 



152 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



Beaverwick, N. J., was a famous 
family mansion in the vicinity of Pomp- 
ton, which Washington visited occa- 
sionally, and where he once met several 
distinguished French officers from Ro- 
chambeau's fleet and army. 

William Hall 



The Burr Tavern, Warren, Con- 
necticut — Washington stopped there, 
and was in the habit of promenading 
the walk in front. 

Newport J. E. M. 



The Shaw House, New London — 
In the February, 1879, number of the 
Magazine of American History men- 
tion was made of this house, visited by 
Washington in 1776. 

In Starr's Centennial Sketch of the 
Town of New London occurs the fol- 
lowing passage, with additional details 
of the event : 

" Washington was the guest of Capt. 
Nathaniel Shaw, at his stone house in 
Bank street, and some of the members 
of the Council of Safety of Connecti- 
cut, and conferred with them respecting 
the future operations against the enemy. 

The Chamber which Washington oc- 
cupied that night at Mr. Shaw's has 
acquired from the circumstance an en- 
during interest. The owners of the 
mansion have endeavored to keep it un- 
changed in appearance. No alteration 
has been made in size or by way of 
adornment. The bed curtains and the 
other furniture are the same. It looks 
now as it did then. 

Lafayette visited it in his famous tour. 
It was then owned by the Hon. Elias 
Perkins." Editor 



EDITOR'S CHRONICLE 

The New York Historical Society 
held its annual meeting on the evening 
of the first Tuesday in January. The 
officers were re-elected. Among them 
Mr. Charles O'Conor, whose resignation, 
however, was later accepted, upon which 
the rules were suspended by unanimous 
consent, and he was elected an Hon- 
orary member. We regret to announce 
that this, our distinguished, citizen, has 
changed his residence from New York to 
Nantucket for the benefit of the sea 
air. He has been for thirty-three years 
an active member of the institution, 
and has bestowed upon it many valuable 
gifts. 

A paper was read by General J. Watts 
de Peyster on the battle or affair of 
King's Mountain. This was essentially 
the paper printed in the December num- 
ber of this Magazine. General de Pey- 
ster assumed that this skirmish was the 
turning point of the Revolutionary war ; 
this is to exaggerate the importance of 
what was after all merely the punishment 
of a band of marauders by the yeomanry 
of the country. The effect of the sum- 
mary measures taken by the Whig leaders 
to chastise the men who had kept the 
loyal districts of the Carolinas in alarm 
was undoubtedly great ; but the affair, 
or battue as General de Peyster properly 
terms it, had neither tactical or strategic 
importance. 

The Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 
Mass., held its sixty-eighth annual meet- 
ing on the 2 1 st of October last. The 
semi-annual report of the council, while 
alluding to the inefficiency of the Pub- 
lishing Fund, notices a reasonable in- 






editor's chronicle 



153 



crease in the Library ; among the vol- 
umes added are the rare books selected 
at the Brinley sale under the provisions 
of the family of this distinguished col- 
lector. The recent enlargement of the 
Library Building has greatly increased 
its efficiency and use. 






The 30th Anniversary of the First 
Woman's Rights Convention, in which 
the well-known advocates, male and 
female, of Woman Suffrage were present, 
was held at Worcester at the same time. 
This cause is making rapid progress. 
Women have full suffrage in Wyoming 
and Colorado, and school suffrage in 
twelve states. The ballot is now earn- 
estly called for. 



The Virginia Historical Society have 
taken possession of their new rooms in 
the Westmoreland Club House at Rich- 
mond, and already make an attractive 
exhibit in their valuable collections of 
books, manuscripts, portraits, and relics. 
Its roll of membership includes the 
names of some of the ripest scholars in 
the country. Its library reaches 10,000 
volumes. It deserves and should re- 
ceive the cordial support of the city 
and the state. The Southern Histori- 
cal Society has its office on the library 
floor of the state capitol at Richmond. 
The Rev. J. Williams Jones, its effi- 
cient Secretary, has general charge of 
its affairs. The chief object of the 
Society is to collect documents and 
papers relating to the late civil war. 
It also gathers material connected with 
the general history of the southern 
states. Its organ is the monthly mag- 
azine, " Southern Historical Society 



Papers," now in its sixth year, and of 
acknowledged value. 



The Georgia Historical Society, Sa- 
vannah, met on the first Tuesday in 
January, when the usual table busi- 
ness was transacted, and Col. Charles C. 
Jones, Jr., of Augusta, Ga., was selected 
as the orator for the annual meeting, 
which will be held on the 14th February. 
The reports of this Society appear in The 
Morning News of Savannah. 



On the evening of the 21st of Decem- 
ber Henry Cruger Van Schaack of Man- 
lius, N. Y., read a paper before the 
Chicago Historical Society : "A Vindi- 
cation of Mrs. General Benedict Ar- 
nold from the charge of complicity in 
her husband's treason." He charged 
upon Burr the responsibility for this 
accusation, and attributed it to his vin- 
dictiveness because his advances were 
repelled by her. At the same meeting a 
model in wood of the Old Block House 
at Fort Dearborn, was presented by H. 
H. Hurlbut, who read a paper on the 
romantic incidents connected with it. 



A Pioneer Celebration of the Seventy- 
fifth Anniversary of the Arrival of the 
Grandville Colony, was celebrated at 
Grandville, Ohio, on the 13th of No- 
vember, 1 880, when a paper was read by 
the Hon. Isaac Smuckers. The scope 
of the address was limited to an account 
of the settlers who occupied the territory, 
now known as Grandville Township, prior 
to the arrival of the New England Col- 
ony in the autumn of 1805. This sketch 
is a valuable addition to that of the 
same Township read by Captain M. M. 



154 



EDITOR'S CHRONICLE 



Munson on a similar occasion at Grand- 
ville, in January, 1868. 



The Pioneer Society of Licking 
County, Ohio, published its report of 
Pioneer notes and Memorial sketches for 
September, 1880, in the Newark Ameri- 
can of October 1st, which includes some 
brief memoirs, among which is notice- 
able that of its recent President, Hon. P. 
N. O'Banon, who died on the 13th of 
September upon the farm on which he 
was born, in the seventy-fourth year of 
his age. He had rilled many offices of 
trust. 



The regular monthly meeting of the 
Buffalo Historical Society was held on 
the 14th December. Only routine busi- 
ness was transacted. 



There was a large meeting of the Long 
Island Historical Society in the church 
opposite its new building on the even- 
ing of the 28th of December. The 
new home of this active organization 
has been substantially completed at a 
cost of over $135,000. A subscription 
is rapidly advancing towards a sufficient 
sum to equip the building with its 
library and museum for future useful- 
ness. A paper was read by Judge John 
H. Dillon on the Inns of Court and 
Westminster Hall, or the Excellencies 
and Defects of our Laws. A descrip- 
tion was given of Lincoln's and Gray's 
Inns, the Inner and Middle Temples and 
Westminster Hall, which form the ju- 
dicial university of England. 



ber in memory of the late Jones Very of 
Salem. William P. Andrews read a 
paper on the Life, Works and Spiritual 
Experience of Mr. Very, which he illus- 
trated by extracts from his poems. 
Glowing tributes were paid to him as an 
Essayist and Poet. 



We learn from the Savannah Morning 
News that a Youths' Historical Society 
has been formed in that city. They 
propose to meet their expenses by public 
entertainments of a varied literary and 
historical character. This is an excel- 
lent idea, which may be followed to ad- 
vantage in other cities. 



The Detroit Free Press of the 19th of 
December contains a pleasing paper on 
the Legends of Detroit, in which the 
historical importance and souvenirs of 
Bois Blanc Island are described. It was 
on this commanding site that Tecumseh 
and his warriors awaited the issue of the 
battle of Lake Erie in 181 3. The ro- 
mance of White Fawn, the pride of the 
Hurons, is also given. 

In the same issue, under the head of 
Historical Notes, No. 13, will be found 
an account of the chronological land- 
marks of this region. 



The Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., 
held a meeting on the 14th of Decem- 



The recent death of John C. Calhoun, 
a grandson of the famous senator from 
South Carolina, is recorded in a late 
number of the Savannah Morning News. 
After the late war he drifted to Cali- 
fornia, where, after various experiences, 
he became an inmate of the insane 
asylum of Stockton, and was drowned 
some time in December, in the vicinity 
of San Francisco. 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



55 



The old Provost Homestead in the 
town of Pelham, Westchester County, 
New York State, was totally burned on 
the 30th of December, with many articles 
of historic value. The Provost family 
hold their land under a patent granted 
by the English crown. They sided with 
England in the Revolutionary struggle. 






The unveiling of the statue erected in 
memory of General Philip Kearny in 
December, was the occasion of a general 
holiday in Newark. The statue is a full 
length life size, in green bronze, standing 
on a square bronze pedestal. On the 
south panel is inscribed: " Philip Kearny, 
Major General United States Volun- 
teers ; born, June 2d, 1815. Killed in 
Battle at Chantilly, Va., 1st December, 
1862." On the north panel: "Erected 
by authority of the State of New Jersey, 
1880." Generals Grant and Sherman, 
and Governor McClellan were present. 
The oration was by the Hon. Courtland 
Parker. Notwithstanding the inclemency 
of the weather, the assemblage was 
immense. 



In the streets of Savannah are testi- 
monials to the memory of General Na- 
thaniel Green, the hero of the Southern 
campaign, 1780-81, and of Pulaski, who 
fell in the attack of the allies upon Savan- 
nah in 1779. Two years ago an associa- 
tion was formed in the same city to erect 
a testimonial in memory of Sergeant Wil- 
liam Jasper, the hero of Fort Moultrie, 
who fell on the ramparts of Savannah 
the same day that Pulaski gave up his life. 



statue of Washington on the steps of the 
Sub-Treasury are rapidly progressing. 
Money has been offered in such large 
sums that it will be necessary to limit the 
amount of subscriptions in order to ad- 
mit of a greater number of participants 
in the patriotic work. 



The Stony Point Memorial Associa- 
tion, the preliminary meeting of which 
was held at the rooms of the Magazine 
of American History on the 18th of 
September last, will shortly complete its 
organization. 

The movement is in charge of Mr. 
Henry Whittemore, Secretary of the 
Rockland County Historical Society. 
It is proposed to commemorate, by a 
monument, the victory of Anthony 
Wayne, 16th July, 1779. The organi- 
zation will include officers to represent 
each of the states which had troops in 
the engagement. 



To promote the work of the Saratoga 
Monument Association, Mrs. Ellen Har- 
din Walworth, Chairman of the Commit- 
tee of Commemoration, has contributed 
to it the plates of her history of Bur- 
goyne's Campaign, and of the accom- 
panying maps. 

The volume is for sale by Thomas W. 
Johnson, agent for the Memorial Com- 
mittee, No. 673 Broadway, N. Y., for 
one dollar. The entire proceeds are to 
go to the purposes of the Association. 



The plans of the New York Chamber 
of Commerce for the erection of a 



The joint committee of Congress has 
finally concluded a plan for the York- 
town celebration. The ceremonies in 
which the United States authorities will 
participate, will be limited to three days. 



1 5 6 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



The arrangements, to which the Army 
and Navy Departments contribute their 
experience and co-operation, are not 
completed. 

The French Government will be offic- 
ially invited to send representatives. 
The oration will be delivered by the 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massa- 
chusetts ; the poem, by James Barron 
Hope, of Virginia. 

The original resolution of Congress, 
29th of October, 1781, for the erection 
of a monument, was : 

Resolved, That the United States in Congress 
assembled, will cause to be erected at York, in 
Virginia, a marble column, adorned with em- 
blems of the alliance between the United States 
and his most Christian Majesty ; and inscribed 
with a succinct narrative of the surrender of 
Earl Cornwallis to his Excellency General 
Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the com- 
bined forces of America and France ; to his 
Excellency the Count de Rochambeau, com- 
mander of the auxiliary troops of his most 
Christian Majesty in America, and his Excel- 
lency the Count de Grasse, commanding in chief 
the Naval Army of France in the Chesapeake. 

And on the 6th November, 1781, it 
was 

Resolved, That the Secretary of Foreign Af- 
fairs be directed to prepare a sketch of emblems 
of the alliance, between his most Christian 
Majesty and the United States, proper to be in- 
scribed on the marble column to be erected in 
the town of York, under the resolution of the 
29th October last. 

The congressional committee however 
concluded to leave the preparation of 
the sketch of emblems to the commis- 
sion to be appointed by the Secretary of 
War. The report of this commission, 
consisting of R. W. Hunt, Samuel Van 
Brunt, and J. Q. A. Ward, was trans- 
mitted to the senate on the 20th of De- 



cember last. The model of the column 
proposed is now to be seen at the War 
Department. Its height will vary accor- 
ding to the scale adopted, from 97 to 135 
feet. 

The following are the inscriptions sub- 
mitted by the Commission for the four 
sides of the column : 

North side — Erected in pursuance of a reso- 
lution of Congress, adopted October 29, 1781, 
and an Act of Congress, June 7, 1880, to com- 
memorate the victory by which the Independence 
of the United States of America was achieved. 

South side — On this spot, October 19, 1781, 
after a siege of nineteen days by 5,500 American 
and 7,000 French troops of the line, 3,500 Ameri- 
can militia, and 36 French ships of war, Earl 
Cornwallis, Commander of the British forces at 
Yorktown and Gloucester, surrendered with his 
whole army, 7,251 officers and men, 840 seamen, 
244 cannon, and 24 standards, to George Wash- 
ington, Commander-in-Chief of the combined 
forces of America and France, to the Comte de 
Rochambeau, commanding the French troops, 
and to the Comte de Grasse, commanding the 
French fleet. 

East side. — The provisional articles of peace 
concluded November 30, 1782, and the defini- 
tive treaty of peace concluded September 3, 
1783, between the United States of America and 
George III., the King of Great Britain and 
Ireland, declare: '-His Britannic Majesty ac- 
knowledges the said United States, viz.: New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island 
and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, and Georgia, to be free, sovereign and inde- 
pendent States." 

West side. — The treaty concluded Februaiy 
6, 1778, between the United States of America 
and Louis XVI., King of France, declares: 
" The essential and direct end of the present 
defensive alliance is to maintain effectually 
the liberty, sovereignty and independence, ab- 
solute and unlimited, of the said United States, 
as well in matters of government as of com- 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



157 



The model forwarded is five feet and a 
half high. It consists of a Corinthian col- 
umn and capital, designed by Mr. Hunt, 
surmounted with a figure bearing a round 
of others in high relief. For the statue at the 
top Mr. Ward submits four figures of Liberty 
and Victory for selection. In recesses in the 
sides of the pedestal from which the column 
springs are in front the coats of arms of France 
and the United States, side by side on the right 
naval and on the left anny attributes ; behind are 
emblems of peace. On a cylinder above are 
thirteen female figures in alto relief, representing 
the original colonies, hand joined to hand; on a 
band above each figure is an incised star. Be- 
neath the figures the legend, "One Country, 
one Destiny, one Constitution." There are nu- 
merous other emblematic and architectural orna- 
ments. 

The design is said to be simple in 
conception, nobly graceful in form, and 
rich in detail, but the historic student 
will fail to find in it that marked pre- 
dominance of emblems of the alliance 
which the resolutions of the old Con- 
gress, in the fullness of their gratitude 
to France, evidently contemplated. 

The Society of the Cincinnati, which 
had a French branch at the time of its 
organization in 1783, will take an active 
part in the ceremonies. 

The controversy between Archibald 
Forbes, the English lecturer, and J. T. 
Headley, our well-known American au- 
thor, concerning inscriptions on the 
trophy guns exhibited at Washington's 
headquarters, Newburg, seems easy of 
solution. Forbes notices that upon a 
howitzer inscribed " captured at York- 
town October 1781," there is also in- 
scribed " Douay, Berenger 1779," which 
proves it to have been of French con- 
struction, and cites a number of actions 
where it might have fallen into the Eng- 



lish hands. This recondite search into 
possibilities seems unnecessary, when it 
is remembered that there were several 
engagements between the French and 
English fleets on the American coasts, 
and vessels captured on either side, be- 
tween 1779 and 1 78 1, in one of which 
this piece might have been part of the 
prize. Moreover, the Guadaloupe, one 
of the vessels which protected Cornwal- 
lis' flank at York, was, as its name im- 
plies, originally a French vessel which 
had fallen into English hands, and came 
into those of the French and Americans 
at the surrender. 

Mr. Headley 's explanation of the 
probable history of the guns bearing 
the inscription " Liberte and Egalite," 
and the date of construction, " an 3 " 
(1792), viz., that they were English tro- 
phies of the wars of Napoleon which 
fell into American hands in the Anglo- 
American war of i 81 2 is no doubt cor- 
rect. 

Philip Leadbeater Freneau, son of the 
late Edward Leadbeater Freneau, and 
grandson of Philip Freneau, the well- 
known poet and satirist of the revolu- 
tionary period, died at Fort Hamilton, 
Long Island, on the 10th December, in 
his 58th year. The family are of Hu- 
guenot descent. His ancestors were of 
the founders of the church of St. Esprit 
in Pine street. Their homestead was in 
Hanover Square. The deceased was 
the head of a well-known house in the 
woolen trade of New York. 



Epes Sargent, whose name has been 
familiar for the last forty years as an 
author, journalist and writer of plays, 



i 5 8 



EDITORS CHRONICLE 



died in Boston, Friday, the 31st of De- 
cember. He was born in Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, in 1812. He assisted Pe- 
ter Parley (Samuel Goodrich) in his 
tales for youth. Among his successful 
plays were the Bride of Genoa, written 
for Josephine Clifton, and the tragedy 
of Velasco for Miss Ellen Tree. He 
was one of the editors of the New 
Monthly Magazine, and later of the 
Boston Transcript. He was a prolific 
and versatile writer. He is best known 
by his series of School Readers, Spellers 
and Speakers. 



Michigan claims a centenarian in 
the person of John P. Simpson, a resi- 
dent of Capac, in St. Clair county. He 
was born at Leeds, England, October, 
1780. Landing at Vermont, he crossed 
to the New York frontier. About thir- 
ty-five years ago he settled on the Pon- 
tiac road near Detroit. In 1861 he 
moved to St. Clair county. The notice 
of his eventful life describes him as 
prostrated by a recent stroke of pa- 
ralysis. 

Benjamin Rhodes, the courteous li- 
brarian of the Redwood Library at 
Newport, Rhode Island, died in that 
city December 23d. 



No decision has yet been reached by 
the Committee on Additional Accommo- 
dations for the Library of Congress in re- 
gard to the location for the new building, 
but there is reason to believe that Judi- 
ciary Square will be selected. The Con- 
gressional Library now contains three 
hundred and seventy-five thousand vol- 
umes, exclusive of its large collection of 



newspapers and pamphlets, and it is esti- 
mated that in sixteen years the number 
of books will reach a million and a half. 
This accumulation meets with criticism 
and opposition from quarters where least 
expected. Surely there should be one 
library, and that national, where every 
volume published in America may be 
accessible ; a result easily obtained with 
sufficient space and a well devised sys- 
tem of card catalogues. 

The addition of a new wing to the 
Astor Library, and of a story to the 
central part of the building, give it a fin- 
ished appearance. The three sections 
have been erected consecutively by the 
founder, John Jacob Astor, his son Wil- 
liam B. Astor and John Jacob Astor, son 
of the last named. The number of vol- 
umes is nearly two hundred thousand. 
It is desirable that in any increase the 
scheme of Mr. Cogswell of a great ref- 
erence library should be adhered to. 



The experiment of a Free Circulating 
Library in New York, though modestly 
begun, has proved entirely successful ; 
and the fact is demonstrated that books 
can be given out to applicants almost 
indiscriminately without serious damage 
or loss. The first Annual Report shows 
that of 22,558 volumes loaned, only two 
were lost. This institution has a great 
future before it, and has a fair claim to 
a share of municipal appropriation. 



The Mercantile Library of Baltimore 
is about to enter upon a new era in its 
history, Mr. John W. McCoy, President 
of the Association, having made a mu- 
nificent offer, which, if met in a spirit of 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



159 



liberality by those who have the welfare 
of the city at heart, will place this ex- 
cellent institution on a basis of perma- 
nent usefulness, and obtain for it a 
home. He proposes to secure the 
rent of a commodious building, to be 
immediately constructed on the corner 
of Charles and Saratoga streets, in a 
sum of $2,500 per annum for five years, 
and if the public will equip and endow 
it with a fund equal to $3,000 annually, 
he will convert the guarantee into an ab- 
solute gift of $10,000. 



It has been until recently supposed 
that the lettres galantes, written to 
Aaron Burr and carefully preserved by 
him, were destroyed after his death by 
Matthew L. Davis, his friend, who as- 
sumed the administration of his estate ; 
but Mr. Thurlow Weed, in a conversa- 
tion lately published in the Indianapolis 
Journal, and from it republished by the 
New York Evening Post, stated that 
many of them were returned to their 
authors. In the reprint of the conver- 
sation in the latter paper it is added 
"that these letters have not been de- 
stroyed, but a large number of them are 
now packed away in a house in a village 
on Long Island." 



The Hon. Alexander H. H. Stewart of 
Virginia, in a letter giving an account of 
the celebration of the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the Declaration of Independence 
at Stanton, Virginia, relates an impres- 
sive scene which occurred at the Eagle 
Tavern there July 4, 1826. In the midst 
of the festivities, the intelligence of the 
death near noon that day of Thomas 
Jefferson was received. Mr. Chapman 



Johnson, to whom it was communicated, 
rose, requested all present to fill their 
glasses, rise and remain standing, 
when in solemn manner he offered 
the following beautiful impromptu sen- 
timent ; " The memory of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, author of the Declaration of In- 
dependence ! Though the mortal man 
may never witness another celebration of 
the day which his pen has so much illus- 
trated, his immortal spirit will be present 
and inspire the last anthem which hal- 
lows his memory." 



The Texas press gives information of 
a plan to divide that vast territory in- 
to four new additional states, which is 
to be submitted at the coming meeting 
of its Legislature. The joint resolution 
of Congress, for annexing Texas to the 
United States, provides for such divis- 
sion, stipulating only that these new 
additional states shall have sufficient 
population and be formed by consent of 
the said state. The last census shows 
that she has sufficient population. It is 
held, however, that her sale of her claim 
to New Mexico limits her right to three 
additional states. An attempt at this 
period to exercise this right would give 
rise to a sectional controversy similar 
to that which arose over Kansas. How 
far the secession of Texas, and the con- 
sequent action of Congress necessary to 
her admission to the Union, may have 
affected this privilege, is a matter for the 
Supreme Court to decide. 



The Archaeological Institute of Amer- 
ica, established in Boston, has recently 
sent out an expedition to investigate the 
remains of the ancient Greek city of 



i6o 



editor's chronicle 



Assos, which lies on Turkish soil, on the 
Southern coast of Mysia, in Asia Minor, 
east of the promontory of Lectum, the 
modern cape Baba, in the plain of Troy. 
For the archaeologist it is said to be virgin 
soil. The ruins are extensive, including 
an acropolis, a temple, a theatre, and 
walls with ' gate-ways and towers ; un- 
questionable remains of Greek fortifica- 
tion. 

The names of the Brule Sioux chiefs 
now in Washington, to complete the 
negotiations for railroad rights of way 
through their reservation, are White 
Ghost, Iron Native, Dear Hand, Little 
Pheasant, Medicine Bull, Bull Head, 
Don't-Know-How, Dog Back, Bear Bird, 
Big Mane, Weasel and Handsome Elk. 



Mr. A. S. Logan, a lineal descendant 
of the celebrated Indian chief of the Six 
Nations of that name, has been appointed 
by Secretary Schurz to a position in .the 
Interior Department. 



The portrait of Pitalesharu, head chief 
of the Pawnees, which appeared in the 
November number of this Magazine, an 
engraving on wood by J. H. Richardson, 
our oldest wood engraver, is pronounced 
to be one of the finest specimens of that 
art in this country. 



The drawings of Headquarters and 
houses which have appeared in our 
pages, have all been from original 
sketches by Mr. Abram Hosier, who has 
in his portfolio a large number of draw- 
ings of this character. 



Historical interest throughout the 
country is greatly promoted through 
adoption by local newspapers of a de- 



partment of Notes and Queries. The 
Daily Telegraph, Harrisburgh, Penn., 
prints two columns of historical and geo- 
logical information in its issue of Jan. ist. 
The Richmond Standard, under the 
same title, publishes a series of valuable 
contributions on Virginia family history. 



To the Christian Advocate, of Thurs- 
day, December 30th, under the title of 
the Capture and execution of Maj. Andre, 
Rev. D. Curry, D.D., contributes a care- 
ful, well poised examination or study of 
this always interesting subject. For 
the first time we find applied to the 
conduct of Andre in his last extremity 
the just epithet of melo-dramatic. View- 
ing it in its moral light he considers his 
case as one that calls for the sternest con- 
demnation. Dr. Curry proposes in an- 
other article to consider the subject in 
respect to the actions and motives of 
his captors. This paper we await with 
interest. 



The destruction by fire on the night of 
the 1 st of January, 1881, of the histori- 
cal buildings of Mt. St. Vincent, in Cen- 
tral Park, East 103d street, destroyed 
: another of the few remaining landmarks 
of old New York. The wooden struc- 
ture with its old fashion beams and fire 
places, was built before the Revolution 
by Andrew McGown, and was on the 
line of the British outposts during the 
late summer and fall, 1776, when the 
armies of Washington and Howe watched 
each other from the Point of Rocks and 
the heights which overlooked McGown's 
Pass ; the Harlem Plains, fertile, unin- 
habited and debatable ground, lay be- 
tween. 



\ 



MAGAZINE OF 



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MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. VI MARCH 1881 No. 3 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

IN Southern Illinois, near the Mississippi, a hundred miles or more 
above the mouth of the Ohio, is situated the ancient village of 
Kaskaskia, supposed to be the oldest permanent European 
settlement in the valley of the Father of the waters. The eminent 
historian who concedes to it this distinction finds it difficult to fix the 
date of its origin, and leaves that undetermined. 1 Its foundation has 
been variously ascribed to members of La Salle's expedition to the 
mouth of the Mississippi on their return in 1682,' to Father James 
Gravier in 1683 or in 1685, 3 to Tonti in 1686, 4 and to others still, mission- 
aries or explorers, at different dates in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. But the uncertainty upon this point has arisen, in part at 
least, from the confounding of Kaskaskia with an earlier Indian settle- 
ment of the same name on the Illinois river, where was established the 
Jesuit mission afterwards removed to the existing village. And this, 
perhaps, will be more apparent from a brief sketch of the history of that 
mission. 

When Father Marquette returned from his adventurous voyage upon 
the Mississippi in 1673, by the way of the Illinois, he found on the latter 
river a village of the Illinois tribe, containing seventy-four cabins, which 
was called Kaskaskia. Its inhabitants received him well, and obtained 
from him a promise to return and instruct them. He kept that promise 
faithfully, undaunted by disease and toilsome journeys and inclement 
weather, and, after a rude wintering by the Chicago river, reached the 
Illinois village again, April 8th, 1675/ The site of this Indian settle- 
ment has since been identified with the great meadow south of the 
modern town of Utica in the State of Illinois, and nearly opposite to the 
tall cliff soon after known as Fort St. Louis of the Illinois, and in later 
times as Starved Rock. 8 Marquette established there a mission, to which 
he gave the name of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin, 



l62 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

and, for a little time, was able to teach the chiefs and the people. But 
continued illness soon obliged him to set forth upon that return voyage 
which brought him to a lonely grave in the wilderness. 

To him succeeded the zealous priest, Claude Allouez, who seems to 
have been at the mission the following year, and at all events reached it 
in April, 1677. He was lodged, as he says, in Marquette's cabin, and 
erected a cross 25 feet high in the midst of the town, which the old men 
earnestly commended him to place well so that it could not fall. Depart- 
ing shortly after, he returned in 1678, but the incursions of the resistless 
warriors of the Five Nations scattered the Illinois, and checked the mis- 
sion, and the approach of La Salle, who was unfriendly to him, compelled 
Allouez's retirement the following year. The attempts of the priests 
who accompanied La Salle to continue the work, were set at naught by 
the attacks of the Iroquois upon the Illinois, who fled before their fierce 
oppressors. In 1684, however, Allouez returned under more favorable 
auspices, and was at the mission the greater part of the time until his 
death in 1690. 

He was followed by the famous Jesuit, Sebastian Rasle, who embarked 
in a canoe at Quebec, in August, 1691, to go to the Illinois, and com- 
pleted his journey of more than eight hundred leagues the following 
spring. Within two years, he was recalled to his original charge among 
the Abnaki Indians, to find a martyr's fate long after at the hands of New 
England soldiers by the waters of the Kennebec. 

Father James Gravier, who had been at the mission during Allouez's 
absence in 1687, received it from Father Rasle, and built a chapel within 
the walls of Fort St. Louis which overlooked the village. His journal 
of the Mission of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady at the Illinois, 
from March 20th, 1693, to February 15th, 1694, gives a very interesting 
account of his labors among the Indians upon the Illinois river. 7 This 
it will be noticed is ten years or more after the time when some have 
supposed he founded the present Kaskaskia, three hundred miles or 
more to the southward, upon the Mississippi. The Illinois nation or 
confederacy was composed of five bands or tribes, the Kaskaskias, the 
Peorias, the Cahokias, the Tamaroas, and the Mitchigamias. Gravier's 
work was principally among the first of these, but extended also to the 
Peorias. He longed to include in it the Tamaroas and the Cahokias, 
who were on the Mississippi between his mission and the site of the Kas- 
kaskia of to-day, but was unable to do more than to make them a single 
brief visit, because he was alone in the land. Of the Mitchigamias, who 
were still lower down the great river, but north of the place he is said 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 1 63 

to have founded in 1683 or 1685, and whose village he must have passed in 
order to reach it, Gravier seems hardly to have heard. And it is but 
reasonable to infer that at the date of his journal he had not traveled as 
far as their settlement. 

During his stay in this region, Father Gravier studied the language 
of the Illinois, and reduced it to grammatical rules, and was regarded by 
his successors as the real founder of the mission, because he ensured its 
permanency. 8 When recalled to Michillimackinac, about 1699, he left the 
Fathers Bineteau and Pinet in charge of the different branches of the 
original establishment, and with them labored Gabriel Marest, who 
seems to have been particularly associated with the Kaskaskia tribe. It 
will readily be seen that in the writings of such a number of missionaries, 
at these various dates, concerning a mission frequently spoken of as at 
Kaskaskia, or the village of the Kaskaskias, many allusions might occur 
which would seem to refer to the present place of the name. 

But the evidence that this mission remained upon the Illinois river 
until the year 1700, and that there was no settlement before that time 
upon the site of the Kaskaskia we now know, appears to be well nigh 
conclusive. A letter written to the Bishop of Quebec by John Francis 
Buisson de St. Cosme, a missionary priest, describes the journey of his 
party from Michillimackinac to the mouth of the Arkansas, by the Illi- 
nois and Mississippi rivers, in the year 1699. 9 They stayed at the 
house of the Jesuit Fathers at Chicago, and set out from there about 
November first, on what one of their predecessors calls the divine river, 
named by the Indians Checagou, and made the portage to the river of 
the Illinois. Passing the Illinois village before referred to, they learned 
that most of the Indians had gone to -Peoria Lake to hunt. Arriving 
there, they met the Fathers Pinet and Maret, with their flock, of which 
St. Cosme gives a good account, and he speaks of their work as the Illi- 
nois mission. The party journeyed onward under the guidance of La 
Salle's trusty lieutenant, Tonti. While on the Illinois river, certain In- 
dians attempted to prevent their going to the Mississippi, and intimated 
that they would be killed if they did so. Tonti replied that he did not 
fear men, that they had seen him meet the Iroquois, and knew that he 
could kill men ; and the Indians offered no further opposition. They 
reached the Mississippi the 6th of December, 1699, and the next day 
reached the village of the Tamarois, who had never seen any "black 
gown," except for a few days when the reverend Father Gravier paid 
them a visit. A week later, they ascended a rock on the right, going 
down the river, and erected a beautiful cross, which their escort saluted 



164 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

with a volley of musketry, and St. Cosme prayed that God might grant 
that the cross, which had never been known in those regions, might 
triumph there. From the context of the letter, it is evident that this 
ceremony took place not far below the site of the present Kaskaskia r 
which St. Cosme must have passed to reach this rock, but he makes no 
mention of such a village. Furthermore, within fifteen miles or so of Kas- 
kaskia, there is a rocky bluff on the Missouri side of the river, known now 
as the Cape of the Five Men, or Cap Cinq Hommes. This doubtless is 
a corruption of the name of the good Father St. Cosme, as appearsirom 
a map made a little more than one hundred years ago, which gives 
both names, Cinqhommes and St. Cosme, to this very bluff. It probably 
is the identical one which he ascended, and he could not have spoken of 
the cross as unknown in those regions, had there then been any settle- 
ment so near the spot as the Kaskaskia we now know. Tonti, who was 
the leader of this party, is thought by some to have founded Kaskaskia in 
1686. Nobler founder could no town have had than this faithful and fear- 
less soldier, but the facts just narrated make such a theory impossible. 

Again in the early part of the year 1700, a bold voyager, Le Sueur, 
whose journal is in print, 10 pushed up the Mississippi from its mouth, 
where DTberville had just planted the banner of France, and passed the 
site of Kaskaskia, without notice of such a place. He speaks of the 
village of the Tamarois, where by this time St Cosme had taken up his 
abode on his return from the south. About July 15th, going northward, 
Le Sueur arrived at the mouth of the Illinois, and there .met three 
Canadian voyageurs coming to join his party, and received by them a 
letter from the Jesuit Marest, dated July 10th, 1700, at the Mission of the 
Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin at the Illinois. The letter 
of St. Cosme, and the journal of Le Sueur, seem to show clearly enough 
that down to the middle of the year 1700, the present Kaskaskia had 
not been settled, and that the Mission was still on the Illinois river. 

And lastly we have the journal of the voyage of Father James 
Gravier, in 1700, from the country of the Illinois to the mouth of the 
Mississippi ; " from which we learn that he returned from Michillimack- 
inac, and set out from Chicago on the 8th of September, 1700. He 
says he arrived too late at the Illinois, of whom Father Marest had 
charge, to prevent the transmigration of the village of the Kaskaskias, 
which was too precipitately made, on vague news of the establishment 
on the Mississippi, evidently referring to the landing of DTberville the 
year before. He did not believe that the Kaskaskias, whom Marest 
accompanied, would have separated from the Peorias and other Illinois, 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 



I6 5 



had he arrived sooner; and he obtained a promise from the Peorias to 
await his return from the Mississippi. After having marched four days 
with the Kaskaskias, Gravier went forward with Marest, whom he left 
sick at the Tamarois village, and departed from there October 9th, 
1700, to go to the lower part of the Mississippi, accompanied only by 
some Frenchmen. The Indians with Marest, we may presume, halted 
upon the peninsula between the Kaskaskia and the Mississippi rivers, 
where we soon after find them ; and thus doubtless was accomplished 
the transfer of the mission to its final location. The eagerness of the 
Illinois tribes to be in closer communication with the French was 
probably intensified by their desire to escape any further assaults from 
their dreaded enemies, and to rear their wigwams where they would 
never hear the war-cry of the Iroquois. Both motives would operate 
more powerfully with the Kaskaskias than with any others, because 
they had been longer under the influence of the French, and because, 
in their old location, they were the first to receive the onslaughts of the 
relentless foemen of the Illinois. Hence they set out to go to the lower 
Mississippi, but Gravier's influence, and perhaps Marest's illness as well, 
led them to pause at the first suitable resting place, and that became 
their permanent abode. And when we consider that a few years later, 
this same Father Marest, who accompanied these Indians on their 
migration, was stationed at the present Kaskaskia, in charge of the 
Mission of the Immaculate Conception, as appears from his letters ; 1£ 
that he died and was buried there, as is shown by the parish records ; i: 
and that we hear nothing further of a mission of this name on the 
Illinois river ; we may reasonably conclude that the Kaskaskia of our 
time should date its origin from the fall of the year 1700, and should 
honor James Gravier and Gabriel Marest as its founders. 

From Marest's letters we know that some Frenchmen intermarried 
with the Indians of this village, and dwelt there, and we may naturally 
infer that their presence attracted others of their race, trappers, fur 
traders, and voyageurs to the new location. And so, almost at the dawn 
of the history of the territory included within the limits of the State of 
Illinois, the present Kaskaskia was inhabited by a mixed population of 
whites and Indians, under the sway of the priests of the Order of Jesus. 
At first a mission simply, then a trading station, and soon a military 
post ; within twenty years from its foundation, it had enough of the 
features of a permanent settlement to justify the worthy priests in 
organizing there a parish, which succeeded to their beloved mission, 
and was known by the same name. 



l66 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

A large portion of the church records of this parish, beginning 
perhaps with its establishment, and some extracts from those of the 
earlier mission, have fortunately been preserved to this day ; and they 
throw many a curious and interesting side-light upon the events of the 
times in which they were written. Of their authenticity there can be 
no question. Some of them are still in the custody of the priest of the 
parish, and others are in the possession of a prelate of the church that 
has labored so long and so zealously in the region of which these 
records illustrate the history. By his thoughtful care, the earlier books, 
which suffered damage at Kaskaskia in the flood of 1844, were removed 
to a place of greater security. And recently the volumes containing 
the entries made between the years 1695 and 1835 have been arranged 
and re-bound, and with proper care may remain a monument of the 
early history of what is now the State of Illinois for many years to 
come. 

In the re-binding, has been preserved intact the old parchment 
cover of the first of these records, on which may be dimly traced in the 
faded ink the words " Registrum pro anno 1696," but the remainder of 
the inscription is too indistinct to be deciphered. Probably it is the 
same in which Father Marest carried the scanty records of the mission 
at its removal. The originals of these mission records have not been 
preserved, and we have in their stead a copy of a portion only, entitled 
" Extrait des Regitres de Bapteme de la Mission des Illinois sous le titre de 
V Immaculee' Conseption de la S. V" The copy itself, a small quarto of 
six pages, is in Latin, and the first entry is of the baptism, March 20th, 
1695, by James Gravier, of Pierre Aco, the newly born son of Michael 
Aco, and Maria Aramipinchicoue. The godfather was D. de Mautchy, 
in whose place stood D. Montmidy, and the godmother was Maria 
Joanna, grandmother of the boy. This Michael Aco was one of the 
Frenchmen who accompanied Father Hennepin on his journey to the 
Upper Mississippi, when the Falls of St. Anthony were discovered and 
named, and probably was the leader of the party although the intrepid 
falsifier Hennepin assumes that honor for himself in his account of the 
expedition. Aco's wife was the daughter of the chief of the Kaskaskias, 
and Gravier's journal describes their marriage in 1693. She was a 
convert, and through her influence her parents embraced Christianity, 
and she rendered great service to the missionaries as a teacher of the 
children. The boy Pierre Aco lived to be a citizen of the second Kas- 
kaskia, and the transcript of the old French title records now in the 
office of the recorder of Randolph County, Illinois, contains a deed from 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 1 67 

him of a lot in Kaskaskia executed September 12th, 1725. The two 
other entries in the mission record in 1695 are of the baptisms of 
children of French Fathers and Indian mothers, the second of Michael, 
son of Jean Colon La Violette and Catharine Ekipakinoua, whose god- 
father was Michael Aco. It is curious to notice the difficulty the good 
fathers seem to have found in writing the names of the Indian women 
who appeared at these baptisms, as mothers and godmothers of the 
infants, as shown by their use of Greek characters for this purpose. 
We can imagine them standing at the font, listening to the many sylla- 
bled titles of parents and sponsors, smoothly uttered in the Illinois 
tongue, and vainly trying to reproduce them, until in despair they have 
resource to their classical learning for symbols of something akin to the 
new sounds. 

In the year 1697, another son of La Violette and Catherine of the 
lengthy name, was baptized by Father Julian Bineteau, who had been a 
missionary in Maine in 1693, and the next year was stationed on the St. 
Lawrence. St. Cosme met him at Chicago, in 1699, when he had 
recently come in from the Illinois and was ill. He died, not long after, 
while following his Indians on their summer hunt over the parched 
prairies, when fatigue and exposure led to a severe sickness of which 
he expired in the arms of his devoted colleague, Gabriel Marest. 

In September, 1699, Father Marest baptized Theresa Panicoue ; and 
the same year, in November, another son of La Violette was baptized 
by De Montigny of the same party with St. Cosme, and Tonti was the 
godfather. St. Cosme, in the letter from which quotation has been 
made, speaking of their descent of the Illinois and landing at an Indian 
village, November 28, 1699, says : " We said mass in the cabin of a soldier 
named La Violette, married to a squaw, whose child Mr. De Montigny 
baptized." The entry in the mission record and the letter therefore 
confirm each other. 

The first ceremony recorded after the removal of the mission to 
the present village, is a baptism performed April 17, 1701, by Gabriel 
Marest ; and the first and indeed the only one at which Gravier offici- 
ated, after this removal, occurred April 13, 1703, when he baptized 
the infant son of Pierre Bizaillon and Maria Theresia. No further 
mention is made of Father Gravier in these records ; but we know from 
other sources that he returned to the Peorias to labor among them, was 
dangerously wounded in a tumult excited by the medicine men, and de- 
scended the river in search of medical treatment, and that his injuries, 
aggravated by the long voyage, proved fatal to him at Mobile in 1706. 



i6% kaskaskia and its parish records 

Under date of April 13, 1703, there appears in the midst of the 
entries of baptisms the single sentence "Ad ripam Metchagamia dictam 
venimus" Whether this commemorates an expedition by some priest 
to the shore of Lake Michigan, which perhaps he gaxed upon from 
the site of Chicago, or a visit to the little river flowing into the Mis- 
sissippi, by which dwelt the Mitchagamias who gave their name to 
both lake and river, we cannot tell. But it indicates an event which 
to some one seemed of importance enough to be recorded, in the archives 
of the mission as carefully as were the ceremonies of the church. In 
1707, first appears the name of the Father P. J. Mermet, who came 
from the great village of the Peorias, after the death of Pinet and 
Bineteau, to join Marest, with whom he was happily associated for 
many years. The latter, writing of their life at Kaskaskia, says: 
" Mermet remains at. the village for the instruction of the Indians 
who stay there, the delicacy of his constitution placing it entirely out 
of his power to sustain the fatigues of the long journeys. Neverthe- 
less, in spite of his feeble health, I can say that he is the soul of this 
mission. For myself, who am so constituted that I can run on the 
snow with the rapidity with which a paddle is worked in a canoe, 
and who have, thanks to God, the strength necessary to endure all 
these toils, I roam through the forests with the rest of our Indians, 
much the greater part of whom pass a portion of the winter in the 
chase." 

April 26, 1707, Mermet performs the baptismal ceremony for the 
daughter of Tinice Outauticoue, (godmother Maria Oucanicoue), and 
George Thorel, commonly called the Parisian. It is strange to think 
that there should have been at that early day in the western wilderness, 
one having so much of the airs and graces of the gay capital of France, 
as to be known distinctively as its citizen. The subsequent baptisms at 
the mission seem all to have been by Mermet and Marest, and the names 
of the women are usually Indian, including such remarkable ones as 
Martha Merounouetamoucoue and Domitilla Tehuigouanakigaboucoue. 
Occasionally, however, both parents are French. Thus, March 3d, 
171 5, was baptized Joannes son of Jean Baptiste Potier and Francoise 
Le Brise, who officiated as godmother at a ceremony in November of 
the same year. These are the earliest appearances of one of the 
matrons of the hamlet, who seems from subsequent notices to have 
afterwards become a perennial godmother. She figures in that 
capacity on two occasions in 17 17, having also presented a child of 
her own for baptism in that year, and on one of the only two 




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KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 169 

chronicled in 1718, and we find her at the font again in 1719. With 
an entry made October 2d of the latter year, the baptismal register 
of the mission proper seems to end ; although a very few entries in 
1732-3 and 1735 are appended, but these seem to belong rather to the 
parish. 

For the parish by this time had been established ; and the next in 
order of these documents is a quarto of twenty-two pages, written in 
French, as all the rest of these records are, beginning with the 
" Registre Des B apt ernes fait s dans Leglise de la Mission et dans la Paroisse 
de la Conception de Ne dame. Commence' le 18 Jnin, 17 19." It is evident 
from this that the mission chapel was still in use, but that a parish had 
been duly formed. And we learn from the first entry that another 
element had been added to the population, and that the soldiers of 
France were at the little village. This is of a baptism performed June 
18, 1 7 19, by Le Boullenger of the Society of Jesus, chaplain of the 
troops, and the godfather is Le Sieur Jacques Bouchart de Verasae, 
ensign of the troops. We may mention in passing that the infant is the 
daughter of the marriage of Jean B. Potier and Francoise Le Brise. The 
priest here named, Joseph Ignatius le Boullenger, is said to have been 
a man of great missionary tact and wonderful skill in languages. His 
Illinois catechism, and instructions in the same dialect concerning the 
mass and the sacraments, were considered to be masterpieces by other 
missionaries, for whose benefit he prepared a literal French translation. 
The names of French officers, Charles Legardeur de LTsle and Claude 
Charles du Tisne, appear as godfathers in two succeeding entries, and 
our good friend Francoise Le Brise officiates on both occasions as god- 
mother. We regret to notice that the godmothers as a rule, and she is 
no exception, declare that they are unable to write, and therefore make 
their marks. One baptism is of the daughter of a slave woman bearing 
an Indian name. January 20, 1720, was baptized the son of Charles 
Danis, a name well known at Kaskaskia as that of one of the first set 
tiers, to whom was made the earliest recorded land grant in that 
locality. It was dated May 10, 1722, and executed by Pierre Duque 
Boisbriant, Knight of the military order of St. Louis, and first king's 
lieutenant of the province of Louisiana, commanding at the Illinois, and 
Marc Antoine de la loire des Ursins, principal secretary for the Royal 
India Company. The godfather for Danis' child was this same Pierre 
Duque Boisbriant, who was the first military commander in that 
region, and in one sense may be called the first governor of Illinois. 
And about this time we meet with the name of Jean Charles Guymon- 



I/O KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

neau of the Company of Jesus, who was the principal officer of the 
church at the Illinois, and had special charge of an Indian village six 
miles inland from the Mississippi. 

And now another change takes place, and Kaskaskia is no longer in 
the pastoral care of a missionary or military chaplain, -but has its 
regular parish priest. Father Nicholas Ignatius de Beaubois, who 
describes himself as " cure de cette Paroisse" signalizes his accession by 
opening a new " Registre des Baptemes faits dans Veglise Paroissiale de la 
Conception de Ne Dame des Cascaskias" which he commences July 9, 1720. 
And this, perhaps, indicates the time of the substitution of a parish 
church for the earlier mission chapel. The entries preceding this date, 
made by Boullenger and Guymonneau are, as the manuscript plainly 
shows, copies, and not the original record, and how this happened we 
speedily learn. For the precise Beaubois inserts in his register the 
following statement : " All that which precedes is an extract which I, 
Nicholas Ig. de Beaubois, S. J., Cure of the parish of the Conception of 
our lady of the Cascaskias, certify to be correct and conformed to the 
original, which I have suppressed because it was not in order, and 
because it was kept on scattered leaves, and the present extract is 
signed by two witnesses, who have compared the present copy with 
the original; the 25th of July, 1720: De Beaubois, S. J." We could 
wish that this choleric priest had been a little more patient, or his pre- 
decessor a little more careful, for the scattered leaves of that suppressed 
original contained probably the only autograph of Commandant Bois- 
briant ever written in the parish register, and would have been a little 
earlier original record than any we know of now in Illinois. But it 
was not so to be, and we must content ourselves with the fact that this 
register which Beaubois began is an undoubted original, containing 
perhaps the earliest existing manuscript penned in what is now the 
State of Illinois. And its opening entry of July 9th, 1720, has a special 
interest of its own, for the godfather at that baptism was " Le Sieur 
Pierre D'Artaguiette," captain of a company, and his signature is 
appended. He was a gallant young officer of good family in France, 
who some years later distinguished himself greatly in the wars with 
the Natchez Indians, and won promotion thereby, and the position 
of Commandant at the Illinois. From his station there, in 1736, he 
marched against the Chickasaws, under the orders of the royal gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, and bravely met a tragic death in the campaign. 
Next we have an entry of a child baptized by a soldier, because it was 
in danger of death before it could be brought to a priest, but Beaubois 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS I^I 

nevertheless performs the ceremony over again. In the year 1720 le 
Sieur Girardot, ensign of the troops, appears as godfather, and from 
this time on regularly officiates in that capacity, vieing with Francoise 
Le Brise in frequency of attendance at the baptismal rite in the char- 
acter of sponsor. His name was long known in Kaskaskia and its 
neighborhood, where he spent many years, and it is probably borne 
to-day by the town of Cape Girardeau in Missouri. In 1721 Le Sieur 
Nicholas Michel Chassin, Commissary of the Company of the West in 
the country of the Illinois, signs the register. He was one of the rep- 
resentatives of John Law's famous Mississippi Company, or Company 
of the West, afterwards merged in the Company of the Indies. In the 
same year a child was re-baptized, over whom the ceremony had been 
once performed, on account of the risk and danger of the voyage up 
the Mississippi, by le Sieur Noyent, Major de la Place, at New Orleans, 
September 10, 1720, which seems to show that the date of 1723, usually 
given for the founding of New Orleans, is incorrect. So too a child, 
born at the Natchez in December, 1720, and baptized there by a voy- 
ageur, Pierre La Violette, probably a son of the soldier named in the 
mission records, was again baptized at Kaskaskia in May, 1721. And in 
the following June that worthy woman, Francoise Le Brise, comes once 
more to the front in her favorite r61e of godmother, and unhesitatingly 
asserts that she is not able to sign her name, and is permitted to make 
her mark, which she does with a vigor and emphasis which indicate 
that she was a woman of weight and influence in the community. By 
this time she has a competitor in one Catharine Juillet, who almost 
divides the honors with her, and who about this period officiates at 
the baptism of the son of a Pawnee slave, in company with le Sieur 
Philippe de la Renaudiere, directeur des mines pour la Compagnie d' Occi- 
dent, who signs his name to the register. And the succeeding entry is 
that of the baptism of the son born of the marriage of this Renaudiere, 
who was a great man in the new colony, and the lady Perrine Pivet. 
This affair was one of state, and to the record of it are affixed the sig- 
natures, not only of the parents and the godfather, Le Gardeur de LTsle, 
but of D'Artaguiette, Chassin, St. Jean Tonty — perhaps a relative of 
the great Tonti — Jean Baptiste Girardot and others. The last entry of 
a baptism in this book is on July 28th, 1721, and no baptismal register 
between that date and the year 1759 can now be found. 

But next in order of time comes the Registre des Decedes dans la 
Paroisse de la Conception de Notre Dame des Cascaskias, Commence le 4^ de 
Janvier 1721, which begins with " the death in the parish on that day, 



1/2 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

at two hours after midnight, of Adrien Robillard, aged about forty-one 
years, an inhabitant of the parish, married the preceding night to Domi- 
tilla Sacatchioucoua. He had made confession and received the 
viaticum and the sacrament of extreme unction. His body was buried 
with the accustomed ceremonies in the cemetery of the parish, upon 
the high ground near the church, the same day of the month and 
year aforesaid. In witness whereof I have signed. N. Ig. de Beaubois 
S. J." In 1721 appears the death of the wife of Francois Freiul, called 
the Good Hearted One, of the King's Brigade of Miners ; and also a 
solemn service for the repose of the soul of the deceased Sieur Louis 
Tessier, churchwarden of the said parish, who died at Natchez the third 
of the month of June. In 1722 an entry is made, which strikingly 
illustrates the perils which beset the people of that little village on the 
great river, which was their only means of communication with the 
nearest settlements, hundreds of miles away. It reads as follows: 
" The news has come here this day of the death of Alexis Blaye and 
Laurent Bransart, who were slain upon the Mississippi by the Chicka- 
saws. The day of their death is not known." Then, in a different ink, 
as if written at another time, is added below : " It was the 5th or 6th of 
March, 1722." And this state of things is sadly emphasized by the 
entry immediately following. " The same year, on the 22d of June, 
was celebrated in the parish church of the Kaskaskias a solemn service 
for the repose of the soul of the lady Michelle Chauvin, wife of Jacques 
Nepven, merchant of Montreal, aged about 45 years, and of Jean 
Michelle Nepven, aged twenty years, and Elizabeth Nepven, aged 
13 years, and Susanne Nepven, 8 years, her children. They were 
slain by the savages from 5 to 7 leagues from the Wabash. It is 
believed that Jacques Nepven was taken prisoner, and carried away 
with one young boy, aged about nine years, named Prever, and 
one young slave girl, not baptized." This family doubtless was 
removing from Canada to Kaskaskia, as a number did about this time, 
and had traveled the long and weary way by the St. Lawrence and 
Lakes Ontario and Erie, the Miami River, the portage to the Wabash, 
and the Ohio. From fifteen to twenty miles above the mouth of the 
latter river, then called the Wabash by the French, or within eighty 
miles or so of their destination, when they were counting the hours to 
their glad arrival there, they were waylaid by the merciless savages, 
the mother, son and two daughters killed, and the father and two ser- 
vants taken captives. One daughter appears from other minutes in 
these records to have escaped this catastrophe, and she became the wife 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 1 73 

of the young ensign, Jean B. Girardot, whose signature becomes so 
familiar to us as we turn these ancient pages. There follows another 
solemn service for Jean B. Robillard, who died and was buried at Point 
Coupee, upon the Mississippi, the 14th of July of the year 1722, and 
then the death of Pierre Barel, a married man having wife and children 
in Canada. 

The Register is kept entirely by Father Beaubois during these 
years, except one entry by Boullenger, who states that he made it for 
Beaubois in his absence, which words are heavily underlined. As he 
inserted this in the wrong place, by order of dates, and styles it an 
omission, it is a wonder that Beaubois permitted it to remain. And we 
can but be thankful that he did not lose his temper on his return, and 
suppress all that had gone before on this account. 

In 1724 the simple relation of what happened in a single day gives 
us a graphic picture of the sad scenes the infant settlement had some- 
times to witness. In that year, "the 12th of April, were slain at break 
of day by the Fox Indians four men, to-wit : Pierre Du Vaud, a mar- 
ried man about twenty-five years of age, Pierre Bascau dit Beau Soleil, 
also a married man about 28 or 30 years of age, and two others, of 
whom one was known by the name of the Bohemian, and the other by 
the name of L'Etreneusieu, the three last dwelling and employed at 
Fort de Chartres. Their bodies, having been brought to Cascaskia the 
same day by the French, were buried at sun set in the cemetery of this 
parish." From break of day to set of sun ! These four, who perhaps 
had just begun their daily labor in the forest or the fields, Avere set 
upon in the early morning by the wily savages, who had come from the 
far away Fox villages in quest of scalps, and made good their retreat 
with their trophies, before the sad news was known at the stronghold 
where the victims dwelt, or at the little village which gave them sepul- 
chre before the evening shades had fallen. It is interesting to notice 
also that one of these men was called the Bohemian, probably the first 
of that race who came to Illinois, and the earliest use of the name in 
the annals of the West. September 15, 1725, is mentioned the death 
of Martha, daughter of M. Girardot, " officier des troupes" and of 
Theresa Nepven, his wife. In 1726 inserted in this burial register are 
the baptisms of a negress and negro belonging to residents of the vil- 
lage, and in 1727 that of a slave of the Padoucah tribe of Indians. 
These, with others following, seem to refer to baptisms performed 
during fatal illness, and hence included in the list of deaths. The atten- 
tion is attracted by the larger handwriting, and the crosses and heavy 



174 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

lines in the margin of the last entry in this burial register, which reads: 
"On the 18th of December, 1727, died Zebedee Le Jeune Donne, of the 
Reverend Jesuit Fathers, having received the sacraments, and was 
buried in the parish church, under the second bench from the middle. 
The same day were transferred from the old chapel to the said church 
the bodies of the Reverend Fathers Gabriel Marest and Jean Mermet, 
religious priests of the Company of Jesus, Missionaries to the Illinois, 
who died at the said mission." Thus we learn that Marest, one of the 
founders of Kaskaskia, and Mermet, who likewise was most intimately 
associated with the early history of the place, both labored there until 
the end, and found there a grave. The good shepherds, who had fol- 
lowed their wandering flock from the banks of the Illinois to a home 
by the Mississippi, and had seen the roving mission change to a per- 
manent settlement, where they had toiled long and zealously, were 
buried first in the mission chapel. But when this structure had fallen 
into decay, and a new edifice had taken its place, loving hands rev- 
erently brought thither the precious dust, that the faithful pastors might 
still sleep in the midst of their own people. 

The record of the deaths occurring in the parish, between the 
termination of this register in 1727 and the commencement of the burial 
register opened in 1764, has disappeared. After the first burial register, 
and in the same book, is a portion of the first marriage register of the 
parish, which begins abruptly in 1724 with the nuptials of Antoine and 
Marie, slaves of the Reverend Fathers the Jesuits. Among the 
witnesses who sign, are Girardot, who seems as ready to officiate at a 
wedding as at a christening, Zebedee Le Jeune, the priest whose death 
in 1727 is noted in the burial register, and one Francoise, the last name 
not given, who makes a mark we think we recognize, and who does not 
seem to be at all deterred from offering her services as a witness by her 
inability to write her name. The same year was the marriage of the 
widow of a sergeant of the king's miners, which Girardot witnesses, 
and that of a Frenchman, a widower, to an Indian woman, the widow 
of Charles Danis. This seems to have been a notable wedding, and 
D'Artaguiette and Legardeur de LTsle sign among the witnesses, and 
the inevitable Francoise le Brise makes her mark. Then follows the 
marriage of a native of Brittany with Anne, a female savage of the 
Nachitoches tribe, which both Girardot and Francoise le Brise grace 
with their presence ; and the next year that of a Frenchman with a 
German woman, which seems to have attracted the attention of the 
aborigines, as two chiefs, one the head of the Tamaroa tribe, make their 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 175 

marks as witnesses. In 1726 Jacques Hyacinthe, oi the Pawnee 

nation, was married to Therese, a freed savage woman of the 
Padoucah tribe, and the whole party signed with their marks. 

Turn we now to another entry of which the handwriting-, clear 
as copper-plate, and the ink almost as dark as if used but yesterday, 
make it well nigh impossible to realize that more than one hundred 
and fifty years have passed since the characters were formed, and the 
event described took place. It tells us that in the year 1727, 
the twentieth day of the month of October, the nuptial benediction 
was pronounced over two inhabitants of the parish, Joseph Lorrin 
and Marie Philippe, and shows that this was a great social event in 
the early day. Chassin of the Royal India Company, Girardot, Pierre 
de Franchomme, and others of the gentry of Kaskaskia sign the 
register as witnesses, and then appear two signatures, distinct and 
bold as though freshly written, which we have not met with hitherto. 
These are the names of Vinsenne and St. Ange fils : the Chevalier 
Vinsenne, commandant of the post by the Wabash, on the site of 
which the city of Vincennes in Indiana, bearing a name derived from 
his, has grown up, and the young St. Ange, one of his officers, a 
relative doubtless of the sterling soldier, who was to be the last French 
Commandant of the Illinois. They had come from their distant station, 
the nearest neighbor of Kaskaskia, a hundred leagues in bark canoes, 
or had traversed the prairie and threaded the forest for days together, 
to greet old friends and new, and to dance gaily at the wedding, all 
unmindful of the sad fate to which they were doomed ; for, ere ten 
years passed by, these two, with the knightly D'Artaguiette and the 
heroic Jesuit Senat, were to perish at the stake among the savage 
Chickasaws, who wondered to see the white men die so bravely. 

The last entry in this marriage record is under date of June 7th, 
1729, and for a space of nearly twelve years, or until January 3d, 1741, 
there is no register of marriages in this parish extant, and the book 
containing the intervening entries has probably been destroyed. On 
the day last mentioned it begins again, with R. Tartarin as Cure\ and 
from that time on it is kept in a folio volume of 220 pages, apparently 
containing a complete record of the marriages at Kaskaskia, from 1741 to 
1835. In November, 1741, is noted the marriage of the widow of Pierre 
Groson de Ste. Ange, lieutenant of a company detached from the marine, 
perhaps the young officer who died with D'Artaguiette five years 
before. September 19th, 1746, Father P. J. Watrin becomes Cure\ and 
about this period the names of natives of Quebec and of Detroit 



176 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

residing at Kaskaskia frequently occur in the register. Brother Charles 
Magendie of the Company of Jesus acts as assistant to Father Watrin, 
and we hear also of Monseigneur Mercier, Vicaire General, who occa- 
sionally exercises his authority. Slaves, red and black, and freed men 
and freed women of both colors, give light and shade to the good 
father's pages, and are dismissed with brief mention. But when on 
January 7th, 1748, the wedding of Monsieur Joseph Buchet, exercising 
the functions of Principal Secretary of the Marine, Sub-delegate of 
Monsieur the Commissary Ordonnateur and Judge at the Illinois, once 
a widower, and Marie Louise Michel, twice a widow, is celebrated, and 
the Reverend Father Guyenne, Superior of the Missions of the Com- 
pany of Jesus in Illinois, performs the ceremony, assisted, as we should 
say, by the priest of the parish, the entry is thrice as long as usual. 
And the Chevalier de Bertel, Major commanding for the King at Fort 
Chartres, and Benoist de St. Clair, Captain commanding at Kaskaskia, 
sign the record, and others of the first circles of Kaskaskia, and all are 
able to write their names. Then follows the wedding of the daughter 
of Sieur Leonard Billeront, Royal Notary at the Illinois, with the son 
of Charles Vallee, another name known long and well at Kaskaskia. 

In this year Father S. L. Meurin, who describes himself as a mis- 
sionary priest of the Company of Jesus, exercising the functions of 
Cure, signs one marriage entry ; and the next year Father M. T. Fourre 
officiates at the wedding of two slaves of Mr. de Montchevaux, Captain 
commanding at the Cascaskias. And January 13th, 1750, Father Watrin 
performed the ceremony at the union of Jean Baptiste Benoist de St. 
Claire, Captain of infantry, who had now become Commandant at the 
Illinois, and Marie Bienvenue, daughter of Antoine Bienvenue, Major 
of militia, who had not long before removed from New Orleans to 
Kaskaskia, where his descendants still reside. And the same year De 
Girardot signs once more as a witness. In 175 1 there appears the 
name of St. Gemme, which later was prominent in the history of the 
place. When the property of the Jesuits in Kaskaskia was sold by the 
French commandant for the crown, under the royal decree for the sup- 
pression of the order, St. Gemme was the purchaser, and he became 
the richest subject in the village, furnishing to the King's magazines as 
much as 86,000 weight of flour in a single season, which was only part 
of one year's harvest. The family came from Beauvais in France, and 
its members were often called by the name of that town, but the true 
patronymic was St. Gemme, which some descendants of that stock 
to-day write St. James. In 1755 De Girardot's signature greets us 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 1 77 

again, and for the last time in these records. Aubert, Jesuit, relieves 
Watrin in 1759, and the succeeding- year joins in wedlock Dussault de la 
Croix, officier des troupes du Roy, son of Messire Dessault de la Croix, 
Chevalier of the military order of St. Louis, and the widow of Antoine 
de Gruye, Lieutenant of the troops, written permission having been 
given by Monsieur de Macarty, Major Commandant at the Illinois. 
One of the witnesses is Neyon de Villier, a bold officer in the old French 
war, who did much damage on the frontiers of the colonies. He was 
one of seven brothers, who all held commissions under King Louis, and 
was Macarty's successor as Commandant of the Illinois country. 
April nth, 1763, the bans of marriage were published for the third 
time between Messire Philippe Franqois de Rastel, " Chevalier de Roche- 
blave, officier des troupes de cette colonie, natif de Savournon Diocese de Gap 
en Dauphine', fils de Messire Jean Joseph de Rastel, Chevalier Marquis de 
Rocheblave, Seigneur de Savournon le Bersac place du bourg et de m valUe de 
vitrolles" and Michel Marie Dufresne, daughter of Jacques Michel 
Dufresne, officer of militia of this parish ; written permission having 
been given by Monsieur De Neyon de Villiers, Major Commandant at 
the country of the Illinois, who signs the register. This Rocheblave, 
at the transfer of the country by the French to the English, took ser- 
vice under the banner of St. George, and was the last British Com- 
mandant of the Illinois, being captured at Fort Gage, on the bluff 
above Kaskaskia, July 4th, 1778, by the able leader, George Rogers 
Clark. In 1764 Father Meurin seems to take charge of the parish, 
which he describes as that of the Immaculate Conception of the holy 
virgin, Village of Kaskaskias, Country of the Illinois, province of 
Louisiana, diocese of Quebec ; and associated with him at times was 
Brother Luccoliet, Missionary Priest at the Illinois. 

The sturdy priest, Pierre Gibault, assumes the functions of Cure des 
Kaskaskias et Vicaire General des Illinois et Tamarois in 1768, and his 
bold signature, with its unique flourish, greets us through these records 
for fifteen years or more. We should know that the man with such a 
chirography would have been just the one to render the efficient assist- 
ance which he gave to George Rogers Clark, and must have belonged, 
as he did, to the church militant. He was very slow to recognize the 
change in the civil government of the country, when it was ceded by 
France to England, which was quite distasteful to him, and hardly 
notices it in these records. But in 1776, when the Vicar General of the 
Illinois country, the former cur6, S. L. Meurin, officiated, we find this 
transfer indicated in the mention of Mr. Hugh Lord, Captain com- 



1 78 KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORD' 

manding for his Britannic Majesty, and his signature and those of 
some of his officers are subscribed to one entry. In May, 1778, Father 
Gibault condescends to speak of Mr. De Rocheblave as Commandant- 
in-Chief in the country of the Illinois, but does not say under which 
king; and before he made the next entry, on the 4th of August of the 
same year, the hapless Rocheblave, to Gibault's great satisfaction, was 
on his way to Virginia, a prisoner of war, and Clark and his " Long 
Knives," as his men were called, held the fort. 

Reluctantly we see the last of the handwriting of this friend of the 
new republic, which is followed in 1785 by that of De Saint Pierre as 
Cure, and De la Valiniere as Vicar General ; and in their time, from 
1792 onward, English names begin to appear, such as Archibald 
McNabb, from Aberdeen, and William St. Clair, son of James St. 
Clair, captain in the Irish Brigade in- the service of France, and John 
Edgar, once an English officer, and afterwards a prominent citizen of 
Kaskaskia and of Illinois, and Rachel Edgar, his American wife, who 
persuaded him to forswear the King of Great Britain and all his works ; 
and William Morrison, who emigrated from Philadelphia in 1790 to 
establish a mercantile business in the old French town. And with these 
are the new French names, representing the arrivals from Canada 
during that period, and noticeable among them that of Pierre Menard, 
afterwards the first Lieutenant Governor of Illinois, the son of a lib- 
berty-loving Canadian, who fought by the side of Montgomery at 
Quebec. In 1793 Gabriel Richard takes up the record as parish priest. 
Later he was stationed at Detroit, and took a leading part in the early 
history of Michigan, representing that Territory in Congress, and was 
the only Catholic priest who was ever a member of that body. 

The register runs on without a break well into the present century, 
and we note as we pass the marriage on May 22d, 1806, of Pierre 
Menard, widower, and Angelique Saucier, grandaughter of Jean B. 
Saucier, once a French officer at Fort Chartres, who resigned and set- 
tled in the Illinois country. Donatien Ollivier was the officiating 
priest. In 1817, at the wedding of a daughter of William Morrison, 
Ninian Edwards, then Governor of the Territory of Illinois, afterwards 
third Governor of the State, and Shadrach Bond, first Governor of 
the State, sign as witnesses. July 11, 18 19, at the marriage of a son 
of Pierre Chouteau to a daughter of Pierre Menard, it is recited that 
the husband was born at St. Louis in the Missouri Territory, and the 
wife at Kaskaskia in the State of Illinois, which is the first mention of 
the State of Illinois in these records. Many members of these two 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 1 79 

families, both prominent in the early history of the Illinois country, 
witness this entry. In April, 1820, William Morrison, Eliza, his wife, 
Governor Shadrach Bond, and William H. Brown, in after years a 
leading citizen of Chicago, appear as witnesses, and the last entry in 
this book, commenced in 1741, is made in 1820. A smaller volume in 
the same cover continues the list of marriages to 1835, and in a clerkly 
hand Sidney Breese, late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Illi- 
nois, affixes his signature to an entry made February nth, 1822. John 
Reynolds, afterwards Governor of Illinois, is a witness in 1824, and two 
years later Felix St. Vrain, the Indian agent murdered by the savages 
at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, signs the record, and with him 
Nathaniel Pope, delegate to Congress from the Territory of Illinois, 
and first United States Judge for the District of Illinois — all in the time 
of Francois Xavier Dahmen, priest of the Congregation. 

We might continue thus- to cull from these old records things grave 
and gay, quaint and interesting, but the limits of this paper compel 
us to forbear, and we must leave untouched the later baptismal and 
burial registers. It is pleasant to pore over the brown pages, to 
decipher the cramped handwriting, and to imagine the long succession 
of worthy priests making their careful entries, little thinking that they 
would ever be read beyond the bounds of their own parish, or be of 
value to any but the dwellers therein, but they made them none the 
less faithfully. And so these parish records, intended simply to show 
the births, marriages and deaths among the people of one little village, 
for the greater part of its existence an outpost of civilization in the 
heart of the western wilderness, unconsciously and so most accurately 
reveal much of the early history of the region which is now a great 
State. 

They tell us of the black robed missionaries, who made those long 
and weary journeys to plant the cross among the savages, and toiled to 
spread their faith with a zeal and devotion unsurpassed ; of the bold 
pioneers, who, for the sake of gain and adventure, traversed the wilds 
with their lives in their hands and of their merciless foes ; of the days 
of wild speculation, when the streets of Paris were full of eager pur- 
chasers of shares in the wonder-working company which was to found 
an empire on the banks of the Mississippi, and draw endless riches 
from the mines to be opened there ; of the high-born officers, who 
sought distinction or promotion by service in this far-away colony, and 
of their soldiers, trained to war across the sea; and, as we read, plumes 
and banners wave, and sabres clank, and the red men look curiously at 



l8o KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 

the musketeers, and those whose names are written in the pages of 
these time-worn books pass before us, and the old scenes come back 
again. They give us glimpses too of the struggle between two mighty 
nations for the valley of the Beautiful River, and for dominion in the 
New World, the prelude to the mightier struggle in which the victor 
in the earlier strife lost its conquests and its ancient possessions as well ; 
and of the part which this early settlement played in those contests. 
We see the sceptre pass from one nation to another, and when the 
sound of war is hushed we note the coming of peace, with commerce 
and agriculture in its train. And as the tide of enterprise reaches the 
old French village, we see its temporary transformation into an Ameri- 
can town, and can realize its astonishment at finding its limits extending, 
its population doubling, its streets thronged, and itself the seat of gov- 
ernment of a vast territory and the first capital of a State. And we can 
appreciate its relief when the wave recedes and the new names dis- 
appear, and rejoice with it that this episode is over, and it is left to its 
ancient ways and its own familiar people, and to a rest which has since 
been almost undisturbed. 

And hence, for one who approaches it to-day, there is little to dis- 
turb the impression that it is really the Kaskaskia of the olden time to 
which he draws near. The way still lies, as of yore, through a forest, 
in which stands the old residence of Pierre Menard, vacant and fast 
going to decay, but with its furniture and books still in place, as if its 
occupants of long ago had left but yesterday. It is a type of the vil- 
lage itself, once astir with life, now full of stillness. As you cross the 
Kaskaskia river by the old-fashioned ferry, and are greeted by the 
ancient ferryman, the illusion is not dispelled. And the wide streets, 
unmarked by wheel tracks ; the antique French houses, with their high 
dormer windows; the old brick buildings, the first erected # of that 
material in Illinois, each with a history — this one the earliest court 
house in the State, and that one the old United States land office — built 
of three-inch bricks, brought from Pittsburg in flatboats in 1792; the 
priest's house, constructed of materials from the ruins of the nunnery 
once located there ; and the parish church, containing the bell cast at 
Rochelle in France in 1741 for this parish, the first that rang between 
the Alleghanies and the Mississippi — all give one a mingled impression 
of antiquity and departed greatness. 

You may dine at the village tavern, in the same great room, 
fully thirty feet square, in which dinner was served to the Mar- 
quis de Lafayette in 1825, when he tarried here on his way down 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS l8r 

the Mississippi, and note the quaint wood carving of the high mantel- 
piece, and of the mouldings of the doors and windows, and see beneath 
the porch the heavy hewn timbers of which the house is built, justi- 
fying the tradition that it is a century and a quarter old, and was 
already venerable when Edward Coles, the second Governor of Illi- 
nois, made it his residence. You may see part of the foundation of the 
William Morrison house, at which a reception was given to Lafayette, 
and the dilapidated framework of the Edgar mansion, where he was a 
guest. The site of the house of the French commandant, which was 
afterwards the first State House of Illinois, will be pointed out to you, 
and the place where stood the nunnery, and such landmarks as the 
corner-stone of the property of the Jesuits confiscated by the French 
Crown, and the post of Cahokia Gate, once giving passage through the 
fence that bounded the Common Fields, which are still divided and 
held by the old French measurement and title. And you will learn 
that the little village, now containing less than three hundred souls, is 
the owner of some eleven thousand acres of the most fertile land in 
the Valley of the Mississippi, under the grant to it of Kaskaskia Com- 
mons, by his Most Christian Majesty Louis the XV., in 1725, and 
derives therefrom abundant revenue. The older residents will talk 
to you of the flood of 1784, of which they have heard their fathers tell; 
and of Lafayette's visit, which they remember as boys, when, perched 
on the fence, they saw the stately form, in foreign garb, pass into the 
Edgar mansion, or peered at him through the windows as he sat at 
dinner in the large room of the tavern ; and of the great flood of 1844, 
when the water was five feet deep above the floors of their houses, and 
large steamboats came up the Kaskaskia river and through the streets 
of the village, and, gathering the terror-stricken inhabitants from trees 
and roofs, went straight away across the Common Fields to the Missis- 
sippi. Of more modern events they have little to say, nor do the later 
years furnish them topics to take the place of these. 

The little community, content to believe itself the first permanent 
European settlement in the Valley of the Mississippi, sleeps on, 
dreaming of its early days and of its former importance. It pays little 
heed to the warnings which the mighty river has already given it, and 
is seemingly unmindful that the third and last is at hand. The distance 
from the village center to the river bank, once three miles, has been 
reduced one-half, and the rich farm lands, which once bordered the 
stream, have gone in its current to the Gulf of Mexico. And now the 
Mississippi, unsatisfied even with this rapid destruction, in the very 



182 



KASKASKIA AND ITS PARISH RECORDS 



wantonness of its strength has cut its way above the town towards the 
Kaskaskia river, despite the efforts of the Government engineers to 
check it, until but a space of three hundred yards separates the two. 
The grave of Illinois' first Governor has been disturbed, and but 
recently his remains were removed to a safer resting place. And when 
the junction is made, the united rivers at the next flood time will spare 
nothing of the ancient village, which meanwhile listens idly to the 
murmur of the approaching waters, and smiles in the shadow of its 
impending doom, which, before another spring has passed, may be so 
complete that there will remain no memento of Kaskaskia save its old 

Parish Records. 

EDWARD G. MASON 



1 Bancroft's History of the United States, I. p. 195. 
5 Davidson and Stuve's History of Illinois, p. no. 

3 Atlas of State of Illinois, pp. 169, 202. 

4 Montague's History of Randolph County, Illinois, p. 12. 

5 Shea's Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi, p. 55. 

6 Parkman's Discovery of the Great West, p. 69. 

7 Shea's History of Catholic Missions, pp. 410-415. 
* Marest's Letter, Kip. p. 206. 

9 Early Voyages up and down the Mississippi, p. 43. 10 

15 Marest's Letter, Kip. p. 197/ 
13 Kaskaskia Parish Records, p. 9, Burial Register. 



Ibid. 



p. 92. 



Ibid., p. 116. 



THE NANCY GLOBE 

The Nancy Globe is perhaps the most beautiful of all the ancient 
globes. It is of rich silver-gilt, measuring about six inches in diameter, 
being preserved among the treasures of the Public Library of Nancy, 
France. Its origin is not now known. It appears to be alluded to for 
the first time by Pere Vincent, who, in his " Histoire de Vancienne image 
viiraculeuse de Notre Dame de Sion" says (p. 163) that, among the precious 
objects offered to the Virgin of Sion, by Duke Charles IV., was a very 
rich cup in the form of a globe, which had been converted into a Cibo- 
rium. Pere Trouillot, in a similar work, published at Nancy in 1757, 
speaks of " a very rich cup, representing the terrestrial globe, six inches 
in diameter, on which are perfectly cut and described all the coun- 
tries, lands, kingdoms, seas and rivers, as on a Mappe-monde, the lands 
being distinguished from the waters by beautiful gilding, and a celestial 
blue representing the waters" (p. 74). The writer goes on to say: 
A This cup is surmounted by an armillary sphere, with all the circles 
representing the heavens, the earth being in the middle, about the size 
of a walnut, the whole being supported by a nude Atlas, eight inches 
high, posed directly at the foot of the globe, this Atlas holding in his 
hands a Horn of Plenty, of his own height, the top being charged with 
all kinds of fruit around his head, which, together, support the globe 
and the sphere ; the whole is of silver, properly gilt within and without, 
having the height of about eighteen inches." 

The globe was presented at the shrine of the Virgin upon the occa- 
sion of the King's happy return from Germany to Lorraine. It was 
borne in solemn procession from Nancy to Sion, and there deposited 
with the Tiercelins. Upon the suppression of the religious houses it 
was carried back to Nancy, and placed in the Public Library. Some 
one having proposed to melt down the instrument for coinage, a com- 
mission was appointed to decide upon its value. The committee, how- 
ever, wisely declared that it was worthy of a distinguished place 
among the historic monuments, and provided for its careful preserva- 
tion. About the year 1835, Guizot, then Minister of Public Instruction, 
issued a Circular to the Scientific and Literary Societies in the Depart- 
ments, urging the study of neglected or forgotten relics of this kind. 
Whereupon certain members of the " Royal Society of Science, Lit- 
erature and Arts," of Nancv, turned their attention to the globe. 



1 84 THE NANCY GLOBE 

Eventually the subject Avas specially committed to M. Blau, an Hon- 
orary Inspector of the Society, who had admired the globe as early as 
1794, when it was in the possession of the Tiercelins. Securing the 
cooperation of M. Forfillier, who had constructed a very perfect globe, 
about ten feet in diameter, for the Public Library of Epinal, M. Blau had 
a careful representation of the Nancy Globe made on the stereographic 
projection, which was published in connection with his paper given in 
the " Memoires " of the Society for 1836, and separately during the same 
year. It is to the drawing made by M. Forfillier that we are indebted 
for our representation of the contents of the globe proper, though the 
general view of the instrument was made from an excellent photograph. 

M. Forfilli&r's sketch does not vary at all from the globe, except 
where it was necessary by the transfer of designs from a gold or silver 
surface to paper. The work is very accurately done, and gives the 
orthographical errors of the original, which are of the class common to 
all the ancient globes, and, upon the whole, inevitable. M. Blau says 
that the gilding within and without, the arabesque designs, and its 
general beauty, leave nothing to be desired. The globe opens horizon- 
tally in two hemispheres, and may without difficulty be converted into 
a Ciborium, by the removal of the sphere of Ptolemy, and the substi- 
tution of a cross. Evidently the instrument has served this double 
purpose, and if so, it is easy to explain the loss of the globe of the size 
of a nut which Pere Troiiillot describes as suspended within the armil- 
lary sphere. M. Blau observes that this loss is all the more to be 
lamented, from the fact that, though he dismounted the instrument and 
searched carefully into every recess, he was unable to find anything to 
indicate its origin or the date of its publication. It has been conjec- 
tured that the date and name of maker were engraved on the little 
globe within the armillary sphere ; but, if this were so, the inscription 
is lost, like the belief in the astronomical system which the armillary 
sphere was designed to illustrate. 

The only clew to the nationality of the maker of the globe is 
found in the names of the cardinal points engraved in small Roman 
capitals on the horizon of the Ptolemaic sphere. The resemblance of 
the names and characters to those of the cardinal points as given in 
Sherz's German Glossary of the Middle Age (Strasbourg, 1781), leads 
to the conjecture that the globe was made at Nuremberg, and that 
it was acquired by Charles [V. when in Bavaria. It was evidently 
intended for some important person. M. Blau thought that it was a 
copy of a globe of the same size, for the reason that the maker does not 



A 



\ 



' 






W 







- 



/ 



/ 






\. 












\ 






> 



/ 



/ 



X 



y 







THE NANCY GLOBE 1 85 

appear to have been capable of reducing a large design. Charles 
must have taken an interest in such works, as would appear from the 
fact that his engineer, Jean L'Haste, dedicated to him "Sommaire de 
la sphere artificielle " (Nancy, 1624), in which he states, that after eight 
years of labor, he had engraved for his Highness both a celestial and a 
terrestrial globe in bronze of a large size. 

The gilding of the globe, as already stated, separates the water very 
distinctly from the land. The water was formerly of a deep blue, and 
even to-day it appears a superbly chased brown, imitating the undula- 
tions of the sea when slightly agitated. The polar circles and the 
tropics are figured without graduation. The ecliptic, the equator and 
the colures are divided into 360 degrees, though they are not numbered. 

The ornamentation indicates the taste of the earlier map makers, 
the ships and sea monsters being quite remarkable. "Zanzi," put for 
Zanzibar, in the Indian Ocean, betrays the bad influence of the earlier 
globes. The islands of the East are in a state of primitive confusion, 
several having been thrown in where no islands exist. In the countries 
bordering the Indian Ocean there are no indications of the progress 
of the sixteenth century enterprise, which also helps to give the globe 
the appearance of an age that it does not possess. Much of this, 
however, may be referred to what appears to have been the ruling 
desire of the engraver, namely, the desire for artistic beauty, to secure 
which many words are abbreviated. 

Around the South Pole is the great imaginary continent of the 
Vlpius Globe and the Map of Mercator, which indeed forms so striking 
a feature on many of the early geographical representations. The 
origin of this representation is lost in the dim antiquity, when men 
exercised fancy in such a remarkable manner. In the east it extends 
northward to the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, while in the west 
it reaches to an equal distance. At the Straits of Magellan Terra del 
Fuego is welded on to this vast continent, which would appear to be 
under the rule of crowned heads, whose subjects dwelt in tents. 

Turning to the western world, it is found that, while the globe honors 
Vespucci, whose name is given to the New World, it is drawn in accor- 
dance with the Columbian idea as respects those features that are false. 
Northern and Central America are represented as parts of Asia, while 
the rivers of India empty into the Gulf of Mexico, called u Mare Cath- 
ayvm." This region, as well as the east coast of North America, fails 
to show the progress of exploration. Yucatan, as on many maps, 
appears as an island. " Terra Florid " and " Baccalearvm " are therefore 



THE NANCY GLOBE 1 85 

appear to have been capable of reducing a large design. Charles 
must have taken an interest in such works, as would appear from the 
fact that his engineer, Jean L'Haste, dedicated to him "Sommaire de 
la sphere artificielle " (Nancy, 1624), in which he states, that after eight 
years of labor, he had engraved for his Highness both a celestial and a 
terrestrial globe in bronze of a large size. 

The gilding of the globe, as already stated, separates the water very 
distinctly from the land. The water was formerly of a deep blue, and 
even to-day it appears a superbly chased brown, imitating the undula- 
tions of the sea when slightly agitated. The polar circles and the 
tropics are figured without graduation. The ecliptic, the equator and 
the colures are divided into 360 degrees, though they are not numbered. 

The ornamentation indicates the taste of the earlier map makers, 
the ships and sea monsters being quite remarkable. "Zanzi," put for 
Zanzibar, in the Indian Ocean, betrays the bad influence of the earlier 
globes. The islands of the East are in a state of primitive confusion, 
several having been thrown in where no islands exist. In the countries 
bordering the Indian Ocean there are no indications of the progress 
of the sixteenth century enterprise, which also helps to give the globe 
the appearance of an age that it does not possess. Much of this, 
however, may be referred to what appears to have been the ruling 
desire of the engraver, namely, the desire for artistic beauty, to secure 
which many words are abbreviated. 

Around the South Pole is the great imaginary continent of the 
Vlpius Globe and the Map of Mercator, w r hich indeed forms so striking 
a feature on many of the early geographical representations. The 
origin of this representation is lost in the dim antiquity, when men 
exercised fancy in such a remarkable manner. In the east it extends 
northward to the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, while in the west 
it reaches to an equal distance. At the Straits of Magellan Terra del 
Fuego is welded on to this vast continent, which would appear to be 
under the rule of crowned heads, whose subjects dwelt in tents. 

Turning to the western world, it is found that, while the globe honors 
Vespucci, whose name is given to the New World, it is drawn in accor- 
dance with the Columbian idea as respects those features that are false. 
Northern and Central America are represented as parts of Asia, while 
the rivers of India empty into the Gulf of Mexico, called " Mare Cath- 
ayvm." This region, as well as the east coast of North America, fails 
to show the progress of exploration. Yucatan, as on many maps, 
appears as an island. " Terra Florid " and " Baccalearvm " are therefore 



1 86 THE NANCY GLOBE 

still in Asia. In Florida there is no indication of the exploration of 
Cortes, while Cartier has no recognition in " Terra Francesca," not- 
withstanding his voyages of 1534 and 1542. The globe, however, must 
have been made subsequent to 1540, since the Amazon, explored in 1539, 
is indicated, though, like the La Plata, still more definitely shown, it is 
given without the name. The Sea of Parima also appears to be indi- 
cated in connection with the Amazon, which would bring the date of 
the map down somewhat beyond 1540. The western coast of South 
America shows no explorations later than 1538-40, the rivers emptying 
into the sea south of Capricorn being the offspring of the imagination, 
in common with other features of the globe. The representation of 
Newfoundland, called " Corterealis," is very poor, like the coast line 
from that point to the Gulf of Mexico, but the outlines of Greenland 
are quite tolerable, in addition to being interesting. Iceland lies in its 
proper position with respect to Greenland. The most of early 
geographical representations show the northeast passage, but on 
our globe the " Mare Glaciale " forms a cut de sac, and the land 
spreads over and around. In *' Hispania Nova " the Spanish and 
Asiatic names are mixed together. Lower California is not indi- 
cated, yet it is clear that at the time the globe was made a great 
deal was known about the Pacific coast. The ideas respecting the North 
Atlantic are, however, very backward, and nothing of striking interest 
is presented. In 15 11 the maker of the Lenox Globe repudiated the 
Columbian idea, yet upon this globe, which may be placed towards 
1550, the theory of Columbus dominates. When Columbus, June 12, 
1494, forced his companions to declare, under oath, that Cuba was a part 
of Asia, he struck a heavy blow at the progress of geographical know- 
ledge. As respects himself, he proved that he was slow to accept original 
ideas. The engraver appears to have been acquainted with the Ptolemy 
of 15 13, and he has drawn from it such names as " Caninor " and 
" Costal," the latter being put for " Costa Alta," the high coast, which 
is found on the so-called Cabot map as " Cesta Alta." The only name 
of real interest is " Anorombega," or Norombega, which first appears 
as " Aranbega " on the map of Jerome Verrazano, 1529. We need not 
delay, however, to dwell upon the names in general, since many of them 
are so disguised that a formal study would prove tedious and unprofit- 
able. We may observe, nevertheless, that the great antarctic continent, 
which was seldom wanting in such representations, appears in full pro- 
portions on the globe ; while Africa has the customary lakes and rivers, 
showing that modern explorations are simply rediscoveries. In the 



THE NANCY GLOBE 



I8 7 



north polar region the ideas of the period are indicated. The north- 
eastern passage, which on the Lenox Globe is open, in accordance with 
modern discovery, is closed up on the Nancy Globe, and the designer 
indicates his belief in the Pygmies and the Hyperboreans. 

As indicated, however, the maker of the globe appears to have been 
more deeply concerned in the artistic character of this semi-religious 
instrument, than in its true geographical character. Hence many very 
interesting discoveries are neglected, though well known at the time. 
In conclusion, we may say the most prominent feature is found in its 
embodiment of the false geography of Columbus, which was relin- 
quished with the unwillingness that attended the abandonment of the 
Ptolemaic system of astronomy. 

B. F. De COSTA 




CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

COLONEL OF THE VIRGINIA LINE OF THE CONTINENTAL ARMY 

Colonel Christian Febiger, although a native of Denmark, may be 
regarded not so much as one of those distinctively " foreign officers" 
who came to this country during the progress of the struggle to assist 
in securing American independence, as a European friend, who, if not 
altogether a colonist, had so far lived among and become attached to the 
American people as to share in the sense of their grievances and join 
with them in the contest from the outset. He is to be remembered as 
an officer who rendered extensive and noteworthy services during the 
Revolution. 

From authentic records touching his personal history, we learn that 
Febiger was born on the island of Funen, Denmark, in the year 1746. It 
is probable that about his sixteenth year his father died, as he speaks 
of having been his own master since that age, while his mother was 
still living at Fiinen in 1786. It is certain that he received an early 
military education, possibly at Copenhagen, where he had friends, and 
that while still a young man he accompanied an uncle who had been 
appointed governor of the island of Santa Cruz, West Indies, as one of 
his staff. Whether he there decided to abandon a military career and 
attempt some mercantile ventures on his own account does not appear, 
but the next we hear of him, he is traveling, in 1772, through the 
American colonies, from Cape Fear in North Carolina to the Penobscot 
in Maine, stopping and making observations "in every town and port," 
inquiring into the resources of the country and noting its actual pro- 
ducts. This journey seems to have left a favorable impression, and 
during the two following years, as he informs us himself, he was " com- 
mercially engaged in the Eastern States in the lumber, fish and horse 
trade." 

Febiger was doubtless prospering in business when the war broke 
out, and the war necessarily completely interrupted it. He was evi- 
dently established at the time either in Boston, Salem, or a neighboring 
coast town, as it was from this vicinity that he first joined the Colonial 
forces. His sympathies with the Massachusetts people must have been 
sincere and ardent, or he could not have involved himself so early in 
the struggle. He seems to have had no hesitation in the matter. Nor 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 189 

can we suppose that he rushed in for the sake of military adventure — 
his entire career showing that he had the cause of the Colonists much 
at heart. Being a trained soldier, he offered his services in the emer- 
gency, and they were accepted. The record here, unfortunately, is 
meagre, but we have the fact that ten days after the Lexington alarm, 
or April 28, 1775, he joined Colonel Samuel Gerrish's Massachusetts 
State Militia Regiment, composed of companies from Essex and Mid- 
dlesex counties. A little later he appears as its Adjutant — the exact 
date of his appointment, so far as known, not being preserved — and the 
regiment took its place in the cordon of raw troops drawn around the 
British regulars in Boston. The fact that he received the Adjutancy 
indicates that he already had friends and some influence either in or 
about Boston, and that he was known as a person familiar with the sub- 
ject of military organization. 

The battle of Bunker Hill soon followed. There Febiger first devel- 
oped his courage and ability to command, which is nearly all that we 
know about him in connection with the affair. The struggle at Pres- 
cott's redoubt was progressing and Putnam was hastening troops to its 
support. " Among others," says Frothingham in his " Siege of Boston," 
" a part of Gerrish's regiment under Nighil marched from Cambridge 
to Ploughed Hill, where Adjutant Christian Febiger, a gallant Danish 
soldier who had seen service, took command, called upon the men to fol- 
low him, and reached the heights in season to render valuable service." 
Frothingham's authority for this incident seems to be the account of 
the battle by Swett, who gave many details from personal knowledge. 
There can be little doubt that Febiger distinguished himself on the oc- 
casion, as we find him appointed not long after to accompany Arnold's 
Quebec expedition, which included none but officers of approved con- 
duct and known resolution. We may fairly assume that his Bunker 
Hill record, was, in part at least, the reason of his selection in the 
latter case. 

Here, again, in regard to the march to Quebec, our knowledge of 
Febiger's individual services is quite limited. The journals of some of 
his companions occasionally refer to him ; that of Captain Thayer, of 
Rhode Island, establishing the fact that he was one of the two Adju- 
tants in the expedition. A letter from Febiger to Colonel Meigs, written 
after the war, mentions the further fact that he made drafts of the route, 
which are unfortunately lost. The late Judge Henry, of Pennsylvania, 
a volunteer in the expedition, recalls the circumstance in his narrative, 
that one evening after a peculiarly exhausting march, he reached Febi- 



I90 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

ger's camp-fire in a condition which excited the latter's sympathy. He 
was heartily welcomed to the mess and received with the usual camp 
tonic. " The heart of Febiger," says Henry, " seemed overjoyed at the 
relief he had and could afford us. The liquor had restored our fainting 
spirits, but this was not enough for his generosity to exhibit. He re- 
quested us to take seats around the fire, and wait the boiling of his 
kettle, which was well replenished with pork and dumplings. This was 
all devoted to our use, accompanied by an open-heartedness and the 
kindest expressions of interest for our sufferings, and regard for our 
perseverance in our duty as military men. This meal to all of us 
seemed a renewal of life. It was accustomed food. Febiger, ere this 
time, was unknown to us, but in the process of events, he acquired our 
esteem and entire confidence, as a friend and a real soldier." At the 
storming of Quebec, December 31, 1775, Febiger was taken prisoner 
with the greater part of his comrades, among whom were Morgan, 
Heth and Porterfield, of Virginia ; Lamb, of New York ; Meigs, of 
Connecticut ; Greene, of Rhode Island, and others, and with whom he 
was confined until released on parole in August, 1776. On September 
1 1 following the prisoners reached New York, landed near Elizabeth, 
New Jersey, and on the 1st of January, 1777, were regularly exchanged, 
the preference in the exchange being given them over all others. 

Upon his release from parole, Febiger immediately re-entered the ser- 
vice by accepting a commission in the Virginia Continental line. The 
reasons which inclined him to go to that State do not appear, but it is 
quite probable that the friendships he had formed during the Quebec 
expedition had something to do with it, as the regiment which he joined 
was officered largely by old Virginia comrades in captivity, who may 
have induced him to share the fortunes of war thereafter with them- 
selves. However this may be, we find that Richard Henry Lee recom- 
mended him for a position in the new line, that the House of Delegates 
appointed him, November 13, 1776, a Lieutenant-Colonel, and that soon 
after he was assigned to the Eleventh Virginia Continentals, of which 
Daniel Morgan was Colonel. John Marshall, the future Chief Justice, 
was its Adjutant, and among the Captains we have McGuire, Bruin, Por- 
terfield and Henry, all Quebec heroes, although the latter was prevented 
by illness from serving. Febiger and Major Heth, afterwards Colonel 
in the same line, leave on record a manly letter to the Virginia House, 
signed by each November 15, in which they acknowledge the honor of 
their appointments, but regret that " the peculiarity and delicacy of their 
situation will neither admit of their immediate acceptance, or allow 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER I9I 

them to acknowledge themselves in such terms as they would wish to 
use. They can only say that whenever they are at liberty to accept of 
their appointments, and once more step forth in defence of their bleeding 
and much injured country, their utmost abilities and warmest endeav- 
ors shall ever be fully exerted in preserving that honor which the Vir- 
ginians have in every instance, during the present contest, most justly 
acquired." They were released from their paroles, as already stated, a 
few weeks later — January 1st following. 

The Eleventh Virginia seems to have been raised mainly in the 
vicinity of Winchester, Virginia, Morgan's home, where we infer from 
one of his letters that Febiger repaired to assist in recruiting. Early in 
the spring of 1777 it marched in two detachments for Headquarters in 
New Jersey. There the new army was gathering, but all too slowly, 
and Washington was compelled to call for the troops from the recruit- 
ing stations as soon as they formed in companies, to enable him to keep 
up some show of a front against the enemy, who were now threatening 
to move upon him. Under these instructions Lieutenant Colonel Febi- 
ger started from Virginia, February 23, 1777, in advance of Morgan, 
bringing with him " the first division" of the regiment, and on 
March 6 he was in Philadelphia. A little later we find him in camp 
and then marching and fighting with the army in the Pennsylvania 
campaign. 

From Colonel Febiger's Order Books — those invaluable guides in 
the study of Revolutionary history — it is possible to trace his move- 
ments throughout the war with considerable particularity. His first 
camp appears to have been at Princeton, New Jersey, and his first regi- 
mental order, dated April 16, the approval of a court martial sentence 
punishing a soldier for disorderly conduct; the interesting item here 
being that Lieutenant Marshall was one of the members of the court, 
who was also directed, as Adjutant, to see that the drummers were duly 
provided with "Cats and cord " for the whipping. Was this the judge's 
first experience in dispensing justice for national ends? After Prince-' 
ton, the regiment is at Bridgewater and Bound Brook, where on April 
17, it furnishes the guard on Quibble Town road. About this time, 
also, Colonel Morgan arrives from Virginia with the remainder of the 
regiment and assumes command, to hold it only for a short time, how- 
ever, as on June 13, he was put at the head of that famous corps of 
riflemen which did so much in bringing Burgoyne to terms. The only 
regimental order to the Eleventh Virginia which can be distinguished 
as his own runs as follows : 



192 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

Regtl Orders. May i$th 1777. 

That the Captains make out their several muster Rolls from the first of January last and that a 
copy of each be sent to Colo Morgan's Quarters at 8 o'clock tomorrow morning — All their Muster 
Rolls to be made out by Saturday 10 o'clock in order that their companies may be mustered. The 
Captns are to see that their difft compts keep their Tents and the streets before their tents clean, 
the dirt and trash to be swept in one place & the Quarter Master Sergt order their Camp Couler 
men to take it out and burn it. The officers and non commissd offrs are desird to order all stinking 
meat and bones to be cleand from about Camp. The officers to pay the strictest attention to pre- 
vent the soldiers from taking their gunlocks to pieces to clean them as a number of good locks have 
been spoil'd by that infamous practice. That no Soldier leaves the Camp without leave from a 
field officer. That no officer absents himself from Camp without leave from the Commander of the 
Regt. The Regt. to parade at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Daniel Morgan. 

In the arrangement of the army for the campaign, the regiment, now 
again under Febiger's command, was assigned to General Woodford's 
Brigade in General Stephen's Division, composed entirely of Virginia 
troops. It was engaged in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, 
shared in the experiences at Valley Forge, and was present in the fol- 
lowing year, at the victory of Monmouth. It is to be regretted that 
but little is to be found respecting Febiger's individual services at this 
period, but we may assume that he participated honorably, if not with 
distinction, upon each occasion, proving himself the thorough soldier in 
action. That he was in the thick of the fight at Brandywine, and kept 
his men under good discipline throughout the trying campaign, appears 
from the following order entered by himself in the Regimental Order 
Book: 

Regt'l Orders. 2d Octobr 1777 

The Commanding officer takes this opportunity of returning his publick Thanks to the Officers 
and Soldiers in the Regiment for their spirited and gallant behaviour on the nth of Sept last and 
can without Flattery assure them that their conduct, adherence to Order and Discipline by far 
exceeded his most Sanguine Expectations and makes no Doubt but if again calld to Action, he will 
have it in his power to say, that their Conduct would do honor to veterans Lt. John Marshall to 
take Care and Command of the late Wm. Smith's Company till further Orders — 

The Commanding officers of Companies will dayly examine the Men's Arms and Accoutre- 
ments and see that they are all ways prepar'd for Action according to repeated general orders. No 
Officer or Soldier, when on a March is to leave his platoon or Division without Leave from the 
Commanding Officer. Water as usual to be fetch'd by the Sergts — Roll Call to be more strictly 
adher'd to than has lately been observ'd. 

A proportionable Distribution of Tents to be made this Night by Major Sneed — if any soldier 
is found stragling out of Camp, the Commanding Officer will be oblig'd to take the Officer for the 
man, as the present Strength enables them to keep a strict eye over the whole. 

Two weeks after Brandywine, or September 26th, 1777, Lieutenant 
Colonel Febiger was honored with promotion to the Colonelcy of the 
Second Virginia Regiment of the line, at the head of which he remained 
until the close of the war. His new command, however, he appears not 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER I93 

to have assumed until after the battle of Germantown, which occurred 
October 4. At this battle his brigade was on the right of Greene's wing 
and assisted in the attempted reduction of the Chew House, which 
proved a fatal obstruction to American success. The marching orders 
received by Stephen's Division the day before the action, and the con- 
gratulatory order issued to the army the day after are interesting remi- 
niscences of that field. The former runs briefly as follows: 

The men of Genl. Stephens Division to be paraded Under Arms at 6 o'clock this afternoon — to 
be stript of their Baggage & Blankets — to have their provisions in their Haversacks — Such as have 
not Haversacks to put their provision in their pockets. Out of each Brigade a Careful Subten & 
Twenty men least fit for duty to be left with the Baggage as a Guard. 

The second order is in part to this effect : 

Head Qrs, Octr $th 1777. Officers of the day tomorrow, Major Genl Stephens, Brigadier 
Muchlinburg, Col Clark & Lt Col Conner, B. M. Peers. Officer for Piquet Majr Miller. 

****** The Commander in Chief returns his thanks to ye Genl Officers and Other 
Officers & men concernd in ye attack yesterday on ye Enemy's left wing for the spirit & Bravery 
they manifested in driving ye enemy from field to field. Tho an unfortunate fog joined with the 
smoak prevented the different Brigs from seeing & supporting Each other & from some other not 
yet known Causes they finally Retreated, we nevertheless see that the Enemy are not proof against 
a vigorous attack and may be put to flight when Boldly pushed. This they will remember and 
assure themselves on the next occasion by proper Exertion of the powers which God has given 
them, and Inspired by the cause of freedom in which they are Engaged they will be Victorious. 

The Commander-in-Chief not seeing the engagement on the Enemy's Right Wing desires the 
Genl Officers who Commanded there to thank those officers who behaved with Becoming Bravery 
& such in either wing as behaved otherwise are to be Reported. 

At the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778, Febiger may have had 
temporary command of the Virginia line, as he speaks of having been 
at the head of "four thousand men and two pieces of artillery." These 
troops, however, being drawn up with the main army under Washing- 
ton, after Lee's retreat and disgrace, were not brought into close action. 
In August following, the Colonel was ordered to Philadelphia to super- 
intend the making up of clothing for the Virginia regiments, and the 
next we hear of him is in connection with the assault on Stony Point on 
the night of July 15, 1779. 

The part Colonel Febiger took in this famous affair is well known. 
He commanded the First of the four Light Infantry regiments organ- 
ized for the campaign, and led the right column in the attack under 
Wayne. Six of the eight companies of his regiment were selected 
from the Virginia line, and two were Pennsylvanians. The other two 
field officers were Lieutenant-Colonel Fleury and Major Thomas Posey. 
The selection of Febiger and all the officers of the corps was the 
highest possible compliment to their military qualities, as none but 



194 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

superior and experienced men were accepted for the special service in 
view. All proved their worth at Stony Point. Butler, Febiger, Meigs, 
Fleury, Sherman, Hay, Hull, Murphree, Stewart and Posey, the field 
officers engaged on the occasion, and representing the States of Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland and North 
Carolina, were noticed in Wayne's orders as having done all that sol- 
diers could do. Colonel Febiger leaves two letters in regard to the 
affair, both written to his wife, which are highly interesting — the one, 
dated from Stony Point just after the assault, being a laconic expression 
of the evident enthusiasm he felt over the achievement: 

My Dear Girl : I have just borrowed pen, ink and paper to inform you that yesterday we 
march'd from Fort Montgomery, and at 12 o'clock last night we stormed this confounded place, 
and, with the loss of about fourteen killed and forty or fifty wounded, we carried it. I can give 
you no particulars as yet. A musquet ball scraped my nose. No other damage to " Old Den- 
mark." God bless you. Farewell — 

Febiger. 

" Old Denmark," as he seems to have been called, was made field 
officer of the day for the 16th, and on the 21st, true to his promise, 
enters into details as follows : 

Fort Montgomery, July 21, 1779. 
My Dear Girl— 

I'll now give you the particulars of our enterprize. After having reconnoitred Stony Point 
well, we saw that by a secret and bold stroke it might perhaps be carried — and our affairs being in 
a critical situation induced his Excellency to risk it — and on Thursday the 15th instant we marched 
very secretly, securing all passes and preventing Country people from going in — and at dark were 
within one mile of the Fort, where we lay till 12 o'clock at night, when my regiment at the head of 
the right column, and Colonel Butler's at the head of the left, with proper " forlorn hope " and 
advanced guards, marched and attacked the works, ivho received us pretty warmly. But the 
bravery of our men soon overcame all dangers, and about 1 o'clock, we were in full possession of 
the Fort, where I had the pleasure of taking Colonel Johnson, who Commanded, myself, and 
ordered him to his tent. At daybreak we found we had taken 1 Lieut-Colonel, 25 Captains & 
Lieutenants and 544 non-commissioned officers and privates, exclusive of the killed and some that 
drowned in endeavoring to get to their shipping — We took 16 pieces of Artillery with fixed Ammu- 
nition for a three months siege — 2 standards & 1 flag — 10 Marquees — and a large quantity of tents, 
Quartermaster's stores, baggage, &c, &c. f 

His Excellency joined us in the afternoon — when an attack was to be made on the other side — 
but through some difficulties it was delayed. We remained there three days, which were employed 
in Cannonading the Enemy and removing the stores — and on the evening of the iSth we evacuated 
and destroyed the works, and set fire to the remains. 

This obliged General Clinton to come up with his whole army to King's Ferry, where he now 

is. What may be his next move we cannot as yet ascertain. If he intends for our Fort, I think he 

will be damnably drubbed, as this most glorious affair has given double vigor and spirit to our men. 

Farewell 

Febiger. 

The opportunity for further distinguishing itself was not again 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER I95 

offered to the Corps of Light Infantry during the campaign, and in 
December it was disbanded — Febiger returning with increased repu- 
tation to his old regiment in the line. 

In 1780 the Colonel entered a field of new experiences. While 
yielding few of the honors which a soldier usually covets, they still dis- 
covered him to be one of the truly valuable men in the service. During 
the early part of the year the entire Virginia line was ordered to the 
southward to report to General Lincoln at Charleston. By the sur- 
render of that place to the British in May, the Americans suffered the 
loss of two thousand Continentals, some seven hundred of whom were 
Virginians. Another detachment of Virginians from the northern 
army, under Colonel Buford, escaped capture at that time only to fall 
a prey to Tarleton and his legion. These accidents of war cut off the 
Virginia Continentals. The line as such was in effect destroyed, and 
the State was compelled to proceed to the organization of a new force 
to represent her. Among the many officers who happened not to have 
been at the Charleston surrender were General Muhlenberg, Colonels 
Febiger, Davies, Greene, Porterfield, Major Posey, and others, which 
proved to be a most fortunate circumstance for the State, as their ser- 
vices were now greatly needed in recruiting the new regiments. It 
was in this service that Febiger was destined to continue much of the 
time until the close of the war. During the winter and spring of 
1780-81, however, he was engaged in other special and important 
duties, to which some reference must be made. 

General Muhlenberg, having been placed in charge of the recruiting 
in Virginia, despatched Colonel Febiger to Philadelphia to forward 
arms and clothing to the State, which seemed to be destitute of every- 
thing. The Colonel's orders for this duty were dated September 1, 
1780. Meanwhile, before he was able to do much for Virginia, Gen- 
eral Greene had assumed command of the Department of the South, 
succeeding Gates, and finding Febiger at Philadelphia, directed him, 
November 2, to turn his energies to the matter of sending needed 
stores, not only to Virginia, but beyond to the now distressed and dis- 
organized Southern army in North Carolina. 

In this new position of forwarder of supplies for the troops who 
were soon to become a new force under Greene, Febiger developed the 
requisite executive capacity. He seems to have been as good a busi- 
ness man or man of affairs as he was a soldier and fighter, appearing 
especially to have adapted himself with remarkable readiness and tact 
to American ways and methods. It was no slight compliment to him, 



I96 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

for instance, that he, a foreigner, should have been entrusted, as was the 
case, by General Greene with the delicate duty of seeing that leading 
men, both in and out of Congress, kept their promises in regard to sup- 
plying his army ; for Congress at that time was put to its wits' end to 
keep any army, north or south, on a living footing, and Quartermasters, 
Commissaries or Paymasters, who obtained half they applied for, were 
fortunate indeed. 

Although details of military stores — wagons, horses, tents, clothing, 
arms, accoutrements, ammunition and what not — usually furnish the 
dullest of all chapters in the study of a campaign, we cannot but take a 
special interest in this department as Colonel Febiger conducted it, for, 
first of everything, Greene depended upon supplies to repair Southern 
disasters, and enable him to undertake the operations which saved the 
South. Febiger fully appreciated the situation, and began sending for- 
ward stores shortly after Greene left him. The distance was great and 
time precious. From twenty-five to thirty days were required for a 
loaded train to go from Philadelphia to the shifting army in North Car- 
olina. If trains could have followed each other at brief intervals, the 
troops would have suffered little discomfort ; but there were vexing 
and hazardous delays in starting them off. Wagons seem to have been 
as hard to get as stores to the northward, and in Virginia they were 
even a greater scarcity. Nor could the most direct routes always be 
taken. From Philadelphia to Richmond the shortest road ran in nearly 
a straight line, via Head of Elk, Alexandria and Fredericksburg, but 
when the ferries were obstructed, trains were obliged to go by way of 
Lancaster and York in Pennsylvania, Fredericktown, Maryland, " Har- 
per's Ferriage " and down to the east of the Blue Ridge. We find 
Febiger writing to the Deputy Quartermasters at nearly all the places 
on this route to lay in forage for the teams, and especially was this 
article to be collected at Red House in Virginia, not far from Ashby's 
Gap, " on account of the bad roads and great distance from Leesburgh 
to Fredericksburgh." Supplies of forage also were to be ready at 
Bowling Green or Lynch's Tavern, between Fredericksburgh and 
Richmond. A specimen of the Colonel's directions on this point 
appears in the following, addressed to Mr. Marsteller, Deputy Quarter 
Master at Lancaster, December nth, 1780: 

" As I shall be obliged to Send a Number of Waggons with Stores for the Southward through 
your Post during the course of the winter, I thought it necessary to give you this early Information, 
that a Supply of Forage & provision might be laid in at your post, which you are hereby directed to 
do, as also to give the Commissary of provision proper Notice of the contents of this Letter, For- 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 1 97 

rage is an article of the utmost Importance and particular attention must be paid to it — you will 
also see that the Ferry Boats on Susquehanah are kept in proper Order and Readiness for Trans- 
porting the Waggons across." 

From Colonel Febiger's note book it would appear that the first 
instalment of stores for Greene's army went off about November 30. 
He describes it as an Invoice "loaded on Board Nineteen Private 
Teams under the Care and Conduct of Mr. John Walker." It included 
a miscellaneous assortment of tents, camp kettles, spades, picks, knap- 
sacks, haversacks, harness, etc. Wagon No. 1, John McCommons', 
contained horse collars, back and belly bands, blind bridles and a box 
with " 30 Faschine Hatchetts." In Glasgow Bensteel's wagon, No. 3, 
there were horsemen's caps, saddles, and canteens. In wagon No. 7 
there was a box containing 104 swords, and another with 251 pairs of 
horseshoes, 3 collars and 2 hay screws. The ninth wagon, James Will- 
son's, carried 200 camp kettles; the eighth, Hugh Dougherty's, 157 
spades and as many shovels ; the twelfth, John Buntin's, 33 common 
tents and 300 canteens ; the eighteenth, Andrew Brackenridge's, 200 
dozen haversacks. This entire train the conductor, Walker, promised 
and obliged himself, unforeseen and unavoidable accidents excepted, to 
deliver to General Greene or other commanding officer in the Southern 
army, or to their order. To doubly assure himself, however, of the 
safety and dispatch of the invoice, Febiger concluded to put the whole, 
wagons and wagoners, under the charge of a Lieutenant Newberry. 
The Colonel's instructions to him were sufficiently explicit, running as 
follows : 

Philadelphia, December ^rd 1780 
Sir 

A considerable Quantity of very valuable Stores and of the greatest consequence to the Southern 
Army haveing been forwarded in 5 brigades of Waggons and being rather apprehensive of Neglect 
in the Waggon Conductors, I have thought it necessary to send an Officer to take charge of, super- 
intend and direct the whole, for which purpose you are to proceed immediately on the Route 
pointed out to you, see that the Rear Brigades are in proper order, make the best speed and follow 

their direct route You are to see that the Conductors keep up the Greatest Order 

and Regularity on their March, that they always have their Waggons in a Compact Line and pre- 
vent either the waggoners or horses from doing any Injury to the Inhabitants on their Route. In 
Case, Contrary to my Expectations, the Enemy should still be in Chesapeake Bay and you should 
find it dangerous to follow the Route and cross the Ferrys pointed out to you, you are at liberty to 
alter it, but in this Case only. I shall in particular depend on your takeing the greatest care that 
none of the Stores are lost plundered or pillag'd, as also on your takeing every necessary precaution 
to prevent their Falling into the hands of the Enemy. 

In case there should be any Post on the Route where Forrage or Provisions cannot be drawn or 
you should at any rate fall short, you will endeavour to procure it from the Inhabitants giveing them 
Receipts for the same payable by the nearest Qr Mr or purchasing Comissary — and in case the 
Inhabitants should be unwilling to furnish you with Necessarys on these Terms when the Public 



198 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

Stores fall short, you'll make application to the nearest magistrate or magistrates who are hereby 
requested to lend you every assistance in his or their power, agreeable to Law for that purpose pro- 
vided, to forward the good of the Service. 

After you reach Frederickburg you'll endeavour to gett into Richmond a Day before Stewart's 
Brigade and there make Enquiry, whether General Greene or any other continental General or 
other Officer acting by his Order is there for the purpose of forwarding or directing the Route of 
Troops and Stores going to the Southern Army and receive his Instructions. If you can receive 
no Information there, proceed to Chesterfield Court house or Petersburgh, and if no Directions 
shall be received in that Quarter, proceed by the nearest and most approv'd Route to General 
Greene's head Quarters where you'll deliver your Instructions and Invoice etc, and receive his fur- 
ther Orders for the Delivery of the Stores — All Q. Ms. Commissarys of provision or Forrage on 
your Route are directed to furnish you with every necessary assistance — Reposing the greatest 
Confidence in your faithfully discharging the important Trust committed to your Care I wish you a 
Safe and pleasant Tour. Given as above, 

Lt. Newberry. Febiger. 

On January 2, 1781, another large " invoice" of military stores was 
sent in twenty-three close covered wagons, under conduct of Thomas 
Scott and command of Captain Brown of Harrison's artillery regiment, 
who, with his company, was on his way to report to General Greene. 
The load contained 573 stand of muskets with bayonets, 436 best new 
cartouch boxes, 300 do. for the Light Horse, 101 Sergeant's swords and 
belts, besides ammunition, etc. About 400 much needed blankets were 
also included, some described as " small brown blankets," and others 
as " small and large white do." Although Captain Brown was directed 
to make " as much expedition as possible," the train was delayed on 
the route, for one cause and another, more than two weeks longer 
than the ordinary time. At the Head of Elk six wagoners deserted 
with four horses and some stores. High prices and depreciation of the 
currency made it necessary to provide the Captain in charge with 
thirty-five thousand dollars to defray the expenses of the train ; those 
were times when moderate living in Philadelphia cost Febiger two hun- 
dred and twenty-five dollars per day. 

Through January and February few supplies seem to have been 
obtainable. In any event the Colonel had a thankless task, as his cor- 
respondence shows. For instance, to Greene he writes, December 
6, 1780: 

I have endeavored to comply with your orders as far as in my power. All the Arms and Car- 
touch Boxes fit for use are gone on and almost every public store is Exhausted, especially the Q. 

M. Genl who has not another article demanded of him A Brig has arrived from 

France which left it in Company with the Ariel and another ship with Cloathing for this port — 
When they arrive I shall endeavour to Complete your order. After this I shall be obliged to send 
the Waggons by Lancaster as the Lower Ferry is impassable — if I have more Stores than Waggons, 
I will take a chance when the Bay is clear to send them around by water. 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 1 99 

To Colonel Davies, chief recruiting officer at Chesterfield Court 
House, Virginia, he writes, January 1, 1781 : 

I am sorry that the miserable state of Our Finances renders me of less service to our Line or 
the Southern Army than I could wish. Butt I shall attack all Quarters and gett what I can. I 
have sent on a Considerable Quantity of various usefull Stores and assorted them as well as I could 
& I am extremely anxious to know in what manner they have arrived fearing Loss from want of 
Guards. Blanketts I never had the least prospect of untill this Day, when Congress have voted a 
sum to purchase a small number which I hope to forward immediately as also a few Coats Shirts & 
Shoes. I shall also send on some other Stores, of which Capt. Brown of the Artillery to whose 
Charge they are entrusted, will, on his arrival, deliver the Invoice. — I am sensible of all the Dis- 
tresses of our Line and it Distracts me not to see the least flattering hope of Relief, and I fear 
nothing less than a Disolution of our whole army, unless Resources, which we already have in the 
Country, are called forth. I grant we have not clothing, but we have money Tobacco and other 
produce to purchase it with. 

The Pennsylvania Line mutinied on the 1st instant — in the Foray two Officers and some men 
were killed — they took up their line of march, would suffer no officer except Wayne, Dick Butler 
Ov: Walt Stewart to come near them. They have halted at Princeton, and the Governor has gone 
up to treat with them — the result is not yet known. Their Demands are extravagant & inadmis- 
sible, and their position if they design to join the Enemy is well chosen — however, from what I can 
learn I believe there is not much danger on that score. 

To General Greene, January 18, 1781 : 

All our Dependance seems at present to be on Paul Jones who has been obliged to put back 
to France dismasted, but is now hourly expected. Some Cloathing of which the Blanketts is part 
has been purchas'd. I shall keep a constant Eye on them and gett them as soon as finishd. I 
don't know whether I wrote in my last that I sent you a Morgan from Colo Cox by Sergt Jones. 
The publick stores are so Exhausted that unless Paul Jones arrives soon I fear my Continuance here 
will be but of very little service, for when the few Cloathes, a few arms & accoutrements, some 
fix'd ammunition & about 20 compleat sett of Waggon Gear is gone, my prospects, unless a new 
Scene opens, are gone. But at all Events I'll do my best. 

Again to the same, a month later: 

Philadelphia Feby iSth 1781 
Dr General 

On the 1 8th of last month I had the honor to answer yours from the Cheraws of the 30th of 
December, since which your Dispatches announcing the Successes of part of your army detachd 
under Genl Morgan & Colo Washington has arrived & you'll permitt me to Congratulate you on the 
same and assure you that no man felt more real pleasure on the Occasion than myself especially as 
the Execution of your Orders was Committed to a man with whom I am Connected by the nearest 
Ties of Friendship & real Esteem. The manifesto publish'd by him in the District of 96 is much 
admired and astonishes many who do not judge rightly where it originated. The intended and 
probably by this Time executed Operations on your left were too soon known here — we wait with 
Impatience for an account of the Event. 

The Congress joined — Paul Jones is at last arrived, but I need not mention the other Intelli- 
gence to you as the Comittee of Congress who correspond with you must do it. — I have with the 
assistance of Doctor Skinner gott cloathing for Lees Corps compleat as also Sadies and other 
accoutrements — the whole will be ready for transportation by the eighth of March next, when I 
shall send Doctor Skinner on with them, and an Invoice shall be sent you previous to their arrival. 



200 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

— I am now packing up about 2000 Coats 2000 shirts some Woollen & some Linnen Overalls and 
every moment expect a quantity of hunting shirts and Overalls from New Windsor — when the 
whole are collected they shall be forwarded on. We are much distressed for want of cash. I am 
obliged almost to attend the greasing of a Waggon and lend my servant to assist in packing & other 
Business for want of money in the Department to pay a Labourer. I am &c. 

Genl Greene. Febiger. 

In March there was more activity, and several trains were started 
southward, the Board of War procuring wagons upon the following 
report made by Febiger : 

March 7, 1781 
Gentlemen 

In Obedience to your Orders of yesterday I have particularly Examined the Stores of the 
different Departments exactly to determine the Number of Waggons wanting for the Transports 
tion of the Supplies now on hand for the Southern army, as also Conferr'd with Colo Miles to 
determine the Sum absolutely wanted to enable him to procure ye Waggons immediately, a Report 
of which I inclose. 

The Board will permit me to observe that several of the stores have been ready for some time 
and I have made timely application for Waggons. But the want of money and the Demands of 
the Marquis has rendered it impossible to procure them as yett — last Monday I attempted to load 
four waggons. But the Owners finding that they could gett no money immediately refus'd going. 
I find great Difficulty in the Clothier General's Department to gett the Goods properly Pack'd for 
transportation — upwards of 20 packages are now unfit to move and M. [Miles ?] complains it is for 
want of money or means to procure Workmen to do it. Would therefore beg leave to suggest the 
Necessity of something being done to remove the Difficulty, and have the honor to be, etc. — 
The honble Board of War. Febiger. 

Fifty wagons, the Colonel reports, were needed and £1,552 in hard 
money. Part of these were soon forthcoming, and on the 20th a brigade of 
twelve wagons, with Bernard Hart as conductor, set out for the South- 
ern Army. The names of all the drivers are again entered in Febiger's 
note book, with the number of packages and what they contained. 
There were carabines, pouches, swords, pistols, belts, shoes, haversacks, 
etc., for the Georgia militia, and flints, shot pouches, overalls, hunting 
shirts and shoes for Greene's men. The slings for the 26 drums in this 
invoice were "old bayonet belts, as no others could be had." On the 
next day another detachment of twelve wagons followed, under charge 
of Lieutenant Skinner of Lee's Partisan Legion, with supplies for that 
corps and the main army, including saddles, boots, forage bags, "correy 
combs" and clothing; wagon conductor, John Mulhallon. Lieutenant 
Skinner also took with him a dozen order books, paper, ink powder and 
wafers. March 23d went another brigade of fourteen wagons, con- 
ducted by John McLinn, with supplies for Greene, and fifty single bar- 
rels of powder for Virginia, deliverable to the order of Governor 
Jefferson ; and again, March 27th, ten more wagons with pistols and 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 201 

cartridges and round, case and grapeshot. John Compty was con- 
ductor of the latter train, in regard to whom Colonel Febiger makes 
this novel memorandum : " I gave him a pointed route and very par- 
ticular Directions with respect to his Conduct in every place and 
Situation, and not Conceiving him capable, I did not even leave him 
Room to abide by his own Judgment." This wagoner, it appears, was 
not one of his own selection. On March 28 we find the Colonel going 
down to Chester, Pennsylvania, to obtain goods for Virginia " from on 
board the French Frigate Hermione," and this is the last service of the 
kind that he mentions. On May 10, 1781, he left Philadelphia and pro- 
ceeded to General Morgan's at Winchester, having been engaged for 
eight months in dispatching the sinews of war to the South. No one 
probably knew how much he had done or appreciated his services 
more than General Greene — a General whom he devotedly admired. 

Febiger's subsequent career requires no very extended mention in 
the present sketch. The greater part of the time he was acting as 
recruiting officer in Virginia. Once or twice he was in the field again 
for brief periods. Among other experiences he seems to have assisted 
Morgan in suppressing the Tory insurrection in Hampshire county 
early in June, 1781. Then in July he acted with the Virginia militia, 
and for a short time commanded a body of newly raised Virginia Con- 
tinentals in La Fayette's little army. It Avas his good fortune also to 
be present at the siege of Yorktown and witness the surrender of 
Cornwallis — a fitting and happy close for a career which began with 
Bunker Hill. At Yorktown, however, the Colonel was not actively 
in command of any troops, the single detachment of Virginia Conti- 
nentals, some four hundred strong, being led by Lieutenant-Colonel 
' Gaskins. In a letter to Washington at the close of the siege, Febiger 
describes himself as " Superintending officer of the Virginia line." 
Repairing to Cumberland Old Court House, the recruiting head- 
quarters west of Richmond and south of the James, the Colonel 
was next engaged in organizing companies for a battalion to reinforce 
Greene in South Carolina. It proved a vexatious task, recruits coming 
in slowly, and no clothing or arms to equip them with. His varied 
duties and perplexities at this camp would alone form a curious and 
instructive chapter. 

Finally, on January 1st, 1783, after nearly eight years of uninter- 
rupted service, Colonel Febiger retired from active military duty, 
arid on November 15th of the same year was discharged from the 
now disbanding Continental army. In the interval, September 30, 



202 CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 

1783, Congress conferred upon him the rank of Brigadier-General by 
brevet. The title of General, however, he never assumed, as he tells 
a Danish correspondent at a later date that it is more to one's advan- 
tage in business matters in America to be known as " Colonel." Making 
Philadelphia his permanent home after the war, he engaged in trade, 
and carried on an extensive correspondence both throughout the States 
and abroad. Many of his business letters still preserved show a remark- 
able familiarity on his p^rt with the needs and resources of the country. 
His correspondence with a merchant at Copenhagen, by the name of 
John Sobotker, is so full of information respecting the mercantile sit- 
uation in our Northern States in 1785-6 that it may be regarded as of 
historical value. His knowledge was based largely on personal observa- 
tion, as besides lesser trips he speaks of making journeys through New 
England to the coast of Maine, and up the Hudson to Lake Champlain, 
prospecting in lumber. It appears that Mr. Sobotker once suggested 
the appointment of Colonel Febiger as Danish Consul in the United 
States, but nothing came of this. 

At the close of the war the Colonel became a member of the Vir- 
ginia State Society of Cincinnati, but on removing to Philadelphia 
joined the Pennsylvania State Society. He never took any active part 
in its proceedings however. One of the annual gatherings is thus 
referred to in a letter to his old friend, Colonel Heth, of Virginia, 
August 17, 1786: 

I have follow'd the Example of a great General at the Battle of Monmouth & performed a 
grand manoevre Retrograde — I am become from a nominal B: G: a private City Dragoon (N. B: 
in a Troop consisting of some of our best citizens) and as such I spent the last fourth of July with 
the Troop at the Cool Springs over Scuylkill. The C. Cti. [Cincinnati Society] on the same day 

to the number of about 30 walked in Procession from the City Tavern to the Dutch Church in 

Street, where Major Jackson (late aid to General Lincoln) deliver'd a very clever Oration. A 
number of honorary members and others were invited to a Feast in the City Tavern at the expense 
of the real or contingent Fund of the Society (N. B: I believe the former for I have heard of no 
contingent fund here). They broke up about 3 o'clock in the morning. The Bill was moderate 
for the very expensive Article of Segars amounted only to £3 — 10 — o. 

Colonel Febiger was at various times a candidate for important civil 
offices. For a short time he held the position of Auctioneer of the 
Northern Liberties of Philadelphia, and upon Washington's election to 
the Presidency he was brought forward for the post of Naval Officer of 
the same place. This appointment he failed to receive, but soon after, 
on the 13th of November, 1789, he was elected Treasurer of the State 
of Pennsylvania, and held the office until his death in 1796. He leaves 
quite an amusing account of the electioneering and balloting upon the 



CHRISTIAN FEBIGER 203 

occasion, this being his first experience in political strategy. His old 
General, Peter Muhlenberg, managed the canvas for him in the Legis- 
lature, and after four ballots, or " heats," as he describes them, he was 
chosen by one majority. The duties of his responsible office, however, 
he administered with so much ability, application and integrity, that he 
was thereafter unanimously re-elected his own* successor every year as 
long as he lived. 

As a proper close to these biographical memoranda, we may add 
here the tribute of affection and respect inscribed over the Colonel's 
grave by one of his old companions in the war : 

" In memory of Christian Febiger, Esq., who departed this life on 
the 20th day of September, 1796, in the 50th year of his age. 

He was a native of Denmark, and served as an officer in the Amer- 
ican army during the war with Great Britain ; and at its conclusion 
commanded the Second Virginia Regiment. In the year 1789, he was 
appointed treasurer of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which office 
he filled until the close of life. As an officer, he was beloved ; as a 
citizen, he was esteemed and respected ; as a friend, he was warm and 
sincere; and as a husband, tender and affectionate. In fine, his views 
were upright and his actions just. A brother soldier, who knew him 
well, offers this small tribute to his memory." 

HENRY P. JOHNSTON 

Note. — Colonel Febiger married Miss Elizabeth Carson, the daughter of a wealthy merchant 
in Philadelphia. She was occasionally with him in camp, as at Cumberland Old Court House, 
Virginia. The materials used in the preparation of this sketch are manuscripts in possession of 
Christian Febiger, Esq., of Wilmington, Delaware, and Colonel George L. Febiger, Assistant Pay- 
master General, U. S. A. Scattering letters from or to the Colonel are also to be found in the col- 
lections of the New York and other Historical Societies, and among General Greene's papers. 



SIR JOHN JOHNSON S ORDERLY BOOK 

DURING HIS CAMPAIGN FROM LA PRAIRIE TO FORT STANW1X 

1776-1777 

Conversing recently with the Rev. Marinus Willett of Port Chester. 
N. Y.. a grandson of Colonel Marinus 'Willett. oi Fort Stanwix fame, 

. mentioned that he was the possessor of the original manuscript 
Orderly Book kept by an officer of Sir John Johnson during his cam- 

ugn against Fort Stanwix in i~~~ — one of the Orderly Books captured 
bv his grandfather in his memorable sortie from Fort Stanwix against 
the camp of Sir John Johnson. The facts of this sortie which, it will be 
remembered, took place while the battle of Oriskany was in progress . 
are told by Col. Willett in his Narrative in these words — which, as the 
book has now become exceedingly rare, we quote : 

CoL Willett lost not a moment in sallying forth from the gate of the 
A > the enemv's sentries were directly in sight of the fort, his 
movements were necessarilv verv rapid. The enemy's sentries were 
driven in. and their advanced guard attacked, before they had time to 
form the troops. Sir John Johnson, whose regiment was not two 
hundred yards distant from the advanced guard, and who. himself 
being very warm, was in his tent with his coat off. had not time to put 
it on before his camp was forced. So sudden and rapid was the attack, 
that the enemy had not time to form so as to make any opposition to 
the torrent that poured in upon them. Flight, therefore, was their only 
resource. Adjoining the camp of Sir John Johnson was that of the Indians. 
This. a'.> BSS< A :i taken : so that a very few minutes put Col. Willett 
in possess n of both these encampments. Sir John with his troops 
took to the river, and the Indians fled into the woods. The troops 
under Col. Willett had fair firing at the enemy while they were c ss g 
the river. The quantity of camp equipage, clothing, blankets, and 
stores, which Col. Willett found in the two camps, rendered it neces- 
. to hasten a messenger to the fort and have the waggons sent, 
seven of which were stored in the fort with horses. These waggons 
were each three times loaded, while CoL Willett and his men remained 
in the camps of the enemy. Among other articles, they found five 
British flags: the baggage of Sir John Johnson, with all his papers; 



SIR JOHN JOHNSON S ORDERLY BOOK 205 

the baggage of a number of other officers, with memoranda, journals, 
and orderly books, containing all the information which could be 
desired." 

This Orderly Book is of great value in several particulars. It 
shows, for instance, the intimate relation which existed between the 
campaign of Gen. Burgoyne and the expedition of Col. Barry St. 
Leger — as, for example, the order given at Lachine on the 20th of 
June, that the officers under St. Leger and Johnson should send 
their baggage to Albany in the train of Burgoyne ; it establishes the 
exact number of men engaged in the expedition by the quantity of 
rations issued and the boats required ; it states the names of the different 
regiments which formed the expedition, by which we learn, among 
other items, that Sir John Johnson's regiment never, in a single 
instance, is called " The Royal Greens;" it affords the means of 
knowing the true rank held by different officers — as, for example, 
"Major" Watts is never spoken of save as " Captain ; " it elucidates 
a mooted question as to the rank of Lieut. Col. Barry St. Leger, who 
was made an acting Brig. Gen. on this occasion ; and it develops 
the fact that a part, at least, of St. Leger's troops joined the army of 
General Burgoyne, after that officer and Sir John had retreated into 
Canada, the laughing-stock of their Indian allies. These, as well as 
many other instances, will make apparent the value of the Orderly 
Book to the student of our Revolutionary annals. 

It will be noticed that the last order is dated at Oswego Falls, the 
31st of July, 1777, exactly two days and five hours previous to St. 
Leger's army appearing before the walls of Fort Stanwix, and six days 
before the battle of Oriskany. 

No attempt has been made to annotate the book in detail, as space 
will not permit ; and I may here state that for all the facts in relation to 
the officers mentioned in my notes, I am almost solely indebted to my 
friend, General Horatio Rogers of Providence, R. I., who is now 
engaged in annotating the MS. journal of Lieutenant Hadden(an artillery 
officer under Burgoyne), of the Royal Artillery in Canada, and upon 
Burgoyne's Campaign, concerning which he has valuable British Orders 
by Gens. Phillips, Carleton, and Burgoyne. Gen. Rogers brings to 
his task a comprehensive knowledge of his subject, great conscientious- 
ness, and powers of thorough research — traits which cannot fail to 
make his work, when published, an invaluable contribution to our 
Revolutionary history. 

WILLIAM L. STONE 



206 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



ORDERLY BOOK 

FOR 

LIEUT. COL. SIR JOHN JOHNSON'S 
COMPANY 

1776- 1777 

Prom the original in the possession of the Rev. 
Marinus Willett 

col. sir john Johnson's command 

Sam'l Street, Sergt.; Sam'l Moss, 
Sergt.; John Boice, Sergt.; McGrigor, 
Sergt. Corpl. Crowse, Corpl. McGrigor, 
Corpl. Russell, Corpl. Cook, Sergt. Hill- 
yer, Corpl. Smith, Corpl. Campbell, 
Sergt. Andw. Young, Lieut. Singleton, 
Ens. Byrne, Ens. Crothers, Ens. Crof- 
ford, Ensign Hysted. 



La Prairie 

1776 4th Novemr. Parole, London. 
Countersign, Cork. For Guard tomor- 
row Lt. Walker, 2 Sergts, 2 Corporals, 1 
Drumr & 15 Privates. The King's Royal 
Regt of New York to hold themselves in 
Readiness to leave this Quarter Imme- 
diately. 

1776 7th Nov. P. Lachine. C. Point 
Clair. Major Gray. Capts Brown & Delly, 
with their Compns to march off Imme- 
diately to Point Clair & to be Quartered 
as follows : The Major & Capt Delly, 
with their Companies at Point Clair & 
Capt Brown With a Detachment of a 
Sergt and ten from the Cols Compy, a 
Corporal & 4 Men from Capt. Watts and 
Capt McDonald's Comps to be at St. 
Anns, the Cols Comps and Capt Watts, 
together with the Staff to be Quartered 
in the Parish of Lachine in the follow- 
ing manner. The (lower) Capt Watts's 
in the Upper parts of the Parish of La- 



chine. For Guard tomorrow 1 S. 1 C. 
& 9 men. Compns duty 1 S. 1 C. 5 P. 

Lachine 

1776 8th November. P. McLou. C. 
Philips. For Guard tomorrow, 1 Serg. 
1 Corporal and 9 Privates. 

1776 9th Novmr. P. Carick. C. Cork. 
For Guard to Morrow, 1 Corp & 4 Pri- 
vates. 

1776 iothNovmr. P.Gray. C. Week. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Corp, & 4 
Privt. It is the Commanding officer's 
ords, that Capt. Watts' Comps hold them- 
selves in readiness to March to Point 
Clair to Morrow Morning at 9 o'clock 
where they shall receive provisions — 
Capt Daly's Comp. are to Receive Pro- 
visions at Lachine. 

1776 12th November, P. Drogheda. 
C. Clonmell. For Guard to Morrow 1 
Corpl. & 4 men. The Commanding offi- 
cer desires that the men assist the In- 
habitants in whose houses they are Quar- 
tered, in cutting fire-wood for their own 
use this winter. 

1776 31st December. P. Howe. C. 
Carleton. For guard tomorrow, 1 Serg, 
and 6 men. Ens. Crawford officer of the 
day. The two Companys that are Can- 
toned here, to hold themselves in Readi- 
ness to march towards Point Clair Thurs- 
day next if the weather permit. 

1777 4th January. P. London. C. 
Edinburgh. For Guard tomorrow 1 Ser- 
geant & 6 privates. Ens. Crawford, 
officer of the day. 

Note. — Here follows a new title. 

Orderly Provost M 
The Camp Equipage to be examined 
& kept in good condition — The troops, 
likewise, will hold themselves in readi- 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



20/ 



ness to march on the Shortest Notice ; 
they are frequently to be assembled on 
their Regimental Alarm-Posts, & March 
to the Alarm-Post of the Brigade when 
the Weather will permit — They will prac- 
tice Marching on Snow-Shoes, as soon 
as they receive them. Reports are to be 
made by all the British to Major General 
Philips, and by all the Germans to Major 
General Riedesel where the alarm Posts 
are, both of the Regiments and the Bri- 
gades in order to be forwarded to the 
Commander in Chief — A State likewise 
to be given in of the Camp Equipage — 
Reports are also to be made to the 
Quarter Master Genl at Montreal from 
each Corps of the Number of Boats they 
have in Charge, specifiing their condition 
and how furnished with Oars, Sitting- 
Poles, &c. 

Signed, E. Foy 1 Depy Adjt General 



General Orders by Major General 
Philips 
Montreal 5th December 1776 
Officers coming to Montreal upon 
Leave for a longer Time than two days, 
are to give in their Names to the Adjt 
of the week, Marking to what time their 
leave of absence extends, & by whom 
given. 

Sign'd Arr Jas Pomeroy 2 



Montreal 12th December 1776 
Orders received from his Excellency 
the Commander in Chief, dated Quebec, 
9th December, 1776. 

The Commander in Chief has been 
Pleased to appoint Ensign William Doyle 8 
of the 24th Regt, To be Lieut, in the 
room of Lieut. Robert Pennington de- 



ceased. No Adjutant, Quarter Master, 
or Surgeons Mate doing duty as Such in 
any Regt is to be returned a Volunteer. A 
bounty having been granted by the Lon- 
don Merchts to Such Soldiers, or Say- 
lors as may have been wounded, and to 
the Widows of such of either as have 
been kill'd in the Service In America, 
the Pay Master of Regiments, & Captain 
Shanks 4 are desired to transmit to Mr. 
Dunn Receiver General of the Province 
a list of the Soldiers and Saylors who 
have been kill'd or wounded in the 
course of the Campaign. Ten Dollars 
will be paid to the latter, not having 
already received it, & Five Pounds to 
the Widows of the former, Producing 
Certificates from the Officer Under 
whose Command their Husbands Re- 
spectively Served. 

Sigrid E. Foy 
Dept Adt General 
By order of Major Genl Philips 
Sign'd Arr Jams Pomeroy, 

Aid de Camp. 



Lachine 
1777 Jan 1 st. P. Ireland. C. Scot- 
land. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt &: 6 
Prvt. The two Companys of the Kings 
Royal Regt of New York Cantoon'd at 
Lachine to parade tomorrow morning 
opposite to Mr. Henis at Seven o'Clock, 
fully accouter'd — The Guard to Mount 
at 7 o'Clock. 

—5th. P. Patrick. C. Daly. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, 6 Privts. Ens 
Byrne, Officer of the Day. 

— 6th. P. Ireland. C. Cromarthy. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 6 Prvts. 
Lieut Singleton, 5 Officer of the Day. 

— 7th. P. Gray. C. Evalick. For 



208 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Guard to Morrow i Sergt & 6 Privts. 
Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day. 

—8th. P. Berwick. C. Tweed. For 
Guard to Morrow i S & 6 P. Ens Craw- 
ford Officer of the Day. 

—9th. P. Tain. C. Dingwall. For 
Guard to Morrow i S & 6 P. Lieut. Sin- 
gleton, Officer of the day. 

— ioth. P. London. C. Weymouth. 
For Guard to Morrow i S & 6 Privates. 
Ens Byrns, officer of the Day. 

—nth. P. New York. C. Albany. 
For Guard to Morrow i S & 6 men. 
Ens. Crothers, officer of the Day. 

—i 2th P. Edinburgh. C. Lieth. For 
Guard to Morrow i S & 6 men. Ens 
Crawford, officer of the Day. 

—13th. P. York, C. Boston. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. Lieut 
Singleton, officer of the day. 

— 14th. P. Philadelphia. C. Charles- 
town. For Guard to Morrow, 1S&6 
P men. Ens, Byrns officer of the Day. 

—15th. P. Dublin. C. Belfast. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 S & 6 P men. Ens 
Crothers, officer of the Day. 

—1 6th. P. Tain. C. Dingwall For 
Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. Ens 
Crawford, officer of the Day. 

— 17 th P. Armagh. C. Galloway. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. 
Lieut. Singleton, officer of the Day. 

— 1 8th. P. Thurso. C. Week. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 S & 6 P men. Ens 
Byrns, officer of the Day. 

— 19th. P. Glasgow. C. Dumbarton. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. 
Ens Crothers, officer of Day. 

—20th. P. Tillibody. C. Sterling. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. 
Ens Crawford, officer of the Day. 

— 2 1 st. P. Perth. C. Lieth For 



Guard to Morrow, 1 S & 6 P men. Lieut. 
Singleton, officer of the Day. 

— 2 2d. P. York. C. Cadrous. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men Ens 
Byrns, officer of the Day. 

— 23d. P. Boston. C. Albany. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 P men. Ens 
Crothers officer of the Day. 

— 24th. P . Fraser. C. Gordon. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. Ens 
Crawford officer of the Day. It is the 
Commanding officers orders, That the 
Comps Lying at Upper Lachine Do 
Duty in Conjunction with the Two 
Comps of the Kings Royal Regt of New 
York of Lower Lachine. 

— 25 th. P. Montreal. C. Quebec. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 6 men. 
Lieut Singleton, officer of the Day 

— 26th. P. La Prairie. C. Lachine. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sert & 6 P men. 
Ens Byrns, officer of the Day. 

— 27 th. P. Point Clair. C. Inverness. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 6 P 
men. Ens Crothers, officer of the 
Day. 

— 28th. P. London. C. Barnet. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Serg. & 6 P. Ens 
Crawford, Officer of the Day. 

— 29th. P. Inverness. C. Nairn. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 7 men. 
Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day. 

—30th. P. Dunkeld. C. Perth. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 7 men. 
Ens Byrne, officer of the day. 

—31st. P. Burk. C. Patrick. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 7 men. Ens 
Crothers officer of the Day. 



Lachine 
1777 February 1st. P. New York. 
C. Albany. For Guard to Morrow 1 S 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



209 



6 7 Men. Ens Crawford, officer of the 
Day. 

— 2d. P. Fort Hunter. C. Johns- 
town. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 

7 men. Lieut. Singleton, officer of 
the Day 

—3d. P. Tower. C. St. James. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 7 Men 
Ens Byrnes. Officer of the Day. 

—4th. P. Norwich. C. Norfolk. Ens 
Crothers, Officer of the Day. 

— 5th. P. Invershire. C. Inveraw. 
Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt & 6 Men. 
For Ens Crawford Officer of the Day. 

— 6th. P. Tryon. C. Dunmore. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 7 
Men. Lieut. Singleton officer of the 
Day. It is Majr Grays ord's that Patr 
McDonell of Capt Dalys Corny & Dan'll 
Campbell of the Colls Compy be ap- 
pointed Corp'ls in his Compy. 

— 7th. P. Dalwhinnie. C. Dulna- 
cardock. For Guard to Morrow, 1 
Sergt. & 1 Corp. & 6 Men. Ens Byrns, 
officer of the Day. 

—8th. P. Bristol. C. Barth. For 
Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt & 6 Men. 
Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. 

—9th. P. York. C. Albany. For 
Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt 1 Corpl & 7 
Men. 

— 10th. P. Schanactdy. C. Trypps 
hill. For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 
Corpl & 7 Men. Lieut Singleton, Officer 
of the Day. 

—nth. P. Gilbart. C. Tice. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Corpl. & 7 
men. Ens Byrns, officer of the Day. 

— 1 2th. P. Mayfield. C. Sachan- 
daga. For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 
Corpl. & 7 Men. Ens Crothers, Officer 
of the Day. 



— 13th. P. fort Stanwix. C. Oswago. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Corpl, 
& 7 Men. Ens Crawford Officer of the 
Day. 

— 14th. P. Niagara. C> Fort Dim- 
ber. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 
Corpl, & 7 Men. Lieut. Singleton 
officer of the Day. 

—15th. P. Fort Erie. C. Detroit. 
For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl, 
and 7 Men. Ens Byrns Officer of the 
Day. 

—1 6th. P. St Anns. C. Point Clair. 
For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl, 
& 9 Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the 
Day. 

— 17th. P. La Chine. C. Montreal. 
For Guard To Morrow 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl 
& 9 Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of 
the Day. 

— 1 8th. P. La Prairie. C. Long He. 
For Guard To Morrow, 1 Sergt 1 Corpl. &: 
9 Men. Ens Byrns, Officer of The Day. 

—17th. [Sic] P. Eden. C. Adam. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & Eight 
men. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day. 
It is the Commanding Officers Orders 
that the Guard Shall Consist of one 
Sergt, & Eight private Men for the future, 
& be Removed from here to Lower La 
chine Where the Kings Stores Are, they 
will keep two Sentries by Day & two by 
Night, the One over the Prisoners, & the 
Other at the Kings Stores. 

—1 8th. [Sic] P. Howe. C. Fraser. 
For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & 
Eight Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of 
the Day. It is the Commanding Officers 
Orders that the Officer of the Day Visit 
the Guard twice Every Day & Make a 
Report to him of What Ever happens 
Relative to the Service. 



2IO 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



— 19th. P. Johnson. C. Gray. For 
Guard To Morrow 1 Sergt. & 8 Men. 
Ens Byrns, Officer of the Day. 

— 20th. P. Norwich. C. London. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, and 8 
Men. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day. 

— 2 1 st. P. Phillips. C. Fraser. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & Men. Ens 
Crawford, Officer of the Day. 

It is The Commanding officers Orders 
that the two Comp'ys Quartered here 
March to Point Clair To Morrow Morn- 
ing at 7 O'Clock. The Non Commis- 
siend Officers will be Very Carefull That 
The Men Are Clean & their Armes 
in Good Order. 

— 2 2d. P. Whymendham. C. Attle- 
burrough. For Guard to Morrow 1 
Sergt. & 10 Men. Lieut. Singleton, 
Officer of the Day. 

— 23d. P. Thotford. C New Market. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 
Men. Ensign Byrns Officer of the 
Day. 

— 24th. P. Strattford. C. Bow 
Bridge. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 
& 10 Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the 
Day. 

—25th. P. Norfolk. C. Suffolk. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Men. 
Ens Crawford, officer of the Day. 

—26th. P. Essex. C. Kent. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 
men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the 
Day. 

—27th. P. Walker. C. Crothers. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 
10 men. Ens Byrns officer of the 
day. 

—28th. P. Daly. C. Watts. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 
men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. 



LACHINE 

1777 March 1st. P. India. C. 
Britain. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt 
& 10 Private Men. Ens Crawford Officer 
of the Day. 

— 2d. P. Tyron. C. Howe. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private 
Men. Leaut. Singleton, Officer of the 
Day. 

— 3d. P. Johnstown. C. Johnson. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Byrns, Officer of the Day. 

— 4th. P. Yorkshire. C. Hamp- 
shire. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt 
& Private Men. Ens Crothers, Officer of 
the Day. 

—5 th. P. Exeter. C. York. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the 
Day. 

—6th. P. Halifax. C. Boston. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private 
Men Lieut Singleton, Officer of the 
Day. 

— 7th. P. Quebec. C. Three Rivers. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 S & 10 Pri Men. 
Ens Byrns Officer of the Day. 

—8th. P. Sorel. C. Chamblee. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Priv't 
Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. 

— 9th. P. Montreal. C. Burgoyne. 
For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 10 
Privt Men. Ens Crawford officer of the 
Day. 

— 10th. P. Carleton. C. Phillips. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 
Privt Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of 
the Day. 

— nth. P. Johnson. C. Gray. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Privt 
Men, Ens. Byrns Officer of the Day. 

12th. P. County Tryon. C.Albany. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



211 



For Guard to Morrow, i Sergt. & 10 
Privt Men. Ens Crothers Officer of 
the Day. 

— 13th. P. Newcastle. C. Tweed. 
For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & 10 
Privet Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of 
the Day. It is the Commanding Officers 
Orders that the Sergts, Corpls, Drummers, 
& Private Men of the Kings Roy'l New 
York attend Exercise to Morrow Morn- 
ing At Eleven O'Clock — thay are to 
Meet at the post above Capt Chenies. 

— 14th. P. England. C. America. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Leaut Singleton Officer of the 
Day. 

—15th. P. Ireland. C. Scotland. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day. 

— 16th. P. Philadelphia. C. New 
York. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 
10 Privt Men. Ens Crothers Officer of 
the Day. It is the Commanding Officers 
Orders that an Exact Account be taken 
of the Clothing, Shirts, Shoes & Stock- 
ings &c of the Men of Every Comp, & 
the Quantity of them — an officer of each 
Comp to Attend at the time — & that the 
Account be given in to the Command- 
ing Officer At Point Clair. That all the 
Officers for the future Attend Exercise 
of the Men from the hour of Eleven till 
One in the Afternoon if the Weather 
Permit. A Court Martial to Sit on 
Wednesday Next to try Such Prisoners 
as may be brought before them. 

—17th. P. St. Patrick. C. Chiloy. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the 
Day. 

—1 8th. P. Lochaber. C. Kintail. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 



Men. Lieut Singleton Officer of the Day. 
A Regimental Court Martial to Sit to 
Morrow at 12 o'Clock. Lieut Singleton, 
President. Members, Ens Crothers, Ens 
Crawford. To try Such Prisoners as may 
be brought before them. 

—19th. P. Barford. C. Melton. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Privt 
Men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day. 

—20th. P. Hatthersett. C. Eaton. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 
Privt Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the 
Day. 

— 2 1 st. P. Dareham. C.Yarmouth. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 
Privt Men. Ens Crawford Officer of 
the Day. 

— 2 2d. P. Howe. C. Tryon. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. 
Leaut. Singleton Officer of the Day. 

— 23d. P. Johnstown. C. John- 
son. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 
10 Pt. Men. Ens Byrne, Officer of the 
Day. 

— 24th. P. Quebec. C. Orleans. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Privt 
Men. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day. 
A Regtl Court Martial to Sit to Morrow 
Morning At 10 O'Clock at the Com- 
manding Officers Quarters. Lieut. 
Walker, President. Ens Crothers, Ens 
Crawford Members, to try Such Prisoners 
as may be brought before them. 

— 25th. P. Albany. C. Boston. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. 
Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. 

— 26th. P. Amboy. C. New York. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the 
Day. 

— 27th. P. Philadelphia. C. Anapolis 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 



212 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Men. Ens Byrns Officer of the Day. 
It is Major Gray's Orders that Officers 
Commanding Comp'nys Give in a Regu- 
lar Return of different Comp'nys Weekly 
to the Quarter Master in order to draw 
their Provisions According to said Re- 
turn ; & When a Man is Absent or does 
not chuse to draw his Rations, the Officer 
of th. Comp'ny to wich he belongs is to 
Give in his name, at the foot of Said 
Return, Mentioning, if Absent, at what 
Place, the Qr. Master is to Make a 
Monthly Return to the Paymaster of the 
number of Rations for Said Month, & in 
that Return Give in a List of the Officers 
& Men who may be, or does not chuse 
to Draw Provisions. It is Major Grays 
Orders that the Officers Commanding 
Companys will Examine the Accounts 
Given in to them by the Quarter Master, 
for making the Mens Clothing & other 
Necessarys furnished them, & if there are 
any Errors in Said Account, to furnish 
the Quarter Master with an Account of 
them in Writing Immediately. 

—28th. P. Fort Erie. C. Detroit. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Pri. 
Men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day. 

—29th. P. Barnet. C. Hatfield. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the 
Day. the Commission'd Non Com- 
miss'd officers & Private men of the 
Kings Royal Regt'ment of New York 
to be under arms the 31st of March, 
Monday Next at Capt Dalys Quarters. 

— 30th, P. London. C. Middlesex. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Lieut. Singleton officer of the Day. 

— 31st. P. Limerick. C. Clenmell. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day. 



LACHINE 

1777 April 1st. P. Gray. C. John- 
son. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 
10 Pt. Men. Ens Crothers Officer of 
the Day. 

— 2d. P. Kingsb ridge. C. Howe. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt Men. 
Ens Wall Officer of the Day. 

— 3d. P. Honduras. C. Goree. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. Men. 
Ens Crawford Officer of the Day. 

—4th. P. Fraser. C. Phillips. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. 
Lieut. Singleton Officer of the Day. 

— 5th. P. Montreal. C. Lachine. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day. 

— 6th. P. Glasgow. C. Aberdeen. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt 
Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the 
Day. 

—7th. P. Bristol. C. York. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. 
Men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day. 

—8th. P. Wells. C. Lynn. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 10 Pt. Men. 
Ens Crawford officer of the Day. 
It is the Commanding Officers Orders 
that the two Companys Cantoon'd at La- 
chine Shall be Under Arms to Morrow 
Morning At eleven o'clock at the Com- 
manding Officers Quarters. 

— 9 th. P. Norfolk. C. Suffolk. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt Men. 
Lieut. Morrison Officer of the Day. A 
Review of Arms Accoutrements and Nec- 
essaries on friday at Eleven O'Clock as 
the Major desires that the men from St. 
Anns Under the Command of Capt. 
Brown be sent to their Companys that 
they may be Provided in time with Nec- 
essaries to take the field when ordered 






ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



2I 3 



«& Capt. Brown to take the Light In- 
fantry Comp'ny, which he is to Com- 
pleat Immediatly' from the Battalion : the 
old men from Capt. Watts Compy change 
their coats with those from other Com- 
panys who shall come in their places ; 
if their Coats do not Answer let the 
wings be taken off & given to those 
that come in ; Capt. Brown to fix that 
as he thinks fit. Lieut. Morrison to 
change off the Colonels Compy ; Lt. 
Singleton off the Majors & Lt. Mc- 
Donold off Capt. McDonolds Comp'y, 
that they may be no farther Disputes in 
Regard to the Officers Ranks ; & Left 
by Sir John a list of them to be 
■seen, According to their Ranks from 
the Adjutant in the Regimental Book. 

— 10th. P. Perth Amboy. C. Eliza- 
beth Town. For Guard to Morrow 1 
Sergt. and 10 Private Men. Ens Burn 
Officer of the Day. 

—nth. /'.Phillips. C. Fraser. For 
■Guard to Morrow 10 Privates, 1 Sergt. 
Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. 

— 12th. P. London. C. Edinburgh. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 10 Private 
Men. Officer of the Day, Ensign Wall. 
The Commisson'd, Non Commisson'd 
Officers and Men of the Kings Royal 
Regt. of New York to be Under Arms 
to Morrow Morning at 7 o'clock. 

— 13th. P. Dornoch. C. Dunrobin. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P 
Ens* Crawford Officer of the Day. The 
Commissond, Non Commiss'd officers & 
Private Men of the Kings Royal Regt. 
of New York to be under Arms to 
Morrow Morning at 7 o'Clock. 

— 14th. P. Dunmore. C. Howe. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private 
Men. Lieut. Morrison Officer of the Day. 



— 15th. P. Johnson. C. Tryon. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt and 10 Private 
Men. Ens Burn Officer of the Day 
Its the Commanding Officers Orders that 
the two Compy's Cantoon'd at Lachine 
Shall be Under Arms to Morrow Morn- 
ing at Nine O'Clock ; the Non Com- 
misshon'd Officers to See that the Men 
Are Clean, and their Arms in Good 
Order ; they are to Parade at the Com- 
manding Officers Quarters. 

— 1 6th. P. Inverness. C. Nairn. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Priv. 
Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. 

—17th. P. York. C. Albany. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. 
Ens Wall, Officer of the Day. 

— 1 8th. P. Eaton. C. Hingham. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 sergt. & 10 Pt. 
men. Ens Crawford officer of the Day. 

—19th. P. Dublin. C. Cork. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt and ten Private 
Men. Lieut. Morrison Officer of the 
Day. 

—20th. P. Bristol. C. Barth. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. and 10 P 
Men. Ens Burn Officer of the Day. 

— 2 1 st. P. Lincolnshire. C. Cam- 
bridgeshire. For Guard to Morrow, 1 
Sergt. and 10 Private Men. Ens 
Crothers Officer of the Day. 

— 2 2d. P. Niagara. C. Oswagoachey, 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 10 Private 
Men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day. 

—23d. P. Derby. C. Clonmell. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Men. 
Ens Crawford Officer of the Day. the 
Commiss'ed Non Commiss'ed officers, 
Drums & Privets, men of the Kings 
Royal Regt. of New York, to Hold 
themselves In Readiness to March to 
Point Clair on Saturday Morning, 26th 



214 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



of April. Thay are to Parade at the 
Commanding Officers Quarters at 7 
o'clock. 

— 24th. P. London. C. York. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P. Men. 
Lieut. Morrison Officer of the Day. 

—25th. P. Bristol. C. Barth. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P. Men. 
Ens Byrne Officer of the Day. 

— 26th. P. Boston. C. Norwich. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P Men. 
Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. 

— 27th. P. Hingham. C. Dearham. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt and 10 
Private Men. Ens Wall, Officer of the 
Day. 

—28th. P. Norfolk. C. Suffolk. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P 
Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the 
Day. 

— 29th. P. Dover. C. Plymouh. 
For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & 10 
Priv. Men. Leaut. Morrison, Officer of 
the Day. • 

—30th. P. Ireland. C. Scotland. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pri. 
Men. Ens. Byrne Officer of the Day. 



1777 May, ist. P. Quebec. C. 
Orleans. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt 
& 10 Priv. Men. Ens. Crothers, Officer 
of the Day. the Commiss'd Non Com- 
miss'd officers, Drummers, & private men 
of the Kings Royal Regt. of New York 
to hold themselves in Readiness to 
March to Point Clair to Morrow Morn- 
ing at 7 o'clock ; thay are to Parade at 
the Commanding Officers Quarters at La 
Chine. 

—2d. P. Halifax. C. Boston. For 
Guard tomorrow 1 Sergt & 10 Men. 
Ens Wall officer of the Day. 



—3d. P. Belfast. C. Dublin. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Men. 
Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. it is 
the Commanding officers orders that all 
the officers for the future to Exercise 
their own Companys. 

—4th. P. Cork. C. Dublin. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 10 P. Men. 
Lieut. Morrison, Officer of the Day. 

It is the Commanding officers orders 
that two men from each Company be 
ordered to attend the ammunition tomor- 
row at 8 o'clock in the morning, & also 
that the old men who are incapable to 
exercise attend for the same purpose. 

— 5th. P. America. C. England. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 P 
Men. Lieut. Walker, Officer of the 
Day. 

— 6th. P. Montreal. C. Lachine. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 
Priv. Men. Ens Byrne, Officer of the 
Day. It is the Commanding officers, 
orders that two men from each Company 
attend constantly every fair day at 8 
o'Clock in the morning in order to air 
the ammunition ; also that the old men, 
who are incapable of learning the exer- 
cise, attend for the same purpose with a 
Non Commissioned officer. 

— 7th. P. New York. C. Amboy. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10- 
Priv. Men. Ens Crothers, officer of the 
Day. 

— 8th. P. Guadaloupe. C. Lewisburgh. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pri- 
vate Men. Ens Wall, officer of the 
Day. 

— 9th. P. Hanover. C. Hamburg. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, 10 Pri- 
vate men. Ens Crawford, officer of the 
Day. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



215 



It is the commanding officers orders 
that the Commiss'd Non Commiss'd of- 
ficers Drumers & Privets March to Point 
Clair to Morrow Morning at 8 o'clock, if 
the Weather Permits ; thay are to Parade 
at the Commanding officers Quarters. 

— 10th. P. Bristol. C. York. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private 
Men. Lieut. Morrison officer of the 
Day. 

— nth. P. Fraser. C. Phillips. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 & 10 Private 
Men. Ens Byrne officer of the Day. 

— 1 2th. P. Edinburgh. C. Lieth. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Privt 
Men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day. 

— 13th. P. Crownpont. C. Tycon- 
deroga. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt 
& 8 Privt Men. Ens Wall, officer of the 
Day. 

—14th. P. Fort William. C. Fort 
George. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt 
& 8 Privts. Lieut. Walker, officer of 
the Day. 

The Commission'd Non Commiss'd 
officers, Drum'rs, & Private Men of the 
Kings Royal Regt. of New York to 
March to Point Clair to Morrow Morn- 
ing at 7 o'clock. They will Parade at 
the Commanding officers Quarters. 

— 15th. P. Tryon. C. Howe. For 
Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pr. Men. 
Ens Byrne, officer of the Day. 

It being Reported to the Commanding 
Officer that Several of the Soldiers make 
a practice of Gunning with their Regi- 
mental Fire Locks, he Desires for the 
future to say any Soldier who shall 
be guilty of Using their Arms to that 
purpose, if they shall, they may Depend 
they will be punished as the Martial 
Law Directs. 



— 1 6th. P. Quebec. C. Dover. For 
Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 10 Pr. 
Men. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day. 

The Regt. are to keep themselves in 
Readiness to March at a Days Warning; 
the Trowsers & Every thing else to be 
Ready on Saturday Next : the whole of 
the Taylors of the Regt. to be kept at 
Work & free from Duty till then for 
that purpose — Jessups Corps to see that 
thay are Ready in Case of Orders for 
their Marching, & to have their Clothing 
Ready according to the Above Orders 
for the Regt. — Corp. Edward Egnue of 
Capt. Brown's Compy having Recei'd 
his Sentence of the General Court Mar- 
tial is now Reduced to Serve in the 
Ranks as a Private Soldier. 

The Regt. & other Partys, Under the 
Command of Major Gray, are to be 
Under Arms Saturday Next at the 
Usual Place of Exercise at the Bay if 
the Weather Permits. 

— 17th. P. Langford. C. Lunsbans- 
borogh. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt 
& 8 Priv. Men. Ens Wall, Officer of 
the Day. 

—1 8th. P. Chester. C Newport. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 
Privet Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of 
the Day. 

— 19th. P. Stirling. C Perth, for 
guard tomorrow one Sergt and 10 previt 
men. Lieut. Walker, officer of the Day. 

— 20th. P. London. C. Edinburgh. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 8 
Priv. Men. Ens. Byrne, Officer of the 
Day. 

It is the Commanding officers orders 
that the Volunteers who have joined the 
Companies to which they belonge are to 
Mount Guard In their Proper Turn. 



216 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



— 2 1 st. P. Dublin. C. London. For 
Guard to Morrow i Sergt & 8 men. 
Ens Crothers officer of the Day. 

— 2 2d. P. Templar. C. Preston. 
For Guard to Morrow i Sergt. & 8 Priv. 
men. Ens Wall Officer of the Day. 

It is the Commanding officers orders 
that the Commisson'd Non Commis- 
son'd officers & Soldiers of the King's 
Royal Regt. of New York to be Under 
arms this Evening at the Usual Place of 
Exercise at four o'clock ; the Non Com- 
mission'd officers are to see that the mens 
arms are in Duty order ; their Regtl's 
Clean ; their Regtl hats well Cocked, & 
their hair Properly Dresed, So as to ap- 
pear Decent Saturday Next at the Re- 
view. 

— 23d. P. Greenock. C. Paisley. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Priv. 
Men. Ens. Crawford, Officer of the 
Day. 

It is the Commanding officers orders 
the Commisson'd Non Commissined 
officers, Drumers & Privts of the 
King's Royal Regt of New York to be 
Under arms for Exercise to Morrow 
Morning at 7 o'clock. 

— 24th. P. Walker. C. Lipscomb. 
For Guard to morrow, 1 Sergt. & 8 Men. 
Ens Crothers officer of the Day. 

It is the Commanding officers orders 
that the two Companys Cantoon'd at 
Lachine hold themselves in Readiness to 
March to Point Clair on monday Next 
at 6 o'Clock in the morning ; the officers 
to be Careful that the mens arms, ammu- 
nition, accoutrements and necessaries are 
in good order on Tuesday Morning next 
at the genl Review. The Commissioned 
Non Commissioned officers, Drums, and 
private men to [meet at] roll calling to- 



morrow morning at Nine o'Clock at the 
Commanding officers Quarters & to Re- 
ceive the Deficency of the Cartridges. 

— 25th. P. Inverness. C. Darnock. 
For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 6 pri- 
vate Men. Ens Wall, Officer of the 
Day. 

The Commissioned, Non Commiss'ed 
officers, Drummers & Private Men to ap- 
pear at 6 o'clock to Morrow Morning at 
the Commanding officers Quarters in 
Uniforms with their Arms [and] accou- 
trements necessary. 

1 Edward Foy, at this time a captain in the 
Royal Artillery and Carleton's Department ; 
Adj. Gen. at Minden in 1759, where he won 
laurels. 

2 Arthur James Pomeroy, at this time captain 
in the 1st Dragoons ; commissioned captain Oct. 
5th, 1776. 

3 William Doyle, afterwards a lieutenant ; 
captured with Burgoyne. His name is signed 
to the Cambridge Parole. 

4 This is undoubtedly Lieut. John Schank, R. 
N., then in command of the Canceau — an armed 
schooner of 10 guns on the St. Lawrence. This 
command gave him the title of Captain. He be- 
came Admiral of the Blue, July 19th, 1821. 
Born about 174O ; died March 6th, 1823, in the 
83d year of his age. He was an extremely meri- 
torious officer, and was very distinguished in me- 
chanics. 

5 This officer was wounded and taken prisoner 
by Col. Willett in his sortie from Fort Stanwix, 
and Captain-Lieutenant John McDonald (men- 
tioned further on) was killed the same day in the 
action of Oriskany. Letter from Col. Claus to 
Secretary Knox. N. Y. Col. Doc. vol. St A, p. 
718. 

Note — On the inside of the cover of the 
Orderly Book is the following entry : " Nicholas 
Hillyer Sergt enters the Col Company loth of 
April 1777, then Canteened at Lachine." 

The Book is written in many different hand- 
writings, some so bad as to be almost indeci- 
pherable — not from the lapse of time, for the 
book is exceedingly well preserved in its parch- 
ment cover — but from the fact that some of the 
writers evidently spelled by sound amid the fa- 
tigues of camp life, and were obliged to take 
down hurriedly the words of the commanding 
officer. Indeed, the wonder is that, under such 
circumstances, anything was written that could be 
made out at all. The spelling has been corrected. 

W. L. Stone. 



NOTES 



21/ 



NOTES 

Panama ship railroad — The pro- 
position of Captain Eads to build a rail- 
way for the carriage of ships across the 
Isthmus by land in lieu of the Historic 
Canal has of late attracted attention 
from its supposed novelty. But it is 
by no means as new as might be sup- 
posed. In the American Railroad Jour- 
nal for August 4, 1 832, there is an account 
of a project of a railroad for ships started 
in England and urged in the United 
Service Journal. The scheme proposed 
the creation of a joint stock company 
of the English holders of Colombian 
bonds to enter into an agreement with 
the Colombian government for the 
necessary powers. The Colombian 
bonds were then very much depressed 
in England, and the plan was to bring 
them to par in the negotiation with 
Colombia for the purchase of the neces- 
sary land. But the insignificant part of 
the plan is the right of sovereignty 
which it was proposed that Great 
Britain should set up on the Isthmus. It 
has a peculiar significance now. 

' ' A most important part of the plan is, how- 
ever, that which looks to the creation of a British 
Colony there. In order to anticipate any opposi- 
tion from the United States, it is suggested that 
a tract of land, either the whole isthmus, or 
such part lying between good natural boundaries, 
as the lake of Nicaragua on the north and the 
river Darien on the south, should be obtained 
by treaty, and erected into an English Colony, 
independent of the State of Colombia, and 
dependent on the crown of England. The 
scheme is ambitious, and, from the pecuniary 
situation of the Colombian government, anxious 
to build up a future credit with England by 
paying off satisfactorily the existing loans, of 
not improbable success." — Baltimore American. 

The day for such schemes on the part 



of Great Britain has gone by and there 
is no danger of her quarreling with her 
bread and butter. France has tried her 
hand in Mexico and burned her fingers 
as badly as the cat in the fable. The 
Monroe doctrine is a part of the un- 
written law of the American people and 
about the only sentimental question on 
which they would take up the musket as 
one man. The other continent may as 
well take notice that while they will be 
willingly received and welcomed indi- 
vidually and given work and food to their 
hearts content, they are not wanted col- 
lectively and cannot come. Iulus 



President monroe's cabinet — The 
writer of the following letter, addressed 
to his former legal instructor, was, at its 
date, a representative in the lower 
House of Congress from Columbia 
County in this State : 

Washington, January 19th, 1822 

My Dear Sir : Your favor of the 
9th, arrived in due course, and I feel 
grateful for your friendly attention in 
remembering me at this distance, for 
notwithstanding the friendly mode in 
which I have been received here, I can- 
not avoid feeling that I am not at home; 
but everything tends to convince me 
that I am in a strange land, and among 
a people still more strange, for I find 
that northern ideas of morality and re- 
ligion are either exploded, or have never 
existed on this side of the Susquehanna 
— that those who appear at a distance 
to be great men, upon nearer approach 
dwindle into mere pigmies. The Presi- 
dent is not, and I think never could have 
been, a great man. There is no single 
indication of such a character either in 



218 



NOTES 



his countenance, his manners, or his 
conversation. If we did not know 
otherwise from some of his former con- 
duct, we should set him down as a neg- 
ative character. Mr. Adams possesses 
qualifications for a school-master ; he is 
undoubtedly a man of erudition, but not 
of genius. His appearance and man- 
ners are the reverse of prepossessing. 
Mr. Crawford is a fine looking man with 
more talents than suavity, a better 
lawyer than financier, possessing a bold 
and daring countenance better adapted 
to fighting than intrigue. He is famous 
as a duellist ; and I suppose you are 
aware that he shot your nephew, Mr. 
Van Alen, Solicitor of Georgia. The 
Secretary of the Navy you know 
better than I do ; and you will probably 
be surprised when I assure you that he is 
a man of the most intellectual vigor 
among the Secretaries with the excep- 
tion of Mr. Calhoun, who is undoubtedly 
the first man in administration ; 
modest, frank and intelligent, but de- 
cided in his measures. He is a man 
adapted to a political course. His 
whole study has been the policy of his 
country, and he possesses a rare assi- 
duity in his pursuits. I am perhaps a 
little partial to him as a man of my own 
age, and one who has distinguished me 
by marks of attention. His conduct 
also in the appointment of Solomon Van 
Rensselaer ought to gain the hearts of 
Federalists, for he was our most strenu- 
ous advocate with the P. M. G. 

I have spoken of Federalists, for such 
I profess yet to be, and have had the 
temerity even here to proclaim, that my 
flag is nailed to the mast, and with it 
either to sink or swim ; and such doc- 



trines are appreciated here. Even 
Randolph, who says the Federalists of 
former days would eat Democrats, de- 
clares the old-fashioned Federalists were 
better than the Democrats of the present 
day. By the by, I wish you could be 
acquainted with this gentleman. He is 
the most fascinating man I ever met 
with. You would enjoy his conversa- 
tion, for it is the most classically elegant 
I ever heard — his quotations apt and 
always correct. He too has been very 
kind and attentive to me, and did me 
the favor to dine with me yesterday, 
when he gave a zest to the whole party. 
He is a radical to the general govern- 
ment, but the veriest aristocrat in all that 
relates to the government of Virginia. 

Mr. Van Buren & Mr, King live to- 
gether, & will probably act together. 
The former has not yet determined on 
his political course, but, between ourselves, 
I think he will advocate Crawford, & 
perhaps be a radical. I have such a su- 
perabundance of letters to write that I 
must here conclude, and beg you to re- 
ceive these crude and hasty lines for 
what they are worth ; & at any rate al- 
low me the credit of feeling undimin- 
ished for you my old regard & affection. 
I should be very grateful if you would 
sometimes give me your ideas of im- 
portant matters which the papers inform 
you are pending. Any light from you 
would be of use to me. Remember me 
kindly to the family. Sincerely yours, &c, 

W. Patterson 
Peter Van Schaack, Esq. 
Kinderhook 

H. C. Van S. 



William Graham — In Barham's di- 



NOTES 



2I 9 



ary, prefixed to one of the early editions 
of the Ingoldsby Legends, there is the 
following : 

" Dec. 2, 1827 — Dined with Price, the 
manager of Drury Lane Theater. * * * 
Had some conversation with him respect- 
ing W. G , late editor of The Liter- 
ary Museum, whom I knew well. * * * 
He was, I found on comparing notes 
with Price, an American by birth, and at 
the age of seventeen had committed a 
forgery on a .person of high respect- 
ability at Philadelphia. He was detected 
but pardoned by the gentleman whom 
he had attempted to defraud on account 
of his youth and out of regard to his 
family, but on the express condition that 

he should leave the country. G 

went, at first, no further than New York, 
where Mr. Price was then practising at 
the American Bar. The latter received 
a letter from the gentleman alluded to, 
requesting him to call on the young man, 
and either compel him to quit America 
forthwith or send him back in custody 
to Philadelphia. This commission Price 
executed to the letter, allowing him four 

days for departure, and G sailing 

for England landed at Plymouth." 

Barham then goes on to trace further 
his wild and checkered career up to his 
return to America and death in a duel ; 
but this is enough for our purpose. 

The person here alluded to was Wil- 
liam Graham, who was shot in a duel 
with Mr. Barton, of New York, some- 
time about the fall of 1827. The cause 
of the affair is alleged to have been cer- 
tain statements made by Graham con- 
cerning the family of Edward Livings- 
ton. Barton fell in with Graham in 
Niblo's Coffee-house, corner of Pine and 



William streets. High words ensued. 
Graham struck Barton in the face, and 
was immediately challenged by him. 
They met at Weehawken and Graham 
was killed. Some personal recollections 
of this duel were given in the New York 
Times for Nov. 29th and 30th, 1880. 
C. A. C. 

A pious Yankee — Lately deserted 
from His Majesty's Service, in the Com- 
pany of Foot commanded by Capt. 
Richard Langdon, designed for the ex- 
pedition against Canada, Samuel Cas- 
tyne, late of Horseneck, in the Colony 
of Connecticut, about 5 Foot and a half 
high, wears his own light Hair ; he's of 
a sandy Complexion, and a Tinker by 
Trade, makes Pewter Buttons and 
Spoons : This Fellow has high Preten- 
sions to Sanctity, and is happily bless'd 
with a Grace-pouring down Counten- 
ance ; he often reads and cants, and 
pretends to be a New- Light. 

For his safe return to New York city, 
Three Pounds N. Y. Currency will be 
paid by Richard Langdon. — JV. Y. 
Weekly Post Boy, July 14, 1746. 

Petersfield 



The boston liberty tree — Hamil- 
ton, in his Flag of the United States, page 
52, says : " Frothingham gives us to un- 
derstand that they (Union flags) were 
displayed on liberty poles and on the 
famous Liberty Tree on Boston Com- 
mon." This is an error. The Boston 
Liberty Tree was not on Boston Com- 
mon but at the junction of the present 
Essex and Washington streets, and Mr. 
Sears has placed there, in the building 
erected by him, a commemorative 
tablet. Editor 



220 



QUERIES 



QUERIES 

Rufus putnam's diary — In the 
winter of 1772-3, Gen'l Phineas Lyman, 
Colonel Israel Putnam, Rufus Putnam, 
and others, made a voyage to the Missis- 
sippi Valley by way of the Balize, 
Jamaica and Pensacola. It is said that 
Putnam (Israel) kept a diary of his voy- 
age — which diary is still in existence. 
Can any one inform the writer where that 
diary can be found ? H. E. H. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



Thomas plunket — Who was Thomas 
Plunket, an American resident of Hav- 
ana, Cuba in 1783 ? H. E. H. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



Havana campaign of 1762-3 — Is 
there in existence any detailed account 
of the part the New England troops took 
in this campaign, so disastrous to the 
troops engaged and yet so successful as 
a military campaign ? H. E. H. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



Poe's bells— In The N. Y. Mir- 
ror (edited by Morris, Fay and Willis), 
for March 19, 1836, p. 300, are some 
verses, " Bells," signed A. J. D. The 
lines themselves are of little merit, but 
it is noticeable that they embody the 
same idea as in Poe's poem — namely, 
the representation of the different stages 
of human life by the sound of the dif- 
ferent kinds of bells. Might not Poe 
have taken the idea from these lines ? 
Who was A. J. D. ? C. A. C. 



Bampfylde moore carew — What is 
known of the adventures of this person 
(who was called King of the Beggars) in 



America ? He is said to have been in 
this country, vide Apology for the Life 
of Carew, i2mo, London, 1768. Miss 
Edgeworth, in her Popular Tales, makes 
incidental mention of this once notorious 
but now all but forgotten rascal. 

C. A. C. 



CASTLEMAN'S DESCRIPTION OF PENN- 
SYLVANIA— I desire to ascertain if " The 
Voyage, Shipwrack, and Miraculous 
Escape of Richard Castleman, Gent. 
With a Description of Pennsylvania and 
the City of Philadelphia, &c," printed 
at London in 1726, is a genuine narrative 
or a work of fiction ? Delaware 



Evertson family — Was Ian Evert- 
son referred to [IV., 468] one of the 
South Amboy, N. J., family, whose rep- 
resentative, Nicolas Evertson, died there 
in 1783. Can any information be had 
about the Stone House that Admiral 
Cornelis Evertson is said to have built 
at South Amboy, N. J., in 1675 ? 

M. N. P. 



A lost relic of antiquity — The 
Vermont Patriot for September, 1826, 
contained the following interesting item : 
" We learn that a gentleman in Iras- 
burgh, Orleans County in this State, 
while ploughing in his field, found a few 
days since what is termed by some an 
iron shirt, the body part is wholly made 
of rings linked into each other about 
one-eighth of an inch in diameter. The 
collar is made of brass rings so closely in- 
terwoven as to be perfectly stiff. It was 
found, as our informant states, under the 
stump of a tree about two feet over, 
which had become rotten. We are told 



QUERIES 



221 



that the United States engineers who are 
surveying in that region, have procured 
it, and intend to carry it to New York." 
Does this interesting relic exist, or 
the record of any investigation as to its 
antiquity ? 

MlNTO 



Life of Washington in Japanese — 
The following item is now going the 
rounds of the press : " A few years ago 
a Japanese publisher brought out a life 
of Washington in forty-five volumes, 
with illustrations in which the father of 
his country is represented in modern 
dress, wearing a heavy mustache, carry- 
ing a cane, and accompanied by a skye 
terrier." Can any of your readers give 
a more definite description of the book 
and date ? I wish to add it to my col- 
lection of Washingtoniana. 

Collector 

F. f. v.— The Rev. Dr. Samuel S. 
Smith, once a Missionary in Virginia, 
and who died President of Princeton 
College, in his Strictures on Lord Kaim's 
Discourse on the Diversity of Mankind, 
printed in 1787, alludes to the First 
Families of Virginia. I give herewith 
the paragraph and desire to know if this 
is not one of the earliest uses of this 
well-known expression ? It would be 
interesting also to identify the indi- 
viduals referred to. 

11 There is, at present, in the college 
of New Jersey, a striking example of 
a similar nature, in two young gentle- 
men of one of the first families in the 
State of Virginia, who are descended, in 
the female line, from the Indian emperor 
Powhatan. They are in the fourth 



descent from the princess Pocahuntis, a 
high spirited and generous woman. And 
though all their ancestors in Virginia 
have retained some characters, more or 
less obvious of their maternal race, yet, 
in these young gentlemen, they seem to 
be entirely effaced. The hair and com- 
plexion, of one of them in particular, is 
very fair, and the countenance and figure 
of the face is perfectly Anglo-American. 
He retains only the dark and vivid eye 
that has distinguished the whole family, 
and rendered some of them remarkably 
beautiful." Market Street 



Original badges of the society of 
the Cincinnati — We have lately been 
shown one of the three gold-eagle badges 
of this society, from which all the rest 
are said to have been patterned. It is 
the hereditary possession of a grandson 
of Joshua Howell — the first Secretary of 
the parent society at Philadelphia — a 
present New York merchant of this 
name. We are told that the three were 
made in France by order of General de 
la Fayette, one of which for himself, one 
for General Washington, and the other 
for Mr. Howell. This rare relic and 
heir-loom is in fine condition, although 
its blue ribbon attachment is a little 
faded. Are the other two still in exist- 
ence? W. H. 



Revolutionary remains at cold 
spring, n. y. — In the upper part of the 
village of Cold Spring, in Putnam 
County, in a lot through which flows a 
rivulet, known in the neighborhood as 
" Margaret's Brook," are a number of 
graves, once plainly marked by fragments 
of stone, but now scarcely discernible. 



222 



QUERIES 



The spot is known in the region as the 
u Revolutionary burying ground." Near 
these graves are still to be seen traces of 
huts. 

Can any reader tell me at what time 
there was an encampent here and any 
particulars concerning it ? C. 

The old stone dam in ulster 
county, n. y. — Many years ago there 
were two papers with this title read be- 
fore the Newburgh Historical Society ; 
one of them by Dr. A. J. Prime, and the 
other by the late S. W. Eager, the his- 
torian of Orange County. 

What is the history of this dam and 
where is it located ? C. 



A renowned American — A late Eng- 
lish novel in speaking of the religious 
belief of one of the characters says : 
u He at least was not quite so bad as 
that renowned American who enunciated 
the sentiment, ' There's nothing new and 
there's nothing true — so it does not 
signify,' " 

To what distinguished ornament of 
our country does the authoress allude ? 

C. 



Statue to william pitt — In 1788 
the Legislature of New York passed an 
act authorizing the corporation of the 
City of New York to remove the statue 
of the Earl of Chatham, William Pitt, 
from Wall street, New York City. Can 
any one tell what became of this statue 
and where it stood ? Whig 



Are there descendants of bishop 
burnet in this country ? — In a mem- 
orial notice of the late Hon. William B. 
Kinney, of Newark, N. J., the following 



sentence occurs relative to his pedigree : 
" On his mother's side, W. B. Kinney de- 
scended from the celebrated Bishop Bur- 
net." That this is a palpable genealogi- 
cal error, I think can be easily shown. 
For Mr. Kinney's grandfather, Dr. Wil- 
liam Burnet, Surgeon General of the 
American army during the Revolution, 
was confessedly a son of Dr. Ichabod 
Burnet, of Elizabethtown, N. J., who, 
according to the " History of Elizabeth" 
by the learned and accurate Rev. Dr. 
Edwin F. Hatfield, of this city, and a 
native of the ancient town, was " one 
of its most distinguished and venerable 
citizens," and died there in 1774, aged 
90 years. And his father is by the same 
author, stated to have been Dan Burnet, 
of Southampton, L. I., who was the son 
of Thomas, originally from Lynn, Mass. 
Now if this account of the family be 
correct, the late Mr. Kinney could not 
possibly have been in the line of descent 
from Bishop Gilbert Burnet, of Scot- 
land. We find the same Burnet record, 
also, in Dr. Wickes' elaborate " History 
of the Medical Men of New Jersey." 
The only son of the good Bishop of 
Sarum ever in this country, as a resident, 
was, doubtless, Governor William, who 
died in Boston Sept. 7, 1729, and was a 
contemporary of Dr. Ichabod Burnet. 
The admirable biographical sketch of 
him by Wm. A. Whitehead, Esqr., in his 
" Contributions to Early Jersey His- 
tory," mentions but two brothers of the 
Governor, viz.: Thomas and Gilbert. 
As to any other son or any grandson of 
their illustrious father having lived in 
America, both our local and State his- 
tories are entirely silent. W. H. 
Elizabeth, N. J., Jan. 1, 1881, 



REPLIES 



223 



Colonel sargent's journal — Col- 
onel Sargent kept a journal, part of 
which (that relating to the campaign of 
1 791) was privately printed by Geo. 
Wymberley Jones at Wormsloe, Georgia, 
4to, 185 1, 46 copies printed. The jour- 
nal was used by Irving in writing his 
Life of Washington and also by Dr. 
Lossing in the Field Book of 181 2. 

The original MS. of this journal of 
Governor Winthrop Sargent was in the 
possession of his accomplished grandson 
of the same name, who died in Paris, 
May 1 8th, 1870. 

Can any one tell me where this manu- 
script is now, and what period of time it 
covers ? H. 



Origin of the name of texas — 
Can any of the readers of the Magazine 
inform me of the origin of the name of 
Texas ? C. 

REPLIES 

Lady Washington's lament [V. 454] 

— As an answer to C. W. B., I enclose 

the following verses found in a pamphlet 

published in New York, 1828, by Joseph 

McCleland and called "The Wood 

Robin, A Collection of Songs." The 

author's name is not given. 

J. T. Ireland 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Lady Washington's Lamentation 

When Columbia's brave sons call'd my hero to lead 'em 
To vanquish their foes and establish their freedom, 
I rejoic'd at his honors, my fears I dissembled, 
At the thought of his danger, my heart how it trembled ! 

O my Washington ! Oh my Washington ! 

O my Washington ! all was hazardous. 

The contest decided with peace to the nation, 

My hero retired, mid the loud acclamation 

Of men without number, and praise without measure, 

And my own heart exulted in transports of pleasure. 

O my happiness ! O my happiness ! 

O my happiness ! how precarious ! 



Our freedom with order by faction rejected, 

A new constitution our country erected, 

My hero was raised to preside o'er the Union, 

And his cares intercepted our blissful communion, 

O my happiness ! O my happiness ! 

O my happiness ! how precarious ! 

Declining the trust of his dignified station, 
With joy to the seat of his dear estimation, 
Surrounded with honors, he humbly retreated, 
Sweet hope softly whispered my bliss was completed ! 

O my happiness ! O my happiness ! 

O my happiness ! how precarious ! 

When the pangs of disease had faintly seized him, 
My heart would have yielded its life to have eased him ; 
And I pray'd the Most High if for death he design'd him, 
That he would not permit me to loiter behind him. 

O my Washington ! O my Washington ! 

O my Washington ! all was dubious ! 

When hope was all fled, and I saw him resigning 

His soul to his God, without dread or repining, 

What, my heart, were thy feelings, lamenting, admiring, 

To see him so nobly, so calmly expiring ? 

O my Washington ! O my Washington ! 

O my Washington ! has forsaken us ! 

When I follow'd his corpse with grief unconfined, 
And saw to the tomb his dear relics consign'd, 
When I left him with silence and darkness surrounded, 
With what pangs of fresh anguish my bosom was wounded, 

O my Washington ! O my Washington ! 

O my Washington ! has forsaken us ! 

His aspect so noble, pale grave-clothes disfigure, 
And his conquering arm is despoil'd of its vigour ; 
On those lips, which drapt wisdom, is silence imposed, 
And those kind beaming eyes forever are clos'd, 

O my Washington ! O my Washington ! 

O my Washington ! has forsaken us ! 

When with tears of sweet nursing I ponder the story 
Of his wars and his labors, his virtue and glory, 
I breathe out a prayer of sweet ardor of spirit, 
Soon to join him in bliss ! and united inherit 

Endless blessedness ! Endless blessedness ' 

Endless blessedness ! O how glorious ! 

But why with my own single grief so confounded ? 
When my country's sad millions in sorrow are wounded ' 
Let me mingle the current which flows from my bosom, 
With my country's vast ocean of tears and there lose 'em ! 

Tho' my Washington ! Tho' my Washington ! 

Tho' my Washington has forsaken us 



The blue bell tavern [IV. 460, V. 
142, VI. 64] — The Blue Bell tavern was 
never called the Blue Ball except by the 
blunder of a Philadelphia typo who 
probably confused it with the Elbow 
Lane house mentioned by " Market St." 



224 



REPLIES 



Your correspondent W. H. locates it 
on the wrong side of the road. It was 
west, not east of the highway. The 
grandmother story is entirely inconsis- 
tent with the facts of history. 

Fort George 



Descendants of sir william John- 
son [V. 373] — " Utica " is in error in his 
statement that Joseph Brant was sup- 
posed by Col. Wm. L. Stone (senior) to 
have been the son of Sir Wm. Johnson, 
or that he so said in his life of Thay- 
endanega. Here is what he does say. 
See the edition of 1838. " Some his- 
torians have spoken of him as a son of 
Sir Wm. Johnson." In a note to the 
same passage he says : " several authors 
have suggested that Brant was the son of 
the Baronet. Drake in his useful com- 
pilation, The Book of the Indians, 
states that he had been so informed by 
no less an authority than Jared Sparks." 

Mr. Stone quotes a Memoir of Brant 
published in the Christian Recorder at 
Kingston, Upper Canada, about 181 8, 
in which are these words, " Nothing was 
known of Brant's father among the 
Mohawks." Mr. Stone says " that Thay- 
endanega was born in the year 1742 on 
the banks of the Ohio. The home of 
his family was at the Canajoharie Castle 
— the central of the three castles of the 
Mohawks, in their native valley. His 
father's name was Tehowaghwengaragh- 
kwin, a full blooded Mohawk of the Wolf 
Tribe." Editor 



Pennsylvania Archives, new series. 
These volumes contain all the rolls and 
records of the Pennsylvania battalions 
and regiments of the Pennsylvania line 
that could be secured by the editors, 
with historical sketches of each bat- 
talion and regiment, and are illustrated 
by superb engravings of nearly all their 
respective commanders. These volumes 
are printed, and will be ready for distri- 
bution and sale very soon. 

Belief onte, Pa. John B. Linn 



Bussey or bussie — [V. 140, VI. 62] 
A roll of Pennsylvanians in Hazen's regi- 
ment, with other information relating to 
it, will be found in Vols. X. and XL, 



KlSSAM BOOK PLATE — [V. 376] 

Henry Dawkins, a silversmith and seal- 
cutter, was working in New York city as 
early as 1774. Dr. Alexander Anderson 
remembered seeing ornamented shop 
bills and coats of arms for books en- 
graved by Dawkins previous to the war 
of the Revolution. He cut the plates 
for the bills issued by order of the New 
York Provincial Congress in March, 
1776. After their completion he was 
induced by Israel Young, a resident of 
Cold Spring, Huntington, L. I., to en- 
gage in counterfeiting. In company 
with his only son, a mere boy, he passed 
over to Long Island, and engraved four 
copper-plates, imitating the currency of 
Connecticut, Massachusetts and the 
Continental bills of credit. Suspicion 
being aroused among the neighbors, a 
report was made to the authorities, and 
he was arrested with his confederates in 
May, 1776, when he made a full con- 
fession under oath of his transactions 
in the felonious scheme. The prisoners 
were placed in close confinement ; soon 
after the Youngs were removed to Litch- 
field, Conn., where they subsequently 
made their escape. Dawkins was trans- 



REPLIES 



225 



ferred in July, 1776, to the jail at White 
Plains, from whence he petitioned the 
New York Convention, October 19th, to 
relieve the miseries of confinement by 
inflicting the death penalty upon him. 
His petition was laid on the table. In 
1778, probably at Poughkeepsie, he en- 
graved a copper-plate for the military 
commissions issued by Governor Clin- 
ton. Of his subsequent career I find no 
trace. Some record may probably be 
found at Albany of his pardon or pun- 
ishment. Several neat specimens of his 
book-plates are among the collections of 
the New York Historical Society. 

W. K. 



Battle of king's mountain — [". 
369] Part of certificate of Gen. Win- 
chester in relation to this affair was 
printed in No. 23 of the appendix of 
the Shelby Tract. I have in my pos- 
session a certificate, which I have al- 
ways supposed, with its signature and 
endorsement, to be in the autograph of 
Gen. Winchester 

Utica M. M. J. 

" West Tennessee, Cairo 
nth Jany, 1823 

This is to certify that in the year 1785 
or 1786, and soon after I came to this 
country to reside, I became acquainted 
with Col. Anthony Bledsoe, and also 
with his brother, Major Isaac Bledsoe, 
who appeared to me to be well ac- 
quainted with the circumstances relative 
to the Battle at King's Mountain, and 
that I have frequently heard them say 
Col. Campbell was not present at that 
battle, owing to the error of his guides 
or some other cause unknown to them, 
he did not arrive until the conflict was 



over. That Cols. Shelby and Sevier 
were entitled to the honors of that vic- 
tory, and not Col. Campbell. If they 
did not use these words, they did others 
to the same effect and meaning. The 
Bledsoes here named were gentlemen of 
high respectability and fair standing in 
society. J. Winchester." 

Endorsed, "Certificate for Governor 
Shelby, No. 32." All in one hand, ex- 
cepting the No. 



Revolutionary characters — 
Lieut. King — [VI. 160] H. M. will 
find ample notice of General Joshua 
King (Lieut. King of Sheldon's Dra- 
goons) in S. C. Goodrich's (Peter Par- 
ley) Recollections, Vol. I., N. Y., 1856. 
Characteristics, personal appearance, an- 
ecdotes of General King, pages 120, 
243, etc. In the appendix, same vol- 
ume, page 517, he will find a succinct 
biographical notice, together with Lieut. 
King's letter relative to the capture of 
Andre. 

Bellefonte, Pa. John B. Linn 



The king's ferry — [V. 5, 26] "The 
dock at which Andre and Smith landed 
on the evening of the 2 2d of Sept., 
1780, is in front of the residence of the 
Hon. Frederick W. Seward ; and the 
King's Ferry Road is the road that ex- 
tends from Green Cove to Munger's 
store. The dock is almost obliterated 
by the ravages of time." — Peekskill 



Blade, Sept. 1880. 



D. 



Matchcoat — [ VI. 60] This word 
has no connection with "watchcoat." 
It is simply the common way among 
people of employing English words 



226 



REPLIES 



to approximate Indian sounds. The 
Algonquin nations call a petticoat 
" Matchigode," Baraga's Chippewa Dic- 
tionary, pp. 223, 570. 

As the words " match" and " coat" 
nearly expressed the sound it is usual to 
find them used. Duffels and other 
goods sold in colonial times for petti- 
coats and breech cloths also were called 
match coats. J. G. S. 



Historical magazine — [V. 454] 
Having had to answer a similar query 
to that of " Student" several times lately, 
I have carefully examined my file of the 
Historical Magazine with this result. 
This very valuable publication consists 
of three series of twenty-three [23] vol- 
umes. The first series, from 1857 to 
1866, inclusive, contains ten volumes of 
twelve numbers each. The second series, 
from 1867 to 187 1, inclusive, contains/^ 
volumes of six numbers each ; except- 
ing Vol. II., which has seven numbers, 
two for November, 1867, of which one 
[No, VI.] is an extra of book notices ; 
and Vol. X. of which only two numbers, 
those for July and August, 187 1, were 
published. The third series comprises 
three volumes intended to contain six 
numbers each. Vols. I. and II., cover- 
ing the years 1872 and 1873, have each 
six numbers. Vol. III. contains the fol- 
lowing, being all that were issued — 
January, 1874 ; February, 1874; March, 
1874; Extra for March, 1874; Extra 
for December, 1874 ; Extra for January, 
1875 ; Extra for March, 1875, and num- 
ber for April, 1875. These extras con- 
tain book notices. The work really 
ceased April, 1875. The volume for 
1866 is not scarce and can easily be 



bought in Nassau street, New York. It 
is a great misfortune that this valuable 
periodical was allowed to cease for want 
of proper support among lovers of 
American history. The above list of 
numbers and volumes I am quite satis- 
fied is corroborated by letters from Mr. 
Dawson not at this moment within the 
reach of the present writer. 

Horace Edwin Hayden 
Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



Death of braddock [V. 374] — The 
querist should consult the History of 
Braddock's Expedition in Mem. of the 
Hist. Soc. of Pa., and also a paragraph 
in the Am. Hist. Record for January, 
1872, p. 44. C. 



Thomas Faussett or Fossit, a 

Virginia soldier under Braddock who 
subsequently settled in Fayette Co., Pa., 
always claimed to have shot Braddock. 
But his statement has been disproved 
by Mr. Sargent in his History of Brad- 
dock's expedition, Penna. His. Soc. 
Coll : p. 244, et seq ; and also by 
Freeman Lewis, Esq., in an unpublished 
work called " The Monongahela of Old ; 
or the History of Fayette County, 
Penna.," p, 70-72, which Lewis and 
Hon. James Veich, of Emsworth, Pa., 
wrote in partnership. In that volume, 
which was only partially printed and 
never issued, Lewis gives an account 
of Fossit which is not in Sargent. That 
F. shot Braddock is among the possi- 
bilities, but not among the probabilities. 
He was the only Virginian who ever 
claimed to have killed Braddock. 

H. E. H. 

Wilkes Barre, Pa. 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 227 

EDITOR'S CHRONICLE names are given, are supposed to be 

dormant, but it is hoped not extinct. A 

We begin the chronicle this month circu i ar i e tter has been addressed to each, 

with a list of the Historical Societies and with a request that the name of the local 

Institutes in the United States and newspaper, in which its proceedings are 

Canada, with the request that communi- reported, be sent, that an exchange may 

cation be made of errors and omissions be established, and delay in the chronicle 

noticed. Some of the societies whose notice avoided. 

LIST OF HISTORICAL SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTES 

NAME OF SOCIETY NEWSPAPER REPORTED IN 

Arkansas Arkansas Historical Society Little Rock Democrat 

Connecticut . . . .Connecticut Historical Society Hartford Daily Courant 

Delaware Delaware Historical Society Wilmington 

Dist. Columbia . Smithsonian Institute Washington 

Georgia Georgia Historical Society Savannah Morning News 

Youths' Hist. Society Savannah Morning News 

Illinois Chicago Historical Society ... .Chicago Chicago Times 

Louisiana Louisiana Historical Society New Orleans 

Maine Maine Historical Society Portland Advertiser 

Maryland. Maryland Historical Society Baltimore 

Johns Hopkins University " 

Massachusetts . .Massachusetts Historical Society Boston Daily Advertiser 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. " Evening Transcript 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. . . " 

Boston Atheneum " ... 

Archaeological Institute of America " 

Boston Numismatic Society " 

Essex Institute Salem 

Old Colony Historical Society Taunton 

Dorchester Antiquarian Historical Society. Dorchester 

American Antiquarian Society Worcester Evening Gazette 

Weymouth Historical Society Weymouth Gazette 

Michigan Michigan Historical Society Detroit Free Press 

Detroit Pioneer Society " " 

State Pioneer Society Lansing 

Minnesota . . . .Minnesota Historical Society St. Paul Daily Globe 

Mississippi Mississippi Historical Society Jackson 

Missouri Missouri Historical Society St. Louis 

New Hamp. . . .New Hampshire Historical Society Concord Indep'd't Statesman 

New Jersey New Jersey Historical Society Newark Daily Advertiser 

New York New York Historical Society New York 

N. Y. Genealogical and Biographical Soc. . . " 

American Numismatic and Archaeolog. Soc. " 

Long Island Historical Society Brooklyn Observer 

Albany Institute Albany Argus 

Buffalo Historical Society Buffalo Courier 

Cayuga Historical Society Auburn 

Genesee Pioneer Association Batavia 

/ 



228 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



Ohio. 



NAME OF SOCIETY NEWSPAPER REPORTED I» 

New York Oneida Historical Society Utica Morning Herald 

Waterloo Library and Historical Society. . .Waterloo 

Westchester Historical Society White Plains Westchester News 

Rockland County Historical Society Nyack Rockland Co. Jour'l \ 

Western Reserve and Northern Hist. Soc . .Cleveland 

Fire Lands Historical Society Sandusky 

Licking County Pioneer Society Newark Newark American 

Cincinnati Soc. of Ex- Army & Navy Off 'rs . Cincinnati 

Pennsylvania Historical Society Philadelphia 

American Philosophical Society " 

American Numismatic and Antiq'n Soc. . . " 

Rhode Island Historical Society Providence Providence Press 

Newport Historical Society Newport 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Historical Society. . .Providence 

.South Carolina Historical Society Charleston News and Courier 

Tennessee Historical Society Nashville 

.Galveston Historical Society Galveston 

.Vermont Historical Society. . Montpelier 

.Virginia Historical Society Richmond Dispatch 

Southern Historical Society " Standard 

Wisconsin .... .Wisconsin Historical Society Madison 

Old Settlers' Historical Society Racine. 

Canada Quebec Literary and Historical Society Quebec Morning Chronicle 

New Brunswick .New Brunswick Historical Society St. John 

Nova Scotia Halifax Historical Society Halifax 



Pennsylvania . . 



Rhode Island. 



South Carolina. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 



We shall be happy- to exchange the 
Magazine for any newspaper, in the cities 
or towns upon the above list where no 
one is designated, which will publish 
reports of the proceedings of the So- 
cieties therein. 



The Massachusetts Historical Society 
held its regular monthly meeting in the 
Dowse Library, Thursday, the 13th Jan- 
uary. The President, the Hon. Robert 
C. Winthrop, in the chair. Numerous 
contributions to the Museum, of local 
interest, were reported. The President 
informed the Society that Americans re- 
siding in London had subscribed ;£ioo 
to the erection of a memorial window 
to Sir AValter Raleigh in St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster, being one-third of 
the sum needed, which is now completed. 



The Reverend Dr. Ellis called attention 
to the syllabus of a projected Critical 
History of the United States on a simi- 
lar plan to that pursued in the Memorial 
History of Boston, and to be under the 
editorship of Mr. Winsor. 

Some early letters of Washington 
were communicated by Mr. Parkman 
and placed at the disposal of the Society, 
and Mr. Chase gave information of still 
other unpublished Washington letters. 
It is understood that the Society propose 
to publish a volume of its Washington 
letters which are over two hundred in 
number, at an early day. The publica- 
tion of a new number of the reports of 
proceedings Sept. to Dec, 1880, is an- 
nounced. 

A meeting of the New England His- 



editor's chronicle 



229 



toric Genealogical Society was held at 
the Society's house in Somerset Street, 
Boston, Wednesday, January 5th. The 
library was reported at 16,591 volumes, 
and 51,745 pamphlets. The manu- 
scripts of General Henry Knox, pre- 
sented some years since by his grandson, 
the late Rear-Admiral Henry Knox 
Thatcher, have been arranged and bound 
in fifty-five volumes. 

A first volume of biographic memorials 
■of deceased members provided for £>y 
the fund of the late William B. Towne, 
containing forty-three sketches, is printed 
and will be soon delivered. 

The historiographer reported the death 
during the year of forty-three members, 
whose ages averaged over seventy-one 
years. The address on the occasion was 
delivered by the Hon. Marshall P. Wil- 
der. Officers were elected : Hon. Mar- 
shall P. Wilder, President, Rev. Edmund 
H. Slafter, Corresponding Secretary, 
John Ward Dean, Librarian. 



The Boston Memorial Society held a 
meeting on the 6th of January, Hon. Alex- 
ander H. Rice in the chair. The bequest 
of $5,000 by the late Nathaniel Cushing 
Nash for the erection of a statue to Theo- 
dore Parker was accepted. It is proposed 
to erect an out-door statue at a cost of 
from $10,000 to $12,000, and to appeal to 
the public for an additional sum needed. 



The Long Island Historical Society 
took formal possession of its new build- 
ing on Clinton and Pierrepont Streets, 
Brooklyn, on the evening of the 12th 
January. The Rev. Dr. Richard S. 
Storrs presided, and received the keys 
from Samuel McLean, chairman of the 



building committee. Addresses were 
delivered in the presence of a large and 
distinguished audience. 

Its regular meeting was held on the 
evening of January 25th, when the gift 
by George I. Seney of the munificent 
sum of fifty thousand dollars to its li- 
brary fund, was announced. Alexander 
H. Bullock delivered an address on Our 
Five Historical Periods and their Unitv. 



The Regents of the University of the 
State of New York met at Albany on 
the 14th January. Chancellor Pierson 
presented the report of the commission 
on the boundary line between New York 
and Pennsylvania. The question to be 
decided by the commission, in concert 
with a like commission from Pennsyl- 
vania, is whether the boundary line shall 
be that of 1789 or a new line on the 47th 
parallel. 

A report was also presented on college 
examinations, which proposes three dis- 
tinct measures : 1st, an examination at 
local schools of candidates for college. 
2d, a post-graduate examination of bacca- 
laureates of all the colleges in the State, 
by which a recognition may be made of 
superior scholarship. 3d, the bestowal 
of higher academic degrees upon gradu- 
ates after examination. The plan was 
adopted. 



The Licking County (Ohio) Pioneer 
and Antiquarian Society published the 
closing report of their transactions for 
the year 1880 in the Newark American 
of the 14th December. The society is 
prosperous, and numerous additions have 
been made to its library and cabinet of 
Archaeology. 



230 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



The Military Service Institution of 
the United States held a biennial meet- 
ing at its rooms on Governor's Island, 
Thursday, January 13th. Officers were 
elected: Major General Hancock, Presi- 
dent, Col. J. J. Rodenbough, Secretary. 
This institution has the warm support of 
army officers, and is gathering a military 
library and museum which we commend 
heartily. 



The Chicago Historical Society held 
its Annual Meeting in its hall, corner of 
Dearborn Avenue and Ontario Street, 
1 6th November last. The librarian re- 
ported large accessions during the year, 
bringing the total of bound volumes to 
5,282, and of unbound to 15,844; also 
10 volumes of bound manuscript rela- 
ting to early Illinois and the Northwest. 
Twelve papers on Historical subjects 
were read during the year. The society 
is the proprietor of funds to the amount 
of $60,000, not yet, however, available. 

At an adjourned meeting held Dec. 
14th, officers were elected: Isaac N. 
Arnold, President, Albert D. Hager, 
Secretary. The Hon. E. B. Washburne 
read a paper on the French Revolution 
from its commencement to August, 
1792. 



The New Jersey Historical Society 
held its annual meeting at Trenton on 
the 20th of January, in the room of the 
Court ( of Chancery, in the State House. 
A warm tribute of respect was paid to 
the memory of the late Colonel Robert 
S. Swords, the honored Treasurer. Sam- 
uel M. Hamill was re-elected President, 
and William A. Whitehead, of Newark, 
Corresponding Secretary. General Wm. 



S. Stryker read a paper on the Trenton 
Barracks, built about 1758, and still 
standing. A paper was also read by 
John Hegeman on Religious Liberty in 
New Jersey. 



The American Geographical Society 
held its annual meeting at Chickering 
Hall, New York, the evening of the nth 
January, President Chief Justice Daly 
in the chair. The officers were re- 
elected. Commander John R. Bartlett, 
U. S. N., gave an account of an expedi- 
tion in the steamer Blake, to take 
soundings and determine the nature, 
volume and source of the Equatorial 
Current, which gives rise to the Gulf 
Stream. He did not introduce any new 
theory, but claimed that his investiga- 
tions pointed to deflections of the equa- 
torial current by which it makes almost 
the entire circuit of the Caribbean Sea. 



A publication has been commenced of 
Johns Hopkins University Circulars, 
which is now at its eighth number, which 
contains, in addition to a calendar of 
the lectures of the institution, a syn- 
opsis of the recent scientific journals, 
and the proceedings of the meetings of 
the Societies of the University. We 
invite the attention of historical students 
to the Lists of Baltimore newspapers 
contributed by John W. M. Lee, of the 
Maryland Historical Society ; the library 
of which contains numerous and excel- 
lent files. It may be found in the 
January number of the Circular. 



The Literary and Historical Society 
of Quebec held its annual meeting on 
the 1 2th January. The membership is 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



231 



rapidly increasing, and the sphere of its 
usefulness is enlarged. Of the. papers 
read in 1880, those of most value to 
historians, were the Scot in New France, 
by J. M. Le Moine, and the Origin of 
the Aborigines of Canada, by Professor 
J. Campbell. At the election of officers, 
Mr. J. M. Le Moine was chosen Presi- 
dent, and W. Clint, Corresponding 
Secretary. 



the town on the Irish coast, where the 
great fire altar to Baal was. 



The Numismatic and Antiquarian 
Society of Philadelphia held its twenty- 
third annual meeting on the evening of 
January 8th at his hall. An address 
was delivered by Dr. Daniel G. Brinton 
on the The Sexual Element in the Am- 
erican Aboriginal Religions. The elec- 
tion of officers was postponed Mr. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., Curator of this 
Society, is getting together material 
for a life or biographical sketch of Gus- 
tavus Conyngham, and has manuscript 
matter hitherto unpublished, including 
his Diary in Prison. He will be thank- 
ful for genealogical or biographical 
memoranda relative to him. 



The name of Baltimore was the sub- 
ject of a paper entitled, " Celtic Balti- 
more, its Etymology," read by General 
Charles E. Phelps, at the December 
meeting of the Maryland Historical So- 
ciety. The General claims that the 
word " Bal-ti-more " is Celtic ; that Bal 
means place, and Timor, the Supreme 
Being; the two in idiomatic English, 
God Place. Other derivations, however, 
were suggested with force. One from 
Bait, meaning belt, and mor, great, that 
is, great belt ; and still another that it is 
derived from Baal, and was taken from 



The plans for the World's Fair have 
taken definite shape. Inwood, at the 
north end of the Island of New York, 
has been designated as the site, and 
General Grant has accepted the Presi- 
dency of the Commission contingent 
upon the raising of a sufficient sum to 
secure success. 



The Tontine, a building erected up- 
on a novel Italian plan in 1794, as 
the place of meeting for merchants, was 
sold by auction on the 13th January, and 
the association wound up. There were 
two hundred and three original holders 
of shares valued at two hundred dollars 
each. The income from the building 
has been divided annually. The sale 
realized the sum of one hundred and 
thirty-eight thousand five hundred and 
fifty dollars, which goes to the represen- 
tatives of seven surviving lives. 



The Marine Society for the Port of 
New York, which was organized 1770, 
held its one hundred and eleventh an- 
niversary on the 10th January. The 
records of this ancient charity should be 
printed. 



Senator Johnston, of Virginia, pro- 
poses that the government shall pur- 
chase an invaluable literary curiosity. 
This is a manuscript book of 122 pp., 
small letter paper, entitled, " James 
Madison, His Book of Logick." The 
author gives a list of twenty-nine kinds 
or classes of argument, nine syllogistic 
axioms, and a number of logical theo- 
rems for practice. 



-3- 



EDITORS CHRONICLE 



Colonel Stephenson, of the United 
States Geological Survey, has discovered 
a large village of cliff dwellers between 
the Jemez Mountains and the Rio 
Grande River, in New Mexico. The 
cliff rises to a height of from fifty to five 
hundred feet, and contains numerous 
lines of dwellings, tier upon tier. The 
houses on the top of the cliff are rec- 
tangular in form, and the caves are cir- 
cular. There appear to have been pave- 
ments before the dwellings. Pictures 
and hieroglyphics adorn the rocks. 



lege libraries of Virginia, and numbers 
16,000 volumes. 



There is a collection of curious Peru- 
vian earthen-ware in the possession of 
W. W. Evans, of New Rochelle, who 
spent several years in the construction 
of railways in Peru. They come from 
beneath the sand of the valley of the 
Santa, near Chimbote, in the Southern 
part of Peru. Here, in a graveyard, 
twenty-five miles in length and eleven to 
twelve feet below the surface, towers of 
masonry were discovered, occupied by 
mummies, near which were earthen ves- 
sels of quaint shapes. These relics are 
supposed to be of a race which pre- 
ceded the reign of the Incas, and the 
pottery is said to be the oldest known in 
the world. They are composed of baked 
clay, usually red, are modelled to repre- 
sent busts, animals, and fruit, and bear 
no marks of the potter's wheel. 



Alexander H. Rice, late Governor of 
Massachusetts, has presented to the 
library of Roanoke College, Virginia, a 
Latin bible, printed in 1477. It is m a 
folio, black letter, with rubricated capi- 
tals on vellum. The library of Roanoke 
College is the second in size of the col- 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated 
the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary 
of its settlement, on Tuesday, the 28th 
December. An historical oration was 
made by Colonel T. W. Higginson ; 
An address by President Eliot, of Har- 
vard College. Oliver Wendell Holmes 
read a poem, and Professor Longfellow 
interested the children with a few re- 
marks. 

The Rugbeian, the organ of Thomas 
Hughes' new colony in Tennessee, has 
adopted the significant motto of "Should- 
er to Shoulder." The orthography of the 
title of the Journal is imitated from that 
adopted in the old country. 

The anniversary of Mother Seton, the 
founder of the Order of the Sisters of 
Charity in this country, a branch of the 
famous institution established near Paris 
by St. Vincent de Paul, was commem- 
orated by all the institutions of the Order 
on the 4th January. 



The expedition organized by the 
Archaelogical Institute of America to 
investigate the ruins of the city of Assos, 
in Asia Minor, sailed in the Germanic on 
the 5 th of January. It is under the charge 
of Joseph Thatcher Clark, of Boston. 



Mr. Mellen Chamberlain, in the Li- 
brary Journal, estimates that three- 
fourths of the 1,200,000 volumes circu- 
lated last year by the Boston Public 
Library were read by young people, most 
of whom attend the public schools. 






LITERARY NOTICES 



233 



(Publishers of Historical Works wishing Notices, will address the Editor, with 
Copies, Box 37, Station D — N. Y. Post Office.) 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE MASSACHU- 
SETTS Historical Society. Vol. XVII, 
1879 to 1880. 8vo, pp. 504. Published by the 
Society. Boston, 1880. 

^'ith the usual amount of record which be- 
longs to reports of this character, this excellent 
volume contains a variety of material of peculiar 
interest to the historical student. It covers the 
proceedings of the Society from the January 
meeting of 1879 to tr »e March meeting of 18S0. 
Besides passing notices of some of the distin- 
guished associates and honorary members who 
have passed away during the last year, among 
which we read with peculiar pleasure the warm 
tribute paid to the late Dr. Leonard Woods, by 
his intimate personal friend, Charles Deane : 
the graceful allusions to George S. Hillard, by 
his traveling companion, Leverett Saltonstall ; 
the personal reminiscences of Caleb Gushing, 
by Charles W. Tuttle, and the always appropri- 
ate remarks of the honored President, there are 
careful biographical memoirs ; among which two 
of notable value, namely, of Dr. Jacob Bige- 
low, by George E. Ellis, and of the Hon. Lor- 
enzo Sabine, by E. E. Hale. The life of Dr. 
Bigelow covered a period of ninety-two years ; 
its interest is not limited by either the practical 
experience of his professional career or his con- 
tributions to medical literature, both of which 
are carefully recorded in these pages. His pub- 
lic services beyond the sphere of his profession 
were of equal value. In two admirable and vig- 
orous essays he advanced the now acknowledged 
claim that the privileges and honors of education 
should no longer be restricted to proficients in 
the dead language, but he accorded with equal 
hand to those who excel in wisdom, in science 
and in spoken tongues. Another of the reforms 
which he instigated was the method of disposing 
of the .dead. It was at his house that the plan 
of what may be called park-burial, which resulted 
in Mt. Auburn, originated. In 1831, seven years 
later, this beautiful cemetery was consecrated ; 
Laurel Hill, in Philadelphia, followed in 1836. 
Greenwood, New York, in 1837. Much of the 
adornment of Mt. Auburn is due to the taste of 
Dr. Bigelow ; the designs of tower, chapel, 
lodges, gateways and fences were his, and it also 
owes to his munificence, and it may be added ec- 
centricity, the monumental statue " imitated from 
the Sphynx of antiquity and designed to commem- 
orate the great war of American conservation." 
Truly the educated Bostonian, appreciate as he 
may modern tongues and modern art, cannot be 
other than classic and transcendental. Dr. Bige- 
low's remarks upon this structure afford an insight 
into this phase of his otherwise practical character. 



Mr. Hale's admirable memoir of the Hon. 
Lorenzo Sabine appeals directly to the heart of 
the historical student of our Revolutionary period, 
to whom no book is more familiar than his 
American Loyalists. Published in 1847 it was at 
first received by the public with coolness, and he 
was charged with a want of national spirit and a 
desire to rehabilitate the characters of men who 
had been untrue to the country in its hour of trial. 
But he soon recovered from this hasty judgment. 
The students of history easily recognized the 
difference between Britons born or American 
holders of offices under the Crown — high spirited 
gentlemen whose fortunes and estates followed 
their principles — and the rascally marauders 
whom De Lancey and Arnold and Ferguson led 
on raids of indiscriminate pillage. Many of 
the gentlemen from Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island withdrew to Nova Scotia during the 
war, and numbers from New York took the same 
direction after the peace of 1783. Many were of 
the highest colonial families, and some of their 
number held offices of trust in their new 
home, and gave tone and character to the 
Canadian provinces. Mr. Sabine was well 
known throughout the land as the extremely 
able secretary of the Boston board of trade ; 
his reports on Commerce and Industry remain- 
ing text books for the students of economy. In 
1862 he was appointed to represent America in 
a tripartite commission on the fishery question, 
which however fell through from the refusal of 
France. He was an occasional contributor to the 
North American Review, and wrote the life of 
Commodore Preble for Sparks' Biographies. His 
report to the treasury of the principal fisheries of 
the American seas is an exhaustive examination, 
historical and statistical, of the entire subject. We 
knew him well and can bear personal testimony 
to the truth of Mr. Hale's statement that few 
men have pursued historical research as a pas- 
sion so exclusive of other considerations. 

There are notices of numerous original docu- 
ments in this volume of the society's proceed- 
ings; Captain Parker's Manuscript Orderly Book, 
kept while the Continental Army was at Morris- 
town, 1779 to 1780, said to contain nothing new 
but which we hope to see printed ; the diary, 
printed in full, of a journal kept during a visit to 
Marietta, Ohio, and on the return journey to 
Philadelphia, 1789-90, by Thomas Walker,' ad- 
mirably annotated by Mr. George Dexter; extracts 
from the Journal of Charles Turner, junior, a 
surveyor engaged in locating the grants and sales 
of the Eastern Lands in 1S02 ; the text of the 
form of government for the Province of New 
Hampshire, adopted at Portsmouth, 24th Janu- 
ary, 1690, with instructive notes by Mr. Charles 



J 



234 



LITERARY NOTICES 



W. Tuttle, and a heliotype fac-simile ; the regi- 
mental Orderly Book of Col. Israel Hutchinson, 
from August 16, 1775, to November 16, 
1776, while his regiment was on duty about 
Cambridge, and later at Fort Washington and 
Harlem Heights, to which are added sun- 
dry rosters and muster rolls ; extracts of the 
Journal of William Parkman, a youth of seven- 
teen and a soldier in the French war, from May 
22, 1758, to April 21, 1759 ; some letters from 
John Eliot, the Apostle, to the Treasurer of the 
London Society for Propagating the Gospel 
among the Indians, printed in full for the first 
time ; extracts of eight letters of Samuel Sweat 
of Kingston, New Hampshire, five from the 
camp at Winter Hill, 1775, and three from Ti- 
conderoga, 1777 : extracts from a diary kept by 
Dudley Woodbridge, a graduate of Harvard, 1724, 
later a preacher at Groton, Conn., and a 
physician at Stonington, Connecticut, where he 
died in 1790 ; a notice of an old map of Boston. 
There is also prefixed to the volume a lithographic 
fac-simile of a plan of Boston and the country 
adjacent, showing the position of the king's troops 
and the rebel entrenchments, 25th July, 1775. 

There are several interesting papers by mem- 
bers and correspondents of the Society, among 
which, remarks by Charles Dean on the memorial 
stone inscribed to preserve the memory of the re- 
construction of the Fort on Castle Island, by Col. 
Romer, engineer to King William, 1701 to 1703. 
The stone is now in the Historical Society ; a 
paper by the reverend Mr. Hale on the Hessian 
Flags captured in America during the revolution ; 
some extremely interesting notes by A. T. Per- 
kins on the portraits by Blackburn and by Smi- 
bert ; a communication by Charles W. Tuttle 
concerning the supposed massacre by Indians at 
Fox Point near Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 
1690, throwing doubt upon the sensational story 
given by Cotton Mather in his Magnalia ; a 
paper on Washington's birthplace by Charles C. 
Perkins, relating a visit made by him in company 
with the Secretary of State and General Sherman 
to this interesting spot in October, 1879. But 
few vestiges of this old Westmoreland homestead 
remain, and the old burial place of the Washing- 
ton family half a mile to the northward is in a 
degraded condition. The small appropriation 
made by Congress which the Secretary of State 
is authorized to expend for its further preserva- 
tion and the inaccessibility of the locality, owing 
to the shallow water on the coast, afford little hope 
of any adequate protection ; a pencil sketch by 
Mr. Perkins, and a topographical drawing by 
General Sherman give permanent value to this 
communication ; a paper by Charles Hudson on 
the Life and Character of Major John Pitcairn, 
defending him from the charge of criminal shed- 
ding of blood in the affair of Concord and Lex- 
ington in which the brutalities allowed, if not or- 
dered, by Lord Percy are severely commented 



upon. We uust not close this analysis without 
an allusion to the admirable eulogy by Robert C. 
Winthrop, the President of the Society, upon 
Adolphe de Circourt, a name gratefully remem- 
bered for his many kindnesses to American stu- 
dents abroad, for his notices and reviews of 
American literature and for his translation of Ban- 
croft's volume on the alliance of France and the 
United States, 1778. He was a man of rare 
attainments. Lamartine said of him in 1848, 
" languages, races, geography, history, philosophy, 
travels, constitutions, religions of people from 
the infancy of the world down to our own day, 
from Thibet even to the Alps ; — he had incor- 
porated them all into his mind, had reflected 
upon them all, had retained them all ; " he 
summed him up "as a living world chart of 
human knowledge." In 1870 Louis Favre said 
of him, " Mr. de Circourt speaks all languages, 
knows all literatures and all histories ; " eulogies 
which justify the parallel which Mr. Winthrop 
suggests of his known attainments with those 
attributed to the admirable Crichton. 

THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK. EDITED 
by George B. Bartlett. Illustrations by 
Messrs. L. B. Humphrey and Robert Lewis. 
Small 4to, pp. 157. D. Lothrop & Co., 
Boston, 1880, 

This the author announces to be a guide book 
for pilgrims. Not that everybody that arrives in 
New England in these days is held to be a pil- 
grim, but that Concord has its shrines — and 
sacred shrines they are in the eyes of all true 
Americans. Shrines to illustrious dead, homes 
of illustrious living. The American sage, whose 
word of wisdom will guide generations of thought, 
still holds converse here, easy of access as the 
Greek philosophers. Here, on the Virginia 
Road, Thoreau lived at an expense of a dollar a 
month, and studied nature on the simplest 
of diet, and here he died in the same sim- 
plicity, and here Hawthorne found the subjects 
of some of his most charming sketches. Need- 
less to remind the readers of the scrimmage of 
the 19th April, 1775, when the men of Concord 
and Lexington opened the Revolutionary ball 
and taught a figure to the red coats with which 
they were not familiar — the face about. The 
book is charmingly illustrated. 

LIVES OF THE CATHOLIC HEROES 
and Heroines of America. Ey John O' 
Kane Murray, B. S. 8vo. pp. 622. James 
Sheehy. New York. 

This is rather a peculiar title for a book of 
this nature ; the religious opinions of the 
greater number of the famous personages, some 
account of whose lives is here given, having had 



LITERARY NOTICES 



235 



little to do with their presence or deeds on the 
American continent. Of the twenty-four, the 
author tells us that four were Americans, ten 
French, three Spanish, three Irish, one Belgian, 
one Russian, one Italian, and one English 
born. Two were Archbishops, two Bishops, five 
Missionaries, one a Parish Priest, one an Ad- 
miral, two Generals, one a Commodore, four 
Religious ladies, four Explorers, one a Lady 
who belonged to no religious society, and one a 
Lawyer and Statesman ; in all, ten ecclesiastics, 
four religious, and ten lay persons. 

The work of course is made up from known 
authorities, and does not pretend to be the result 
of original investigation, as indeed from the 
nature and extent of the ground covered, it 
could hardly be. The personages whose lives are 
ynarrated are Christopher Columbus, Alonzo de 
Ojeda, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Hernando Cor- 
tes, St. Rose of Lima, Samuel de Champlain, 
Father Isaac Jogues, S. J., Father John de Boe- 
beuf, S. J., Father Andrew White, S. J., Mother 
Mary of the Incarnation, Miss Jane Mance, 
Father James Marquette, S. J., Robert Cavelier 
de La Salle, Venerable Margarite Bourgeois, 
Louis Joseph de Montcalm, Commodore John 
Barry, Most Reverend John Carroll, Mother 
Elizabeth Ann Seton, Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, Right Reverend Simon Gabriel Brute, 
Father Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, Right 
Reverend John England, Most Reverend John 
Hughes, and Father Peter John de Smet, S. J. 

The volume contains a great deal of personal 
detail and abundance of interesting matter 
put together in a pleasant manner for the general 
reader, and free from any narrow sectarianism. 

It is illustrated in a satisfactory and popular 
manner. 

THE LIFE OF REV. CHARLES NE- 

RINCKX, WITH A CHAPTER ON THE EARLY 

Catholic Missions of Kentucky. Copious 
notes on the progress of Catholicity in the 
United States of America from 1800 to 1825 ; 
an account of the establishment of the Society 
of Jesus in Missouri, and an historical sketch 
of the Sisterhood of Loretto in Kentucky, Mis- 
souri, New Mexico, etc. By Rev. Camillus 
P. Maes. 8vo, pp. 635. Robert Clarke & 
Co. Cincinnati, 1880. 

The story of the life of the founder of Loretto 
was first told by Archbishop Spalding in his 
"Sketches of Kentucky," to the pages of which 
the author of the present extended and very full 
biography acknowledges his obligation. The 
amplification has been made possible by the 
accumulation of letters of the reverend father in 
the hands of the Rev. Mr. Maes through the 
devoted and active cooperation of the friends of 



the man and the order ; Dr. John Gilmary Shea, 
Archbishop Bayley of Baltimore, and Father Hill 
of St. Louis University have each lent a helping 
hand to the thorough work. 

Charles Nerinckx was born in Belgium in 
1761, and consecrating his life to the catholic 
priesthood, was ordained in 1785, and the fol- 
lowing year appointed Vicar of the Metropolitan 
parish of St. Rumoldus, Mechlin, where his zeal 
soon attracted the notice of the Prince Cardinal 
de Frankenburgh, the illustrious Archbishop of 
Mechlin. In 1794 he was chosen pastor of 
Everberg-Meerbeke. In 1797, declining to obey 
the orders of the French Republic, he escaped 
arrest by flight to Dendermonde, from which he 
occasionally, by stealth and at imminent personal 
peril, made frequent visits to his abandoned 
parish to comfort and console his flock. The 
story of his concealment by the nuns of the 
hospital of vSt. Blase, and indeed of all of this 
period of his life is written with exceeding grace 
and simplicity. In 1801, unwilling to take the 
oath of allegiance to the government of the 
First Consul, he refused its nomination to his 
old charge, and with the permission of his Pre- 
late determined to enter upon the service of the 
American mission, and in November, 1803, ap- 
plied to Bishop Carroll of Baltimore for admis- 
sion to his diocese 5 his application being 
seconded by a personal letter from the saintly 
Princess Gallitzen. Escaping the close search 
of the French gendarmes with difficulty, he em- 
barked from Amsterdam in August, 1804, and 
was received with open arms by the genial, 
warm-hearted and most worthy Bishop Carroll, 
who found in him the very man he needed for 
the abandoned mission of Kentucky. After a 
study at Georgetown college of the English lan- 
guage, which he found of difficult acquirement, 
he set out in May, 1806, in a wagon for the 
convent of the Trappists at Conewago, and 
thence with a caravan of thirty-seven persons for 
Bedford, where, disappointed at the slow mo- 
tions of his companions, he bought a horse, 
pushed on alone through the solitude of the 
half cleared woodlands of Ohio, and reached the 
house of Rev. Badin, the centre of the catholics 
of Kentucky, on the 18th July. Here was the 
chosen field of his long devoted service to God and 
his fellow man. He was forty-four years of age. 

The historical student will read with pleasure 
the succinct chapter on the history of the early 
settlement of Kentucky. Father Nerinckx 
found the district to which he was assigned an 
extensive territory, embracing nearly half the 
State. Suffering from a painful chronic com- 
plaint, depressing to the spirits, and weakening 
to the body, he nevertheless persevered, almost 
living on horseback. His labors were not 
in vain, and his influence is still visible in 
the parishes which he instructed. His no- 
tions of discipline were formed in the severe 



236 



LITERARY NOTICES 



school of the Trappists — self denial and phys- 
ical endurance. The poor children in his cate- 
chism class were compelled to stand through 
long prayer, with arms extended in the form of 
a cross till they dropped from sheer weariness ; 
but he won their hearts, nevertheless. 

Between 1806 and 1808 he was greatly dis- 
turbed in his mission by the advent of some 
Dominican priests, whose novel ceremonial and 
picturesque costume proved attractions too strong 
for his simple flock to resist. His people began 
to chafe under his strict requirements, to inter- 
marry with heretics, and to dance in the daytime ; 
and some of the disaffected preferred charges 
against him. Nerinckx became impatient and 
asked for his dismissal, but Bishop Carroll held 
him to his work, and the priest submitted with- 
out murmur or complaint. In 1808 Bishop Car- 
roll recommended him to Rome as a suitable 
person to take charge of the diocese of New 
Orleans, then in a state of disorder, as Titular 
Bishop. The papal bull soon arrived, but 
Father Nerinckx, alarmed at the responsibility, 
persistently refused the honor, and clung to his 
mission, for which he was surely eminently 
qualified. Notwithstanding his ailment, he was 
capable of great bodily exertion, and in rolling 
logs could lift against two or three men of or- 
dinary strength. A pleasant story is told of a 
personal encounter with one of the bullies of the 
neighborhood, in which he showed his great power 
and his equally great moderation and self-control. 

In 1812 he established the Sisterhood of Lor- 
etto, and founded a school of instruction for the 
novices. In 181 5 he visited Europe, and went 
to Rome to receive the Apostolical Benediction 
of the Pope. The Loretto rules were approved 
by the Propaganda, and the Father made a 
successful appeal for aid to his Belgian country- 
men. Returning in 18 17 with his treasures of 
books and pictures, raiment and holy vessels, as 
models for American workmen, he supplied 
churches and convents with ecclesiastic orna- 
ments. At least one hundred paintings were 
also imported, among which several valuable 
works of art. The masterpiece in the Louisville 
cathedral was purchased from the spoils of 
a convent sacked by the French. In 1820 he 
again visited Europe. His life of usefulness 
was closed at St. Genevieve August 12th, 1824. 

To a severity which nearly amounted to rigor- 
ism, he joined the first of virtues, humility, which 
in a priest is surely in the words of the author, 
" the foundation of sanctity, the corner-stone of 
the whole fabric of Christian perfection." Well 
written biographies are charming reading, and 
of such is this interesting volume. 



ABOUT GRANT. By John L. Swift. 161110, 
pp.206. Lee&Shepard. Boston, 1880. 
This book was avowedly written to show the 



important share the soldier president has taken 
in the affairs of the nation since 1861, and to 
present some of the reasons why he was regarded 
by a large body of the American people as the 
true leader in the grave emergencies which 
seemed to depend on the recent election. The 
election is over, the gravity of the emergency has 
passed. In 1884 the late census will prove an 
important factor in the problem, and the coun- 
try will have outgrown the recent abnormal 
situation which placed its destinies at the mercy 
of a solid section with the aid of two States 
outside of its limits. And with it also forever 
will disappear the need of any individual as a 
protector of the nationality of our people. 

But while the aim of this volume has no longer 
its initial significance, its interest remains, as in- 
deed forever will remain every word that throw# 
any light upon the remarkable character whose 
utterances, though he is known among his fel- 
lows as the Silent Man, are pregnant with 
common sense and remarkable insight into the 
reason of things. 

The American people are somewhat tired of 
hero worship. The stock of gallantry and per- 
severance displayed on both sides of the con- 
test is far beyond any available use for political 
purposes. There was a Roland for an Oliver in 
every contest, whether of armies or divisions or 
brigades. But as a civilian, General Grant is 
quite as much an object of interest as he was 
when a victorious General or popular President. 
His tour abroad was watched by millions, and 
even thousands, who were the opponents of his 
administration, were conquered by the genuine 
American simplicity and modesty of the first of 
its citizens. And since his return, though occa- 
sional pungent utterances have stung to the quick 
those against whom they were directed, the com- 
mon judgment of the country accords to him a 
belief in his disinterestedness and his sincerity. 

The pointed chapters in this volume are those 
which hold up to public scorn the absurd idea 
that Grant is a Caesar in esse or in posse, or that 
the liberties of the American people can be 
juggled, stolen or forced from their own safe 
keeping. The power of the American Govern- 
ment lies in the strong arms of its people, the 
power of the nation in the wisdom of their 
chiefs. Its liberties rest upon its intelligence ; 
and it may be safely held that it knows itself, 
and directs its own destinies. Its present pur- 
pose, if the signs of the times signify anything, 
is to make a more perfect Union of all the States 
and territories. 



A FAMOUS VICTORY. i2mo. pp.368. Jan- 
sen, McClurg & Co. Chicago, 1880. 
In this oddly constructed political romance, 
the reader will recognize familiar faces and gain 
an insight into a notorious political fraud. The 



LITERARY NOTICES 



'37 



chief character in the plot unites the traits of 
two of the most noted figures in our politics, 
though both have now outlived their opportuni- 
ties for injury to the country. It is a clever 
satire on political conventions, political methods, 
and rascalities which amuse by their unblush- 
ing impudence. The bounds of truth are only 
overstepped in the consummation. 

MEMOIR OF COL. JOSHUA FRY, Some- 
time Professor in William and Mary 
College, Virginia, and Washington's 
Senior in command of Virginia Forces, 
1754, ETC., ETC., with an autobiography of 
his son, Rev. Henry Fry, and a census of 
their descendants, by the Rev. P. Slaughter, 
D. D. Svo pp. 113. J. W. Randolph & 
English. Richmond, 1880. 
Attention has already been called in these 
pages to the excellent antiquarian work done by 
the Rev. Dr. Slaughter in his researches into 
Virginia history. After a careful investigation 
of the testimony, Mr. Slaughter arrives at the 
conclusion that Col. Fry was born in England. 
He first appears in history as a magistrate of 
Essex County, between 17 10 and 1720, where he 
married the widow of Col. Hill, a large landed 
proprietor on the Rappahannock river. In 1754 
he was, with Peter Jefferson as his associate, one 
of the Commissioners of the Crown for marking 
out of boundary lines, and in the same year, with 
the same colleague, finished the map of Virginia 
known as Fry and Jefferson's map. In 1752 he was 
one of the Commissioners for Virginia in nego- 
tiating the Treaty of Logstown. Histories of 
the maps and the Treaty are given in the 
volume. When upon the failure of the mission of 
peace with which Washington was charged to the 
commander of the French forces on the Ohio 
failed, and the contests for supremacy over the 
Western territory approached, Governor Din- 
widdie appointed Col. Fry to the chief command 
of the forces Virginia called to the field. Of 
this regiment Washington was appointed Lieut. 
Colonel, and left Alexandria April 27th, 1754, to 
clear a road for the artillery which followed 
under Col. Fry by way of the Potomac to Wills 
creek. Here Col. Fry, at Fort Cumberland, 
died suddenly on the 31st May, and was buried 
with military honors. 'Washington and the army 
attended the funeral, and the author tells us that 
the inscription cut by Washington, " Under this 
oak lies the body of the good, the just, and the 
noble Fry," can be read to this day. 

The reverend author presents a genealogy of 
the family of Fry, with the opinion that the 
Litany of the church would be improved by a 
petition for delivery from the writing of genealo- 
gies. The material he furnishes, however, is of 



extreme value for those who would unravel the 
tangled skein of Virginia pedigrees, particularly 
that of the Gregory, Lewis, Willis, and Wash- 
ington families. 

REMINISCENCES OF JAMES C. AVER 
and the Town of Ayer. By Charles 
Cowley. Third edition. 8vo, pp. 156. Pen- 
hallow Printing Company. Lowell, Mass., 
1879. 

James Cook Ayer was born in the town of 
Groton, later called Ledyard, Connecticut, in 
1818, and received his education in the Westford 
Academy and Lowell High School, after which 
he applied himself to the study of chemistry 
and the business of the apothecary. His mind 
was inventive, and in addition to the invention 
of machines for drug making and pill making he 
is claimed to have also discovered a system of 
telegraphic printing superior to that of Professor 
Morse. Becoming interested as a capitalist in 
the large manufacturing corporations of Massa-. 
chusetts, he introduced reforms into their man- 
agement, which were the cause of a long and 
bitter struggle which ended in legislation in ac- 
cordance with his views. He died suddenly, at 
Winchenden, in 1878. The biographical sketch 
is followed by some pleasant reminiscences of 
the town of Ayer, which was organized chiefly 
from the village of Groton Junction in 1871. 

AMERICAN ALMANAC AND TREASURY 

of Facts, Statistical, Financial and 
Political, for the Year 1880. Edited by 
Ainsworth R. Spofford, Librarian of Con- 
gress. i2mo, pp. 384. The American News 
Company. New York and Washington, 18S0. 
This is the third annual publication of this popu- 
lar hand book, which provides, in an admirably 
arranged manner an easy, convenient reference 
to the vast number of facts which no memory 
can retain, but some of which in some form it is 
necessary to turn to in each day's experience. 
It contains the population of the globe and of 
the United States in detail. Tables of the debts, 
revenue and expenditure, imports and exports of 
all nations ; financial tables in great variety, and 
a vast amount of information, well tabulated, 
concerning the various departments of the United 
States government and their practices under the 
law. 

We direct special attention to the account of 
the government library at' Washington, which 
has progressed in numbers of volumes and well 
devised arrangement under the guiding direction 
of Mr. Spofford, and also to the list which gives 
the age of notable persons, native born and 
foreign. 



238 



LITERARY NOTICES 



A SKETCH OF THE LIFE AND PROFES- 
SIONAL Services of Isaac Sams, for fifty 
years a distinguished teacher. By Henry S. 
Doggett. 241110, pp. 83. Peter G. Thom- 
son. Cincinnati, 1880. 

Professor Sams was of English birth. He 
received his early training at a Dublin school, 
after which he essentially educated himself while 
serving on the Mediterranean fleet then engaged 
in the war with France. In 18 18, fascinated 
with a friend's description of America, he sailed 
for this country, and engaged in the instruction 
of youth in a private family. In 1824 he opened the 
Rock Hill Academy at Ellicott s Mills, Maryland. 
In 1835 he went westward in pursuit of health, 
and settling at Hillsboro soon became interested 
in the Ohio Common School System, and on the 
enlargement of the Hillsboro Academy was in 
vited to its charge. His immediate services there, 
and his larger attention to the general interests 
of education in the State, are fully related in 
these pages, which are from the hand of one of 
his pupils, and bear the signs of a labor of love. 

THE THOUSAND ISLANDS OF THE 
River St. Lawrence. With descriptions of 
their scenery, as given by travellers from dif- 
ferent countries at *fe.rious periods since their 
first exploration, and historical notices of 
events with which they are associated. 24mo, 
pp. 307. Davis Bardeen & Co. Syracuse, 
N. Y., 1880. 

Before the century closes the thousand isles 
which stud the broad bosom of the St. Lawrence 
will have changed their character. From being 
the quiet resort of the sportsman and passing 
tourist they will have become the seat of elegant 
and luxurious mansions for the magnates of the 
land. The wildness will have departed from the 
scenery, but its picturesqueness is beyond the 
destructive reach of man. Its legendary and 
romantic interest will still cling to it in perennial 
freshness so long as history retains upon its 
pages the names of Frontenac and Montcalm, 
or Cooper's tales preserve the incidents of 
Huron story, or the legend of Hiawatha recalls 
the softer attributes of the fast disappearing 
aborigines. 

In this volume Mr. Hough, an excellent 
authority, has gathered the historical and tradi- 
tional accounts, the descriptions by travellers ; 
and has appended a charming chapter on the 
poetic associations of the thousand isles. 

One of the greatest charms of the scenery of 
the St. Lawrence at this point is the infinite 
variety of the current of the stream. We cannot 
forbear repeating the enthusiastic commendation 
of a guide of many summers, who on a later 



visit attempted to persuade us to spend the day 
in his boat, fishing for muscalonge and testing his 
culinary art. To the reply that this was impos- 
sible as time was precious and the object of our 
journey was Niagara, he responded : " Niagara, 
sir, is nothing ; I have lived there ; it is the 
same thing all the while ; but here, sir, it is all 
variety and change, never twice alike, sir, never ! " 
It was the old contrast of the sublime and the 
beautiful, as expressed in the simplicity of an 
honest heart who wanted a day's employment for 
an honest hand. 

The book is well printed, and will prove a 
charming companion when the muscalonge are 
shy and shirk the shining spoon. 

A HAND-BOOK OF POLITICS FOR 1880. 
Being a record of important political action, 
National and State, from July 1, 1878, to 
July 1, 1880. By Edward McPherson, Clerk 
of the House of Representatives. 8vo, pp. 217. 
James J. Chapman. Washington, 1880. 
The purpose of this volume is announced to be 
to present a record of the controversy between 
the executive and legislative branches of the 
government during the last two years of the ad- 
ministration of President Hayes. Every impor- 
tant fact, paper or vote is included in its pages. 
To these are added the judicial decisions of the 
period and the modifications made in State 
Constitutions. A good index gives practical 
value to the volume. 

A FOOL'S ERRAND. By one of the Fools. 
i2mo, pp. 361. Fords, Howard & Hul- 
bert. New York, 1880. 

A FOOL'S ERRAND AND THE INVISI- 
BLE Empire. By Albion W. Tourgee. i2mo, 
pp. 521. Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 
New York, 1880. 

BRICKS WITHOUT STRAW. A novel. By 
Albion W. Tourgee, LL. D., late Judge of 
the Supreme Court of North Carolina. i2mo, 
pp. 521. Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 
New York, 1880. 

There are few instances in the history of 
romantic literature of a more sudden bound to 
fame than that which placed Judge Tourgee, for 
a few days a great unknown, in the foremost 
rank of American writers and novelists. Since 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, no work has so instantly 
captured public favor as the Fool's Errand. 
Together they will live for ages as true pictures of 
slavery as it existed before and after the war. 
We use the phrase deliberately before and after 



LITERARY NOTICES 



; 39 



the war, for no sane man can read these remark- 
able books, supported as they are by overwhelm- 
ing proof, without the reluctant admission that it 
is the form of slavery which has changed and not 
the spirit. It is true law has forbidden the sale 
of the person, but in its place it has substituted 
a code which compels labor at the will of the 
dominant race. True the master can no longer 
break up families, but practice compels their 
separation in ways not less abhorrent to the sense 
of justice. We were not of those who believed 
it wise or necessary to give the ballot to the colored 
man, nor yet that the soil of the South could not 
be as well cultivated by the white man with his 
mechanical appliances as by the former slave, 
nor yet that a mingling of the races was a desir- 
able consummation. The corollaries of these 
three negative beliefs were, naturally, that col- 
onization, the withdrawal from the South of the 
three-fifths representation, and the gradual influx 
of European and northern immigration would 
solve the problem. A scheme of free coloniza- 
tion of the Antilles, under the authority of treaty 
and the immediate protection of American con- 
suls, chosen for that purpose, would have given 
an initiative which would have been rapidly fol- 
lowed. The colored race, as the Irish race, 
would have moved itself by its own energies. 

But the wise men decided otherwise. The 
bayonet was withdrawn, and the paper ballot 
presented to the colored man as the aegis of his 
personal safety. The three-fifths representa- 
tion, instead of being taken away, was ex- 
tended to full representation. The Southern 
leaders, " with that ordinary instinct for politi- 
cal thought — an instinct which makes every man 
in that section first of all things a partisan, and 
constitutes politics the first and most important 
business of life," instantly grasped the situation 
and resolved to control the entire vote in their 
own interest, regardless of their newly created 
political equals. How this was done is told in 
the three volumes before us in a style admirable 
in sententious vigor, convincing in its logic, and 
relieved with passages of the most exquisite ten- 
derness, descriptions beautiful in their natural 
delineation and scenes of thrilling power. Yet, 
with all his noble glow of indignation for the 
wrongs of the poor despised race, his unsparing 
condemnation of the methods by which their 
new franchises were turned to ashes in their 
grasp, he never fails with the original kindness, 
the generous amenity, which are the inherited 
traits of his Huguenot blood and the judicial 
fairness of honest training, to find excuse, if not 
exculpation, for the jealous white, who looked 
upon the elevation of the negro as the degrada- 
tion of himself. 

The enfranchisement of the colored race was 
not a true policy, either for their own in- 
terest or the homogeneity of the American race, 
and to our mind enfranchisement under a pro- 



tectorate in the Antilles would have been pro- 
ductive of immense benefits, not only to them- 
selves, but to the world in general ; yet, once 
adopted, it should have been enforced, though 
every man that carried a musket during the war 
were again summoned to defend the privilege. 
That the Government failed to protect the poor 
ignorant race, who had been faithful to it in its 
severest trials, is a blot on our fame which time 
can never efface. But time works out its own 
revenges. The vast and continuing immigra- 
tion to the Northern and Western States has 
at last finally turned the long disputed balance 
in favor of national institutions, as Washington 
and Webster understood them. Southern poli- 
ticians, forced from their last vantage ground, 
must shortly recognize that the real lost cau^e 
is the cause of State sovereignty, that the cause 
which has won is that of the true rights of the 
States under the protection of popular sover- 
eignty. Recognizing also that control of the 
government — the attractive allurement held out 
to them by their Mephistophelian leaders — is no 
longer within their reach, and the glittering 
national condonation which has lured them like 
the ignis fatuus, from quagmire to quagmire, is 
forever intangible, the people of practical poli- 
tics will no longer sacrifice their interests to their 
sympathies, but seek with equal zeal and eager- 
ness to secure their legitimate share in the na- 
tional prosperity and in the direction of national 
affairs. The figures of the census of 1880, and 
the result of the election, are prophetic of the 
end of the old and the beginning of the new 
order of things. Before another year has rolled 
by, the South, hitherto solid in its sympathies, 
will find itself divided in its interests. Each 
side will seek all the strength it can obtain by 
the ballot-box, and in their division the colored 
man will find safety and peace, and the un- 
doubted exercise of every civil and political right. 
Education ! Education ! Education ! cries 
Judge Tourgee, is the only panacea ; but if 
history teaches aright, the slaves of the Romans 
were the teachers of their masters, and English 
liberties were gained by men who knew more of 
the sword than of reading and writing. The true 
policy to-day is for the dominant party to open 
wide its doors to the Southern leaders ; to treat 
with them openly man to man. When, in 1861, 
Lincoln held the helm of State in the storm of 
secession he made his arm invincible by tendering 
to the strongest of Southern men, Brown of 
Mississippi, Badger of North Carolina, and 
others, places in his cabinet. Why fight for the 
share I offer you, said he. Let his successor 
follow his example. Invite a conference with 
the representative men, the accepted leaders of 
the South. To conciliate in the very hour of dis- 
aster is the highest statesmanship. " Parcere 
subjectos debellare superbos," the true policy of 
a strong government. 



240 



REGISTER OF BOOKS RECEIVED 



REGISTER OF BOOKS RECEIVED 

Patton's Concise History of the American 
People. By Jacob Harris Patton, A. M. 8vo. 
Fords, Howard & Hurlburt. New York. 



The Story of the United States Navy, for 
Boys. By Benson J. Lossing, LL.D. i6mo. 
Harper & Bros. New York, 1881. 



The Natural Resources of the United 
States. By J. Harris Patton. i2mo. D. 
Appleton & Co. New York, 1880. 



A Manual of the Reformed Church in 
America — 162S-1878. By Edward Tanjore 
Corwin. 8vo. Board of Publication of the 
Reformed Church in America. New York, 
1879. 



Curiosities of History : Boston, Sept. 17TH, 
1630-1880. By William W. Wheildon. i2mo. 
Lee & Shepard. Boston, 1880. 



Fragments of Christian History to the 
Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire. 
By Joseph Henry Allen. i6mo. Roberts 
Brother. Boston, 1880. 



Proceedings of the Massachusetts Histori- 
cal Society, Vol. XVII, 1879-1880. 8vo. 
Published by the Society. Boston, 1880. 



History of Newton, Massachusetts, Town 
and City ; from its Earliest Settlement 
to the Present Time, 1630-1880. By S. F. 
Smith D.D. 8vo. The American Logotype 
Co. Boston, 1880. 



Historical Sketches of Andover, Compris- 
ing the Present Towns of North Ando- 
ver and Andover, Massachusetts. By 
Sarah Loring Bailey. 8vo. Houghton, Mif- 
flin & Co. Boston, 1880. 



Suffolk Deeds, Liber I. 8vo. Rockwell & 
Churchill, City Printers. Boston, 1880. 



Proceedings of the Vermont Historical 
Society, October 19. 1880. 8vo. Tuttle& 
Co., State Printers. Rutland, 1880. 



The Scot in New France. Inaugural ad- 
dress of J. M. Le Moine, Pres. Literary and 
Historical Society, Quebec, 29 Nov., 1880. 
8vo. Printed by the Morning Chronicle. 
Quebec, 1880. 



The Knox Manuscripts. By the Rev. Ed- 
mund F. Slafter. 8vo. New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Society. 8vo. Bos- 
ton, 1881. 



Memorial upon the Present Condition of 
Carolina, 1724, and the Means of its 
Amelioration. By Jean Pierre Purry, of 
Switzerland. Small 4to. Privately Printed. 
J. H. Estill, Augusta, Ga. 



The Battle of Harlem Heights, Sept. 16, 
1776. Read before the New York Historical 
Society, February 5, 1878, with a preface and 
notes. By Erastus C. Benedict. 8vo. A. S. 
Barnes & Co. New York, 1881. 



Circular of Information of the Bureau of 
Education, No. 4, 1880. Rural School 
Architecture with illustrations. 8vo. Govern- 
ment printing office. Washington, 1880. 



Circular of Information of the Bureau of 
Education, No. 5, 1880. English Rural 
Schools. 8vo. Government printing office. 
1880. 



An Address on the Centennial of York- 
town, Virginia, 1781-1881. By Doctor Du 
Hamel, of Washington, D. C. No imprint. 

1881. 



English Men of Letters. Edited by John 
Morley. John Locke. By Thomas Fowler. 
i6mo. Harper & Bros. New York, 1880. 



Memoir of Governor Andrew, With Per- 
sonal Reminscences. By Peleg W. Chand- 
ler. i6mo. Roberts Brothers. Boston, 1880. 



William Cullen Bryant. A Biographical 
Sketch. By Andrew James Symington, F. R. 
S. N. A. i6mo. Harper & Bros. New York, 
1880. 



The History of the Morison or Morrison 
Family. By Leonard A. Morrison. 8vo. A. 
Williams & Co. Boston, 1880. 



Reminiscences of Thomas Vernon, an Ameri- 
can Loyalist. Royal Postmaster at New- 
port. 8vo. Privately Printed. New York, 

1880. 



Proceedings at the Dedication of a Monu- 
ment to Sergeant Abraham Staples, of 
Mendon, Mass., Oct. 31, 1877. 8vo - Syd- 
ney S. Rider. Providence, 1880. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

Le Clercq's Establishment of the Faith. 
First establishment of the Faith in New 
France, by Father Christian Le Clercq. 
Translated from the original French by John 
Gilmary Shea, (Elizabeth, New Jersey). 250 
copies printed. 2 vols., 8vo. 



: 



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OL.VI 

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the Northvi 
Muskingum riv 
of the 
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for General H 

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MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY 



Vol. VI APRIL 1881 No. 4 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

FORT Harmar was the first permanent military post established in 
the Northwest Territory. It was built on the right bank of the 
Muskingum river, in the angle made of its junction with the Ohio. 
The erection of the fort was begun under the direction of Major 
Doughty in 1785, but not finished until the following year. It was 
named for General Harmar to whose detachment Major Doughty be- 
longed. The fort included within its walls about three-fourths of an 
acre and was admirably well situated. The Muskingum, as pure and 
limpid as the founts of Castalia, indeed in the Indian language the 
name means elk's eye, so called from its transparency, flows down be- 
tween banks clothed with magnificent trees, which only the richest soil 
could produce, and here loses itself and its name in the greater Ohio. 
Above, there is a curve in the Ohio river, drawn in the truest line 
of beauty, in which both shores sympathize; and a little gem of an 
island, which dame nature seems to have dropped from her apron as 
she was passing over to correct her work, follows out the curve exactly. 
Here the valley stretches below with a long variation in its trend. The 
same point commands a view up the Muskingum, than which no better 
watch tower could have been selected. The fort was pentagonal; the 
walls were of hewn logs placed horizontally one above the other, 
rising to the height of twelve feet, and one hundred and twenty feet in 
length. The fifth side, opening into the area of the fort was occu- 
pied with block houses, intended for the residences of the officers. The 
barracks for the private soldiers were built along the sides of the cur- 
tains, with the roof slanting inwards. On the curtain which faced the 
Ohio there was a square tower, from the top of which a tri-colored flag 
threw its folds to the breeze. A sentinel was always stationed in the 
tower, as from its position the outlook commanded an extended view 
up both valleys and down the Ohio. The sally-port was toward 



242 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

the hill, back of the fort ; the main gate faced the Ohio ; gardens were 
tastefully laid out near the fort and a council house erected a short dis- 
tance above. It was in this house that General St. Clair made the short- 
lived treaty of 1789. On the opposite shore, in Virginia, there were 
about a score of families living at the time the Pioneers came to begin 
their settlement. Isaac Williams, a noted hunter and an enterprising 
man, was at the head of this colony. 

In 1788 the time came when a break was to be made in the wilder- 
ness of the great Northwest, and a home fitted up for civilized men. 
The spot chosen for the first inroad upon savage life and savage pos- 
session, was on the left bank of the Muskingum opposite Fort Harmar. 
This date marks the beginning of the heroic age in the history of Ohio; 
And more fortunate than most peoples whose heroes are only seen 
dimly in the mists of the past, the men who made that period illustrious 
in her annals stand out in full relief of form and lineament. Their 
characters are stamped upon all the existing institutions and conditions 
of the commonwealth. Indeed the children of the heroes are still actors 
in the drama their fathers initiated at their great cost. They are white- 
haired men and women, and their feeble steps show that they have 
reached and passed the prescribed limit of this mortal life ; yet some 
of them have hope that they will be spared to join in the celebration of 
the Centennial of the Great Northwest, which will come to pass in a 
little less than a decade of years. 

In these days when railroad facilities abound, the emigrant to a new 
country carries with him all the appliances of civilization. He knows 
scarcely more of hardship in the new country than he did in the old. 
Not so with the men and women who felled the first trees, planted 
the first corn and made the first homes in the Northwest Territory. 
There was no kind of toil and no manner of hardship with which they 
were not constrained to make acquaintance. The bride of a day, whose 
husband joined the emigrants to Ohio, bade her father and mother, her 
brothers and sisters an adieu, that was in most cases final. Nor could 
her homesick heart be comforted by weekly or even monthly messages 
of love from those left and longed for ; no letters came to tell her that 
she was loved and cared for still. There was only blank silence between 
her and the dear ones at home. For years there were no mails and no 
way of sending letters but by a chance traveller. 

The manuscript autobiography of General Rufus Putnam, which 
the writer has examined, gives the particulars of an attempt to estab- 
lish a colony in the Territory northwest of the Ohio as early as 1772. 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 243 

He says in that year " General Lyman returned from England where he 
had been several years soliciting the British Government for a grant of 
lands for the provincial officers and soldiers who had served in the late 
war against France." The King finally consented to the making of the 
grant, and a company of surveyors was sent out, among whom were the 
celebrated Israel Putnam, and Rufus Putnam, the son of his cousin. 
Eight or nine months were spent in making the survey ; a town was 
laid, and a colony made themselves ready to go out and take possession. 
But before the deed was accomplished, the King changed his mind and 
revoked the grant. The struggle with the mother country for the inde- 
pendence of the colonies began soon after, and nothing more was done 
in this direction till the war was brought to a close. There is a pleasant 
compensation in the fact that when Rufus Putnam and some of his com- 
patriots were fighting under the banner of St. George to lay low the 
lilies of France, they were really struggling for the possession of the 
fair lands which was to be a home for themselves and a field of enter- 
prise for their children. 

The step which led the way to the settlement of the northwest 
territory was taken by Congress in 1776, when an act was passed offer- 
ing an appropriation of land to each officer and soldier who should 
serve during the war then in progress. The tracts offered varied 
in extent with the rank of the officer. A colonel was to have five hun- 
dred acres, inferior officers less, and common soldiers one hundred acres. 
In 1780 the act was amended so as to include general officers. Major 
Generals were to receive one thousand one hundred, and Brigadier 
Generals eight hundred and fifty acres. The first organized settlement 
in the northwest was the immediate offshoot of these enactments. 
The close of the war found the country, and almost all who inhabited 
it, poor and discouraged. During the long struggle agriculture had 
been neglected, manufactures had received but little attention, and pro- 
duction of every kind had greatly diminished, while consumption had 
immensely increased. Men who had been seven years in the army 
found many difficulties in the way of returning to the trades and occu- 
pations by which they had previously earned a living. There had been 
not only a loss of annual income, but in many cases the entire loss 
of the business itself. Besides, tastes and aptitudes had undergone a 
change, and what had once been acceptable and pleasant was so no 
longer. Yet a livelihood must be obtained, and generally men had 
others besides themselves for whom to provide. The general exchequer 
was as thoroughly exhausted as the private purses of the officers and 



244 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

• 

soldiers. The Government could only compensate the men to whose 
sacrifices and efforts it owed its existence by promises to pay ; and so 
poor was the prospect of these promises being redeemed, that they only 
brought in the market one-sixth of the sum called for on their face. 
With many of the officers, as well as the soldiers, no time could be lost, 
for their needs were urgent, and the necessity of immediate action 
imperative. 

Hence, in 1783, as soon as the treaty of peace with Great Britain 
was signed, a petition was presented to Congress, bearing the signa- 
tures of two hundred and eighty-eight officers, asking that the land to- 
which they were entitled might be located in " that tract of country 
bounded north on Lake Erie, south on the Ohio river," etc. General 
Rufus Putnam forwarded the petition to Congress, and at the same time 
wrote a letter to General Washington, in which he enforced the 
demands of the petition with much earnestness and ability. Wash- 
ington warmly approved of the proposed plan, and urged upon Con- 
gress the necessity of immediate action. But on the part of Congress 
there were difficulties, real or imaginary, sufficient to prevent any- 
thing from being done. One reason assigned for inaction was that 
these lands were not in the actual possession of the Government. To 
rebut this objection it was claimed, as was well known, that after the 
conquests of General Clark the French Government ceded all the ter- 
ritory northwest of the Ohio river to latitude thirty-one degrees, etc., to 
the English Government, and it therefore legitimately belonged to that 
Government when the war with the colonies began. And in the Treaty 
of Paris the said Government of Great Britain ceded to the United 
States all the territory then in their possession south of the forty-ninth 
parallel. It was a fact well known at the time that, during the adjust- 
ment of that treaty, the British Commissioners persistently urged the 
making of the Ohio river the boundary of the United States on the west. 
So strenuously did they insist upon this, that Dr. Franklin thought it 
was better to yield the point and accept that boundary, fearing that by 
claiming the less, the United States might lose the greater good and fail 
altogether in making a treaty ; but when he proposed this concession to 
his two colleagues, John Adams and John Jay, the former said indig- 
nantly, " No ! rather than relinquish our claim to the western territory, 
I will go home and urge my countrymen to take up arms again and 
fight till they secure their rights, or shed the last drop of blood." Jay 
agreed with him, and Dr. Franklin said no more about giving up the 
West. In the end the British Commissioners found it best to yield the 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 245 

point. A party in Congress doubted the expediency of retaining the 
western country, even if it did rightfully belong to the Government. 
They claimed that the Eastern States would be better off without so 
great a weight hanging to their skirts as this great West would be. 
Among General Putnam's manuscript papers there is the first draft of 
an argument written out to convince such unbelievers that it was a 
matter of absolute necessity to all parts of the country that the West 
should be retained. The argument covers three or four sheets of 
foolscap, and is able and logical. In the light of the present one gasps 
at the thought that there was ever danger that this magnificent ter- 
ritory might be lost to the Government; this great West that has done 
so much to make our country what it is, and has opened before us such 
grand possibilities for the future. 

In 1784 General Putnam wrote again to Washington in regard to 
forming a settlement in the West. After expressing his regret at the 
inaction of Congress, he says : " Surely, if justice and gratitude to 
the army and the general policy of the Union were to govern in this 
case, there would not be the smallest interruption in granting its 
request." In a previous letter General Putnam had made known his 
determination to be himself one of the emigrants to the new country, 
and he was also the first to suggest the plan of laying out the land in 
townships, six miles square, with reservations for the ministry and for 
schools. 

General Benjamin Tupper, who had been employed by the Govern- 
ment to assist in the survey of the territory bordering upon the Ohio, 
agreed with General Putnam in regard to the de^rableness of the 
country along the Muskingum and Ohio rivers as a place in which to 
begin a settlement, and united with him in January, 1786, in issuing a 
call to those who in eastern Massachusetts were interested in the 
enterprise, to get together and elect delegates, who should meet at the 
" Bunch of Grapes" tavern in Boston, March 1st, 1786, to devise 
measures for a purchase of land and the foundation of a colony. 
In response to this call, eleven delegates met at the time and place 
appointed. Gen. Rufus Putnam was chosen chairman of the meeting 
and Winthrop Sargent, secretary. As the result of the meeting, a 
plan was drawn up for the formation of a company, and subscription 
books were opened. A whole year passed, however, without enough 
names being subscribed to justify further action. On the 8th of March, 
1787, the stockholders met at " Brackett's Tavern" in Boston, and the 
company was fully organized under the name of " The Ohio Company 



246 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

of Associates." Samuel H. Parsons, Rufus Putnam and Dr. Manasseh 
Cutler were appointed directors. The directors were empowered to 
make proposals to Congress "for a private purchase of lands under such 
descriptions as they shall deem adequate for the purposes of the com- 
pany." The directors made choice of Dr. Manasseh Cutler to go to 
New York, where Congress was then in session, and make the desired 
purchase. No fitter or more capable agent could have been selected. 
Dr. Cutler was a graduate of Yale College, and had studied and taken 
regular degrees in the three learned professions. To the scientific world 
he was known as a man eminent in science, and his writings on botany 
and other branches of knowledge had made his name familiar to students 
and men of letters. As a scientific scholar he ranked next to Dr. 
Franklin, whom in many respects he greatly resembled. Of fine pres- 
ence and courtly manners, fond of anecdote, and a captivating talker, 
his conversation charmed his hearers, while at the same time his logic 
was so incisive and terse that he rarely failed to convince. He was just 
the man to meet the southern members of Congress, conquer their 
prejudices and obtain their assistance ; for, strange to say, it was upon 
securing their aid that he mainly depended for success. It is a some- 
what singular fact, that for the carrying out of a project which origin- 
ated in Massachusetts, and depended principally upon Massachusetts 
men for successful execution, with an agent belonging to the same 
State to negotiate the business, no help could be looked for from the 
members of Congress from that State. On the other hand, opposition 
was expected and preparations taken to meet it, and to conquer, if pos- 
sible, notwithstanding. The reason is not far to seek ; Massachusetts 
and New York had relinquished unconditionally whatever claim they 
had to territory in the West. Connecticut had done the same with the 
reservation of a tract in the northeastern part of what was afterwards 
the State of Ohio. Virginia also gave up all claim upon being allowed 
a tract of land to be given as bounty to soldiers. While, therefore, 
Massachusetts had no interest in the opening up of the West for settle- 
ment, there was an interest nearer home to which that project was 
inimical. The State owned thirty thousand square miles of territory in 
the Province of Maine which had recently been brought into the 
market and there was great anxiety to dispose of it. It did not suit the 
men in authority to have the industry and enterprise and courage which 
the Ohio Company of Associates would withdraw from their border, 
taken out of their State and carried to the far-off West. If this drain 
must come, they would prefer to direct it within a channel that would 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 247 

benefit the parent State. If they must colonize, let them go to Maine 
and buy land of their own commonwealth. 

Dr. Cutler left his home in Ipswich and started in his one-horse 
chaise for New York, June 24th, 1787. He reached his place of destina- 
tion July 5th. He was equipped with more than fifty letters of intro- 
duction to distinguished men in New York and Philadelphia. The 
Constitutional convention was in session at the latter place. 

He says in his private journal: " July 5th, about three o'clock, I 
arrived at the city, by the road that enters through the Bowery. Put 
up my horse in the Bowery barns. The first letter I delivered was to 
Mr. Hugh Henderson. He is a wholesale merchant and lives in genteel 
style on Golden Hill Street, New York. Mr. Henderson treated me 
very politely. After tea he proposed a walk about the city, but first 
gave me a specimen of Scotch generosity, urged me to take lodgings 
with him while I tarried in the city, assigned me one of his front 
chambers and ordered his servant Starling to attend me." 

Dr. Cutler lost no time in setting about the accomplishment of the 
object for which he had come. The difficulties in the way of negotia- 
ting the purchase he found to be many and not easily overcome. There 
was need of all his consummate tact and unwearied perseverance. The 
history of the transaction as recorded in his journal shows that lobbying 
is not so recent an invention as has sometimes been supposed. Certain 
it is that he was greatly helped in the accomplishment of his object by 
its use. He received much attention and many invitations to dine and 
sup with members of Congress and other distinguished men. " He was 
skillful in always keeping his errand in view, and yet so treating the 
subject as to interest and not tire his hearers. He gives a full and inter- 
esting account of the great men that he met. He seems to have devoted 
himself mainly to winning over the members from the South, well know- 
ing that it must be by their influence that he carried his point if he car- 
ried it at all. The progress toward successful accomplishment seemed 
to him very slow, and again and again he despaired of making the pur- 
chase upon any such terms as he desired. 

He writes in his journal : "July 20th. This morning the Secretary 
of Congress furnished me the ordinance . of yesterday, which states the 
conditions of a contract, but on terms to which I shall by no means 
accede. I informed the committee of Congress that I would not consent 
on the terms proposed ; that I should prefer purchasing lands from some 
of the States, who would give me incomparably better terms, and there- 
fore proposed to leave the city immediately." 



248 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

Massachusetts was not the only State that had land in the market. 
New York also had large possessions in the western part of their State 
for which they would gladly find purchasers. Dr. Cutler made skillful 
use of these other chances to buy in order to secure such terms as 
suited him. There was no honest effort to which he did not resort, while 
at the same time he seems to have relied chiefly on personal influence 
exerted outside of legislative halls. He says, "in some instances we 
engaged one person who engaged a second, and he a third, and so on to 
the fourth before we could effect our purpose." Once and again he 
threatened to relinquish the attempt and go home. In furtherance of. 
his object, he thought it best to make a change in officering the 
company. From the first, Gen. Rufus Putnam was selected to be 
the head and commandant of that particular colony which was to be 
located on the Ohio. It had also been agreed upon that Gen. Samuel 
H. Parsons, of Connecticut, should be the Governor of the new terri- 
tory. The Hon. Arthur St. Clair was President of Congress and Dr. 
Cutler discovered that he had ambitious longing for the Governorship 
of the Northwest Territory. He had been but a lukewarm advocate of 
the measures proposed by Dr. Cutler, and if his zealous participation 
could be secured it might prove to be the weight that would turn the scale. 
Accordingly, the proposition was made to him that he should be Gover- 
nor in case success attended the efforts then being made. The effort was 
soon perceptible. He gave his influence and his efforts to the accom- 
plishment of the object. General Parsons was well satisfied to be made 
one of the judges of the new territory. 

Finally, after much effort and many delays, Dr. Cutler succeeded in 
securing the terms he desired and had so ably contended for, though he 
deviated from his original plan of making a purchase merely for the 
Ohio Company, and united with it contracts for other parties. In addi- 
tion to the one million and a half acres for that company, he bought 
about three and a half millions for private speculators, making in all 
about five millions of acres. He was induced to do this by finding that 
he could thus make better terms. For the million five hundred thou- 
sand acres bought for the Ohio Company, payment was to be made " in 
specie, loan office certificates reduced to specie, in certificates of the 
liquidated debt reduced to specie." The price to be paid was one dol- 
lar per acre liable to a reduction " by an allowance for bad land and all 
individual charges and circumstances whatever ; provided, that all such 
allowances shall not exceed one third of a dollar per acre." 

The company paid half the purchase money at the time of making 



248 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

Massachusetts was not the only State that had land in the market. 
New York also had large possessions in the western part of their State 
for which they would gladly find purchasers. Dr. Cutler made skillful 
use of these other chances to buy in order to secure such terms as 
suited him. There was no honest effort to which he did not resort, while 
at the same time he seems to have relied chiefly on personal influence 
exerted outside of legislative halls. He says, " in some instances we 
engaged one person who engaged a second, and he a third, and so onto 
the fourth before we could effect our purpose." Once and again he 
threatened to relinquish the attempt and go home. In furtherance of. 
his object, he thought it best to make a change in officering the 
company. From the first, Gen. Rufus Putnam was selected to be 
the head and commandant of that particular colony which was to be 
located on the Ohio. It had also been agreed upon that Gen. Samuel 
H. Parsons, of Connecticut, should be the Governor of the new terri- 
tory. The Hon. Arthur St. Clair was President of Congress and Dr. 
Cutler discovered that he had ambitious longing for the Governorship 
of the Northwest Territory. He had been but a lukewarm advocate of 
the measures proposed by Dr. Cutler, and if his zealous participation 
could be secured it might prove to be the weight that would turn the scale. 
Accordingly, the proposition was made to him that he should be Gover- 
nor in case success attended the efforts then being made. The effort was 
soon perceptible. He gave his influence and his efforts to the accom- 
plishment of the object. General Parsons was well satisfied to be made 
one of the judges of the new territory. 

Finally, after much effort and many delays, Dr. Cutler succeeded in 
securing the terms he desired and had so ably contended for, though he 
deviated from his original plan of making a purchase merely for the 
Ohio Company, and united with it contracts for other parties. In addi- 
tion to the one million and a half acres for that company, he bought 
about three and a half millions for private speculators, making in all 
about five millions of acres. He was induced to do this by finding that 
he could thus make better terms. For the million five hundred thou- 
sand acres bought for the Ohio Company, payment was to be made " in 
specie, loan office certificates reduced to specie, in certificates of the 
liquidated debt reduced to specie." The price to be paid was one dol- 
lar per acre liable to a reduction " by an allowance for bad land and all 
individual charges and circumstances whatever ; provided, that all such 
allowances shall not exceed one third of a dollar per acre." 

The company paid half the purchase money at the time of making 



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THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 249 

the contract; the land was to be conveyed upon the receipt of the 
remainder. But some of the shareholders failed to meet their engage- 
ments, and the Indian war breaking out in less than two years after the 
colony reached their new home, greatly crippled them, and the two 
causes combined effectually prevented the company from meeting its 
engagements. In 1792 the directors met in Philadelphia and sent a 
memorial to Congress asking for relief. After some discussion and dif- 
ficulty, a bill was passed authorizing the conveyance of the half of the 
land already paid for — seven hundred and fifty thousand acres — to be 
made out ; also another conveyance of seven hundred and fourteen 
thousand, two hundred and eighty-five acres (one seventh of the orig- 
inal purchase), to be paid for within six months by warrants issued for 
bounty rights, and yet another conveyance of one hundred thousand 
acres to be conveyed in tracts of one hundred acres, "as a bounty to 
each male person of eighteen years of age being an actual settler." 
The bill was approved and the patents issued to Rufus Putnam, 
Manasseh Cutler, Robert Oliver, and Griffin Green in trust for the Ohio 
Company of Associates. The patents were signed by George Wash- 
ington, President, and Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State. These 
three patents and also the original contract of October 2d, 1787, are in 
the library of Marietta College. 

Much has been said in regard to the unwise choice made by the Ohio 
Company in locating their lands. It has been stated, and probably with 
truth, that the whole northwest territory was before them, where to 
choose ; they selected a tract that included within it more poor, broken 
rough land than could be found in a body any where else in the whole 
territory. Lying, as a considerable part of it does, among the foot-hills 
of the Alleghenies, it is hilly and sterile compared with other portions 
of the West. These are the circumstances which seem to have influ- 
enced the company in locating their lands where they did. The first 
and most potent was the advice of Mr. Hutchins, "the Government 
Geographer;" Dr. Cutler had repeated conversations with him while 
in New York negotiating the purchase, and Mr. Hutchins very emphatic- 
ally advised him to make the location along the Muskingum and Ohio 
rivers, in the region where the two united. He claimed to have a thor- 
ough acquaintance with the whole western territory then under gov- 
ernment control, and asserted that there could nowhere be found so 
desirable a tract as the one proposed. Another influential reason for 
the choice was that there were but few Indians located on the said tract 
of land. The celebrated and war-like Iroquois or Five nations had been 



250 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

in the habit of coming down the Ohio in their canoes and pouncing 
upon the Indians that lived along the banks, taking them unawares. 
This unpleasant experience was repeated so often that to escape it, the 
native Indians retreated farther and farther from the banks of the river, 
until there was a tract of country extending thirty or forty miles back 
from the river, in which there were only one or two unimportant vil- 
lages and scarcely any regular inhabitants. This whole region was 
regarded as a common hunting ground and used as such. There 
would not, therefore, be the necessity for removing Indians in order 
to get possession. A third and very potential reason was the imme- 
diate vicinage of Fort Harmar. The principal personages of the 
colony were men of war, too shrewd in matters generally, and too 
well acquainted with Indian character to trust to present appear- 
ances or any promises of peace. Soldiers and muniments of war were 
better safe-guards than treaties, how well soever guaranteed. The re- 
sult justified this opinion. It was only the presence of soldiers and their 
own wisdom and courage and acquaintance with war that saved the 
colonists from extermination in the bloody conflict with the Indians that 
continued from 1791 to 1795. 

Before passing on to later events in the history of the Colonists, 
it is well to say a few words in regard to the " Ordinance of 1787." In 
an article in the North American Review for April, 1876, it is said, "The 
Ordinance of 1787 and the Ohio Company's purchase were parts of the 
same transaction. The purchase would not have been made without the 
Ordinance, and the Ordinance could not have been enacted except as an 
essential condition of the purchase." ..." The Ordinance in the 
breadth of its conceptions, its details and its results has been, perhaps, 
the most noted instance of legislation ever enacted by the American 
people. It fixed forever the character of the immigration, and of the 
social, political and educational institutions of the people who inhabit 
this imperial territory, then a wilderness, but now covered by five great 
States, and teeming with more than ten million persons, or more than 
one-fourth the population of the United States. It forever prohibited 

slavery and involuntary servitude Its vital principles 

embodied in six ' articles of compact between the original States and 
the people and States of said territory, to remain unalterable unless by 
common consent.' It was well understood that common consent to 
any material change could never be obtained." 

The article prohibiting slavery saved at least three of the five States 
formed of this territory from the grip of that monster of iniquity, 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 25 I 

slavery. In Ohio there was a hard-fought battle over the subject at the 
formation of the constitution of the State, and a majority of only one 
vote saved the State from having slavery foisted upon it, the ordinance 
to the contrary notwithstanding ; and only that saved Indiana and Illi- 
nois from being the recipients of the same evil. 

We quote again from the article before mentioned : " Every square 
mile of the territory thus covered by the Ordinance of 1787 was patri- 
otic " (in the late civil war), " and gave its men and its means for the 
support of the Union. South and southwest of that boundary line 
were treachery and rebellion, under the plausible semblance of neu- 
trality. Kentucky and Missouri furnished more men that fought against 
the United States flag than fought under it. The north-western States 
put more than a million soldiers into the Union armies, and they were 
the men who fought at Forts Henry and Donaldson, Pittsburg Landing, 
Stone River, Jackson and Vicksburg, and achieved the only Union vic- 
tories gained during the first two years of the war." 

Of this same Ordinance, Mr. Webster says: " We are accustomed 
to praise the lawgivers of antiquity ; we help to perpetuate the fame of 
Solon and Lycurgus, but I doubt whether any single law of any law- 
giver, ancient or modern, has produced effects of a more distinct, 
marked and lasting character than the Ordinance of 1787." Also, the 
late Chief Justice Chase said of ft: " Never, probably, in the history of 
the world did a measure of legislation so accurately fulfil, and yet so 
mightily exceed, the anticipations of the Legislators." 

There seems to be conclusive proof that Dr. Cutler helped to shape 
this Ordinance, and that the incorporation of some of its most bene- 
ficial features was due to him. He was in New York negotiating for 
the purchase of land when the Ordinance was passed ; and, though not 
a member of Congress, and of course not on the committee for drafting 
the Ordinance, it was submitted to him for revision and amendments; 
and he says in his journal : " All the amendments I proposed were made 
except one." And he elsewhere stated that among the amendments he 
made, were the prohibition of slavery and the enactments for the sup- 
port of religion and the encouragement of education. 

As soon as the purchase was completed, General Putnam and 
his associates made preparations for going at once to possess the 
land. The Company had previously ordered, " that four surveyors 
should be employed and twenty-two men to attend them ; that there 
should be added to this number twenty men, including six boat-builders, 
four house carpenters, one blacksmith and nine common workmen." 



252 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

These men were to be subsisted at the expense of the Company, 
and allowed wages, at the rate of four dollars each per month, till 
discharged. 

The surveyors employed were Col. Ebenezer Sproat, Mr. Anselm 
Tupper and Mr. John Mathews from Massachusetts, and Col. Return 
Jonathan Meigs from Connecticut. The boat-builders and mechanics, 
in all twenty men, started under the command of Major Haffield White 
from Dan vers, Mass., late in December, 1787, and reached Sumrill's 
Ferry, the place of rendezvous, on the Youghiogheny river, thirty miles 
above Pittsburgh, late in January. The surveyors, their attendants and 
the remainder of the pioneers, to the number of twenty-six, met at 
Hartford, Conn., early in January, and began their wearisome journey, 
under the command of General Putnam, assisted by Colonel Ebenezer 
Sproat. When the party reached the mountains, they found them cov- 
ered to such a depth with snow that it was impossible to transport their 
baggage upon wagons ; so they were obliged to stop and make sleds, on 
which they crossed the mountains. But their passage was slow and 
toilsome. They did not reach Sumrill's Ferry till late in February, and 
then were disappointed in finding that but little progress had been 
made in the building of the boats in which they were to perform the 
remainder of their journey. But, with the additional force of men, and 
under the eye of the master, the work progressed more rapidly. Cap- 
tain Jonathan Dowell was the architect and superintendent of the boat- 
building. The large boat was launched April 2d, and called the May- 
flower, in memory of that other boat that had come over the sea 
freighted with the seeds of a new Empire. The boat was forty-five 
feet long, twelve broad, and was stoutly built, with knees like a 
galley, and a covered deck, which was high enough for a man 
to walk without stooping, and the sides were string enough to 
resist the force of a bullet in case of an attack. Besides this large 
boat, there were a flatboat and three canoes, loaded with provisions, 
equipments and materials for building. And now, after weary months 
of travel and work and waiting, the emigrants were launched upon 
waters that would carry them, without toil or anxiety, to their future 
home in the yet unbroken forest. They soon passed down the tribu- 
tary and entered the tranquil Ohio, La belle riviere of its former 
claimants. The trees were already putting on their spring clothing, 
and the birds sang their songs of greeting in the branches. The 
verdure was creeping over the sides of the hills that bordered the 
river. To the greater part of the eyes that looked upon them, it was a 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 253 

new thing to see trees so ambitiously lifting up their branches toward 
the heavens, while their wonderful magnitude gave evidence of a 
depth and richness of soil that was both strange and encouraging to the 
beholders. To men accustomed to the sterile soil of New England, we 
can well believe that«the glory and the grandeur of the scenes through 
which they passed as they descended the river, seemed like glimpses 
of fairy land. At any rate, whether any sentiment was waked up or 
not, each day brought them nearer to that long-talked-of and much- 
desired country, " the Ohio," where they were to make ' homes for 
themselves and their children. On the morning of the 7th of April they 
came abreast of Ren's Island, which some on board knew was only a 
short distance above the mouth of the Muskingum. They were, there- 
fore, on the quivive, and yet they passed the mouth of the river without 
seeing it, and found themselves at Fort Harmar. The trees upon the 
banks of the Muskingum so reached out their branches and covered 
the river, that, with the help of a fog, they quite concealed the river. 
It was found to be impossible to turn back their boats, so they landed 
at Fort Harmar, and Major Doughty, the commandant of the garrison, 
sent men to help them tow the boats to the east side of the river. 
The sun had reached its meridian when they landed on the site of the 
new town that was soon to be. 

The 7th of April, 1788, is a memorable day in the annals of Ohio. 
Then and there was laid the corner-stone of the great Buckeye State ; 
a State that, in less than a century, has become the third in the Union in 
wealth and population, and has freely furnished men to fill the high 
places in the national councils and in the army. On that 7th of April 
General Putnam and his fellow-workers lost no time in dallying. The 
boards, brought for the purpose, were at once landed, and the erection 
of temporary habitations begun. A large marquee was set up for Gen- 
eral Putnam, where he lived and transacted business until the fort was 
built. The day after their arrival the surveyors began to lay out the 
town. The axe of the woodsman woke the echoes that had slept so 
long, and the mighty trees began to fall before the blows of the chopper. 
As it would take more time than they could spare to fell so many trees, 
many of them were girdled and left standing. Although the season 
was far advanced when they reached there, they managed to plant one 
hundred and thirty acres of corn that first season. The rivers furnished 
an abundance of fish, and in the forests were found buffaloes, bears, 
deer in abundance and turkeys innumerable, so that their larders were 
cheaply and abundantly supplied. 



254 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

Six thousand acres were set apart for the new city. The surveyors 
laid out the streets, the more important ones parallel with the Mus- 
kingum. The lots were ninety by one hundred and eighty feet. Dr. 
Cutler had suggested the name Adelphia as one desirable for the 
new town; but at a meeting of the Directors, held on the 2d of 
July, 1788, the first meeting held west of the mountains, the following 
resolution was passed : " Resolved, That the city near the confluence of 
the Ohio and Muskingum rivers be called Marietta, that the Directors 
write to his Excellency Count de Moustiers, the French Ambassador, 
informing him of the motives for naming the city, and request his 
opinion whether it will be advisable to present her Majesty of France 
a public square." Alas ! the beautiful queen was too near the close of 
her fearful sufferings to interest herself in a public square in a far-off 
city in the distant west of the New World. 

General Putnam was wise to foresee danger, and efficient in pre- 
paring to meet it. He had not much confidence in the power of existing 
treaties to keep the Indians in peace with those who were in their 
opinion invading a hunting ground which belonged of right to them- 
selves. At once, therefore, he began the erection of a fort, which 
should prove a place of refuge to the colonists in time of danger, or 
in case the Indians showed any signs of hostility. On the day of their 
first landing there were seventy Indians, men, women and children, with 
Captain Pipes at their head, in the neighborhood of Fort Harmar. 
They had come to agree upon a treaty, and to trade their peltries with 
the soldiers in the garrison. They had given noisy assurance of wel- 
come to General Putnam and his company, but he knew them too well 
to trust them. 

A stockaded fort was erected a short distance from the Muskingum 
river and nearly a mile from the Ohio. The sides formed a regular 
parallelogram, and were one hundred and eighty feet in length. At 
each corner there was a strong block-house, surmounted by a watch- 
tower. These houses were twenty feet square below and twenty-four 
feet above. The dwelling houses were in the curtains. They were 
made of hewn logs, and were two stories high. The front was toward 
the Muskingum, and in the centre there was a belfry, underneath which 
was the office of the Hon. Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of the Com- 
pany. There were loopholes for musketry as well as artillery. General 
St. Clair occupied the southwest block-house; the northwest was used 
for public worship and holding court. Individuals were allowed to 
fit up dwelling houses in the curtains according to their inclination or 



256 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

ability. There was room in them for the accommodation of forty or 
fifty families, but during the Indian war they were made to accommo- 
date between two and three hundred persons. This fort was called 
Campus Martius, showing that there were classical scholars among the 
pioneers. One of the actors in these scenes wrote of it: " Campus Mar- 
tius is the handsomest pile of buildings on the west side of the Allegheny 
mountains, and in a few days will be the strongest fortification in the 
Territory of the United States. It stands on the margin of the elevated 
plain, on which are the remains of the ancient works." In the open 
court within the square which the buildings occupied a well was dug, 
eighty feet deep. The cool and refreshing water from this well is still 
a comfort and convenience to many families that live in the vicinity. 
The block-house on the southeast corner is still standing, forming a 
part of the residence of the late Judge Arius Nye. To the mechanical 
and engineering skill of General Putnam, and the practical knowledge 
of some of his associates, was due the thorough workmanship shown 
in building this fort, which was undoubtedly the means of salvation to 
the infant colony in the Indian war which so soon followed. 

The 4th of July after the arrival of the colonists was celebrated with 
all the " pomp of circumstance " possible in their condition. The offi- 
cers from Fort Harmar were invited over, and a sumptuous repast was 
spread under a magnificent tree on the bank of the Muskingum. Many 
deer and countless turkeys bled freely for the occasion, and a giant fish — 
a pike — caught in the Muskingum, helped to fill the bill of fare. General 
James Mitchell Varnum, one of the Judges and also a Director, was 
the orator for the occasion. The speech is on record, and is flowery 
enough to suit the most poetic taste. In addressing his "fair audi- 
tors," after complimenting them upon their courage in " exploring the 
Paradise of America," he says : " Gentle zephyrs, fanning breezes, 
wafting through the air ambrosial odors, receive you here. Hope no 
longer flutters on the wings of uncertainty." 

Governor St. Clair had not yet arrived, and there was no organized 
government, so that every man could be a law unto himself, if he chose. 
But that did not suit these law-abiding descendants of the Puritans. 
Therefore, as the closing ceremony in the celebration of Independence 
Day, they drew up a code of laws, which were written out on paper, and 
suspended, not as were the Ten Tables of the Romans, in a temple, but 
on the trunk of a tree that stood upon the bank of the river. By these 
laws they were governed until the arrival of the Governor and the 
organization of a government. Well might General Washington say 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 257 

of these pioneers : " No colony in America was ever settled under such 
favorable auspices as that which has just commenced on the Mus- 
kingum. Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. 
I know many of the settlers personally, and there never were men 
better calculated to promote the welfare of such a community." 

The Governor, General Arthur St. Clair, arrived in July, and was 
received at Fort Harmar with a salute of thirteen guns. After a few 
days' rest, he was escorted with considerable ceremony to the east side 
of the Muskingum, and received by General Putnam under his mar- 
quee. The Judges of the Territory and the principal men of the colony 
were present. The Secretary, Hon. Winthrop Sargent, read the 
Ordinance of 1787, the Governor's commission and his own. The cer- 
emony closed with congratulations and assurances of welcome to the 
Governor. 

The government thereafter established was quite anomalous. There 
were no precedents by which to be influenced, for it was the first terri- 
torial government established under the Federal authority. The people 
had no part nor lot in the matter. There were no elective officers. 
The Governor and Judges received their appointment first from Con- 
gress, and after 1789, when the Constitution was adopted, from the 
President. The General Government bore a part of the expense of the 
territorial government, but by far the larger share was obtained by 
heavily taxing the people of the territory. This government continued 
in force ten years. 

On the second day of the following September the first civil court 
ever held in the Northwest territory was opened. A procession was 
formed near the Ohio river, and the men marched up through a path 
cut in the forest to Campus Martius. First went the high sheriff with 
a drawn sword, following whom came the citizens; then came the offi- 
cers from Fort Harmar, next the members of the bar, after them the 
Supreme Judges, following whom were the Governor and clergymen, 
the newly appointed Judges of the Court of Common Pleas, Generals 
Putnam and Tupper bringing up the rear. The court was held in the 
southeast block-house, and opened with prayer by the Rev. Manasseh 
Cutler, D.D., to whom the colony was so greatly indebted. He was 
there on a visit, and only remained a few days. To the honor of the 
forty-eight men who made up the colony it can be said, that there was 
not a single case on the docket ! 

On the 19th of August the hearts of some of the husbands and 
fathers among the colonists were encouraged and made glad by the 



258 THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 

arrival of their wives and children. Eight families arrived from New 
England. Among them were the wives and children of General Anselm 
Tupper and Colonel Ichabod Nye. The new arrival increased the 
number in the colony to one hundred and thirty-two men, with some 
women and children. At the beginning of 1789 there was not a white 
family within the present limits of Ohio, except those connected with 
this colony. 

Any account of these first settlers in Ohio which should omit the 
statement of their efforts in behalf of religion and education would be 
incomplete. The wise men in the East well knew that a successful 
and prosperous commonwealth must rest upon the basis of morality 
and intelligence. They therefore early looked after and provided for 
the interests of religion and education. At a meeting at Rees' Tavern, 
Providence, Rhode Island, March 5, 1787, a committee of the Company 
reported : " That the Directors be requested to pay early attention to 
the education of youth and the promotion of public worship among 
the first settlers," &c. . . . " that they, if practicable, secure an 
instructor, eminent for literary accomplishments and the virtue of his 
character, who shall also superintend the first scholastic institutions." 
The proprietors and others " of benevolent and liberal minds " were 
invited to make up a fund by voluntary contributions to carry out these 
resolutions. In the furtherance of this object, Dr. Cutler, who was 
appointed for the purpose, engaged the Rev. Daniel Story to go out to 
the colony. He was to have his board and four dollars in silver per 
week for his services. Mr. Story was a native of Boston and a gradu- 
ate of Dartmouth College. He reached Marietta in the spring of 
1789, and preached not only in Marietta, but in the other settlements 
in rotation. There were no roads, and his visits were made in canoes 
with oarsmen provided for the occasion. During the Indian war a 
guard well armed accompanied him when he went to fill his appoint- 
ments. 

The interests of education were well looked after from the beginning. 
In the contract for the purchase of land it was stipulated on the part of 
the purchaser, that " two complete townships should be given perpet- 
ually to the uses of a university, to be laid off by the purchaser or 
purchasers as near the center of the purchase, as the case may be, so 
that the same shall be good land — to be applied to that object by the 
Legislature." Also, the sixteenth section in every township was set 
apart for the use of schools, and the twenty -ninth for the support of 
religion. The townships set apart for the university were located and 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN OHIO 



2 59 



surveyed in 1795. The act incorporating the institution passed the 
Legislature in 1802. The town of Athens was laid out on the land thus 
set apart, and the college called the Ohio University. 

Dr. Cutler was greatly instrumental in the establishment of the 
college, and strenuous in his efforts in behalf of common schools. As a 
matter of fact, a school was opened the first year of the settlement, and 
an academy established before a decade of years had passed away. 

M. CONE 




CAMPUS MARTIUS IN 1791— From a Drawing by Winthrop Sargent 



THE NEW VERSION OF THE BATTLE OF HARLEM 

PLAINS 

This action, in itself unimportant so far as its casualties are consid- 
ered, was of graver consequence in its restoration of the morale of the 
dispirited forces of the patriots. The first conflict on the island of 
Manhattan, and moreover a success, its centennial celebration with mili- 
tary pomp and civil ceremony by the New York Historical Society was 
fully justified. The ground was carefully studied by the committee of 
that body charged with the details ; the traditions of the neighborhood 
were thoroughly sifted; all known maps, records and deeds relating 
to the locality were examined and compared, and all the documents and 
letters, printed and in manuscript, known to exist, were collected and 
collated. From these authorities Mr. John Jay prepared the memorial 
address delivered on the occasion. His account of the battle was in 
the main that presented by all the historians who had preceded him. 
The locality, the spot on which the celebration was held, was Bloom- 
ingdale, formerly Vandewater's heights. To this ground Lossing and 
Dawson assign the action. Immediately after the celebration Mr. 
William Kelby, the Assistant Librarian of the New York Historical 
Society, prepared a pamphlet, containing the commemorative oration, 
with an appendix of all the documents, which was published by the 
Society, and stands as the authoritative account of the historic event. 

In the New York Daily Graphic of the same day, the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1876, copies of which were sold to the assembled multitude, 
there appeared an illustrated sketch of the action under the signature 
of Martha J. Lamb, in which the scene was laid in the same locality. 
Mr. Henry P. Johnston, in his Campaign of 1776, published under the 
auspices of the Long Island Historical Society, in June, 1878, concurred 
with previous authors. Whatever slight differences of views, in regard 
to minor detail of movements of the American and British troops 
appear in their narratives, they all agree as to the ground traversed 
during the engagement. 

At the February meeting of the New York Historical Society, 
1878, the late Erastus C. Benedict read a paper entitled the Battle 
of Harlem Heights, in which he advanced the new version, which 
is the subject of present comment, to which Mrs. Lamb, changing 
her views, conformed the description incorporated in her History 



NEW VERSION OF THE BATTLE OF HARLEM PLAINS 261 

of New York, No. 3 of Vol. II., published in the spring of 1880. 
The new version of Mr. Benedict, of which the general public 
were then for the first time informed through the notes to 
Mrs. Lamb's text, was reviewed by the present writer in the May. 
number, 1880, of the Magazine of American History (IV. 351). A 
posthumous pamphlet, 1 without imprint of date, entitled "The Battle 
of Harlem Heights, read before the New York Historical Society, 
May 5, 1878," has recently (January, 1881) been issued by a nephew 
of the deceased. Of itself it needs neither notice nor comment, the 
author having attained no reputation as an historian which gives weight 
to his individual opinion, when it conflicts with well-known facts, estab- 
lished by authority in accord with tradition ; and the subject would not 
receive further attention in these columns, but for the preface and 
appendix which accompany it. In both of these Mr. Benedict charges 
the writer with unworthy personal motives in the review of Mrs. 
Lamb, and the condemnation of the new version which she adopted 
on his authority. And secondly, of perverting facts and of " garbling 
authorities and cooking maps," to quote his own inelegant, but char- 
acteristic words. 

To the first of these unbecoming accusations, that of " private 
griefs," sufficient refutation may be found in the publication in the Jan- 
uary, 1881, number of this Magazine (VI. 78) of the memorial notice of 
Mr. Benedict, read before the New York Historical Society by Mr. 
George F. Betts, of which a copy was furnished for publication, at the 
writer's request. The absurdity of Mr. Benedict's charge, that " Mr. 
Stevens has gone awkwardly out of his way to throw discredit on the 
history of Mrs. Lamb," requires but a passing notice. If the editor of 
a magazine of this character has one duty which more than all others 
he owes to the public, it is to preserve the- truth of history, to notice 
and condemn all departure from recognized authority not warranted by 
fact and supported by evidence. The truth of American history has 
already suffered enough from the careless and sentimental treatment 
which sacrifices facts for picturesque effects. Mr. Benedict, in his 
defense of Mrs. Lamb, his sole convert to his new version, brings for- 
ward no unfamiliar contemporaneous material. A critical examination 
of his argument, which is in the nature of a special plea, will show that 
no point made in Mr. Jay's address or the writer's review has been suc- 
cessfully controverted, while he displays a lamentable ignorance of the 
topography and roads of the island. As to the charge that "a garbled 
and cooked copy " of a map was substituted for and called the original 



262 NEW VERSION OF THE BATTLE OF HARLEM PLAINS 

" Sauthier Map " in the Magazine article, it is only necessary to say 
that it is without foundation. The reduction of the map in the Jay 
appendix and the tracing in the May number of this Magazine, are both 
from the same print, well known and accessible. 

The barracks, alluded to as " built and burned by the Americans," 
were not " the barracks built " and burned by the Americans near Fort 
Washington, as disingenuously stated by Mr. Benedict, but the bar- 
racks marked "a" on Sauthier's map upon Harlem Plains, between the 
Point of Rocks and McGowan's Pass. Their presence on Sauthier's 
map is conclusive evidence that the Americans held these plains until 
the movement of the British to Frog's Point in October, a fact which 
Mr. Benedict persistently evades, because it is fatal to his theory. 

The main point at issue is as to the locality of the scene of the action. 
The entire fighting, according to all other authorities, occurred on Van- 
dewater heights, south of the Hollow Way. Mr. Benedict places it 
on Harlem Heights above. The name given, battle of Harlem Plains 
or of Harlem Heights, is immaterial. All the heights were parts of 
Harlem Heights, whether Vandewater heights, Hoogland's hill or 
Morris heights above. The true name would be the battle of Harlem. 

The meagre appendix contains the only new material — four letters, 
addressed to Mr. Benedict, from persons residing in the upper part of 
the island, as to the discovery of military relics on this historic ground,, 
and a curious letter from one Humphrey Jones, a Western farmer, who, 
in 1822, when a lad of ten years of age, was informed by his father 
concerning the battle. He says : " My father at one time lived at Man- 
hattanville, and has shown me the battle ground. It commenced on 
the hill near the Asylum, and the Americans drove the British up the 
road and down the hill, often called by the name of Breakneck Hill. 
The old gentleman used to say that was the reason they called it Break- 
neck Hill." This is precisely the spot on which Mr. Jay located the 
engagement. The stand from which he delivered his address was 
directly in the rear and east of the Asylum. The Breakneck Hill 
referred to was the steep descent of road leading from Vandewater's 
Heights, near the Leake and Watts Asylum, down to the Kingsbridge 
road in the plains. This is definitely settled by the deed (Liber 52 of 
Con., p. 30, N. Y.) quoted by Mr. Benedict, and well known to the writer 
long before this issue was raised. It conveys a portion of the ancient 
Kortright farm on the Harlem Plains, and mentions Breakneck Hill. 
Colonel Thomas F. Devoe has shown conclusively when the modern 
Breakneck Hill at 143d street received its name. Mr. Benedict's anti- 



NEW VERSION OF THE BATTLE OF HARLEM PLAINS 263 

quarian knowledge was as much at fault in his reference to the northern 
coach as in that to the location of the Breakneck Hill of the Revolution. 
The curious in such matters are referred to the advertisement of Tal- 
mage Hall, who opened the Morris House on Harlem Heights, 23d 
May, 1785, for the accommodation of the eastern and northern stages. 
Both these conveyances crossed the Harlem River at Kingsbridge. 
There was no Harlem bridge at the time Mr. Benedict asserts, and the 
Harlem stage never took the Bloomingdale road over Vandewater 
heights. 

It is a painful task to notice with animadversion the utterances of 
one whose lips death has sealed, but self-respect compels a refutation 
of such groundless and malicious charges as this posthumous pamphlet 
contains. 

This question of locality should be now settled in a manner which 
will admit of no future doubt. The characteristics of the landscape 
are as yet unchanged, and the rock on Morning Side Park is sufficiently 
near to indicate the spot where the action occurred. At the time of 
the celebration in 1876 the Committee of the New York Historical 
Society proposed that a memorial inscription be made at this point, but 
the work on the park was not sufficiently advanced for any decided 
action. Now that historic sites are the subject of care by the General 
Government, State Legislatures and City authorities, this should not 
be neglected. No elaborate monument is needed, but a simple inscrip- 
tion, cut on the face of the rock, will serve to point out to the genera- 
tions which come after us this the scene of one of the most interesting 
events of our revolutionary struggle. 

JOHN AUSTIN STEVENS 

1 The Battle of Harlem Heights, September 16, 1776, read before the New York Historical 
Society February 5, 1878, with a preface and notes, by Erastus C. Benedict. Published by A. S. 
Barnes & Co., New York. 



WILLIAM SMITH 

JUDGE OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE PROVINCE OF NEW YORK 

William Smith, ancestor of the New York colonial family of Smith, 
made illustrious in the persons of Judge and Chief Justice Smith, served 
in the army of the Commonwealth. At the close of the great civil war 
he removed from his birth-place and residence in the Isle of Ely, Cam- 
bridgeshire, England, and settled at Newport Pagnell, Buckingham- 
shire, where he died about 1682. His wife, Elizabeth (Hartley), whom 
he married 4th September, 1661, lived until 1710, and was buried in the 
same grave with her husband in the aisle, on the south side of the font, 
of the parish church, Newport Pagnell. 

James Hartley, the father of Elizabeth, was a younger son of William 
Hartley of Strangwicke Hall, the chief of one of the most ancient fam- 
ilies of Lancashire. He (James Hartley) died 27th June, 1666, aged 63, 
at the same time with his wife, both victims of the plague which visited 
Newport Pagnell that summer. They were buried together in the 
parish church, and in the same aisle in which their daughter and son-in- 
law were afterwards laid to rest. Beneath the surrounding stones lie 
the bodies of many of the Hartley family. Among the memorial tab- 
lets was one " To the memory of James Hartley, who departed this life 
27 June, 1666. Aged 63. 

No epitaph can make 
The just man famed 
The good are praised 
When they are only named." 

At the west end of the Hartley aisle, chained to a desk, were three vol- 
umes, the Lives of the Martyrs, with a Latin inscription, signifying that 
these books were the gift of William Hartley in 161 2. 

William and Elizabeth Smith had issue five sons and one daughter: 
William, James, John, Samuel, Thomas, the father of the subject of 
the present sketch, and Christiana, who died young (see notes to this 
article, I to V). 

Judge William Smith, the subject of the present sketch, was the 
eldest son of Thomas and Susanna (Odell) Smith. He was born at New- 
port Pagnell, England, on the 8th October, 1697, old style, and died in 
the city of New York 22d November, 1769. He studied the classics 



WILLIAM SMITH 265 

under the Rev. Mr. Stannard, minister at Simpson, and Mr. Wood- 
ward of Newport, and the sciences under Mr. Litten of the latter 
place. With his father's family he arrived in New York 17th August, 
1715, and shortly afterwards entered Yale College, where he was 
graduated in 17 19, and from which college he received the degree of 
A. M. 12th September, 1722. At this period his inclinations, in which 
he was encouraged by his father, would have led him to devote himself 
to the church, but whatever profession was selected, he was bent upon 
pursuing his studies. The city of New York offered few facilities to a 
student, and returning to New Haven, Mr. Smith accepted the position 
of tutor or professor — he is mentioned by both names, although on the 
college catalogue entered simply as tutor — and acted as such from 1722 
to 1724. Although but twenty-seven years of age, such was his reputa- 
tion as a classical and theological student, so pure was his life, that he 
was offered the presidency of the college, made vacant by the retire- 
ment of the Rev. Dr. Cutler. The tempting offer was declined. Of 
the dead languages, Greek and Hebrew were his favorites, in both 
of which he was a ripe scholar ; but the law presenting attractions which 
were irresistible, every spare moment was devoted to its study. 
Happily he found in New Haven wise counselors, and in his father an 
indulgent parent, who imported for him books of study and of refer- 
ence, which were not to be had in the colonies. He was admitted to 
the bar 20th May, 1724, and on the 20th July following began to prac- 
tice as a lawyer in the city of New York. He rose rapidly to eminence. 
Few cases of importance came before the courts in which William 
Smith was not retained, generally on the Whig side. His life, which 
remains yet to be written, is interwoven with the political and legal his- 
tory of the times. Here but an outline can be drawn, with brief allu- 
sions to those prominent events which influenced his political career ; 
the first of which raised him while still a young man to the highest 
pinnacle of popular esteem. 

In August, 1733, James Alexander (who is said to have come to 
America in the same vessel with Mr. Smith) and Mr. Smith, having been 
retained by Van Dam in his defense against Governor Cosby, took 
exception to the composition of the Supreme Court, arguing that 
Messrs. De Lancey and Philipse were not legally entitled to seats, the 
law not having been properly complied with in their appointment. 
The plea gave great offense, and was never forgiven by the Court 
party. In April, 1735, the same gentlemen represented John Peter 
Zenger, editor of the popular New York Weekly Journal ; Mr. De 



266 WILLIAM SMITH 

Lancey having in the meantime been promoted as Chief Justice in the 
room of the distinguished Justice Morris, and Mr. Philipse advanced to 
the second place. Again exception was taken to the composition of the 
court. The Judges refused to allow or hear the exceptions argued, the 
Chief Justice in great heat exclaiming, " You have brought it to that 
point that either we must go from the bench or you from the bar." The 
counsel refused to withdraw their plea, and boldly stood on their rights ; 
thereupon, 16th April, 1735, an order was issued striking the names of 
James Alexander and William Smith from the list of attorneys. 
Mr. Van Dam and Zenger, the printer, had in the opinion of the 
great mass of the population of the province been unjustly and harshly 
dealt with ; the treatment of the two popular lawyers added fuel 
to the existing excitement. Both were gentlemen of the highest social 
position, of large means, of great private and public influence, and were 
supported by most of the influential families of the province. The 
party in power soon found that they had gone too far; in gratifying 
personal revenge and jealousy they had weakened themselves and 
strengthened the opposition. Justly did Gouverneur Morris declare 
that "the trial of Zenger in 1735 was the germ of American Freedom.'* 
There was, moreover, a disturbing doubt whether the angry Justices 
had not rendered themselves liable to personal damages. Neither 
Smith nor Alexander condescended to withdraw from the position 
taken. Worst of all, the Judges were taunted with ignorance of the 
law, and mortified by the ridicule of the opposition — ridicule that still 
survives in the pages of Smith's History of the Province of New York. 
In 1737 advances were made to the two lawyers, which, being frankly 
met, the order depriving them was cancelled upon the condition that 
they should forego any right of action for civil damages. To assist his 
party friends and to strengthen the popular cause, William Smith 
accepted, 29th September, 1736, the office of recorder under Mr. Van 
Dam. With this sole exception, until 175 1, he kept aloof from official 
employment, confining himself strictly to his profession and his duties 
as a citizen. 

Mr. Smith was appointed, 1748, in Governor Belcher's charter one 
of the incorporators of the College of New Jersey at Princeton, and is 
believed to have been also a trustee under the charter given by John 
Hamilton, President of the Council, in 1746. The historian of the col- 
lege, President Maclean, inclines to the belief that William Smith pre- 
pared the first charter, and also the rough draft of the second one. He 
says of him that " to the end of his life he was the earnest friend of the 



WILLIAM SMITH 26j 

college, and one of the most honored and influential members of the 
board." Many of his immediate descendants, sons and grandchildren, 
were graduated at Princeton. 

The indifference of the people of New York to their lack of facilities 
for education was, as it had formerly been to his father, a matter of sur- 
prise and solicitude to Mr. Smith. With the exception of those in holy 
orders, there are found in New York, during a period of many years, 
but two college graduates, natives of the province, Lieutenant-Governor 
De Lancey of Cambridge, England, and Judge Smith of Yale. In the 
city of New York the classical schoolmaster was left to starve. Judge 
Smith and his brothers had been forced to seek competent teachers in 
neighboring provinces ; his sons were sent to Yale, to Princeton and to 
Europe. To their regret, other gentlemen of English origin, whose 
numbers were now rapidly increasing, were compelled to pursue the 
same course. As the worthy Dutch burghers, notwithstanding their 
wealth, would not support a pedagogue by their voluntary contri- 
butions, William Smith, William Alexander and some of the Morris 
family in 1732 petitioned the Assembly to establish a free school for 
teaching Latin, Greek and mathematics. The petition having been 
favorably received, the school was established the same year, under the 
care of Alexander Malcolm. A commencement had been made, but 
much more must be done, and that promptly ; something more than a 
grammar school was a necessity. As might be expected, William Smith 
is found foremost among the founders of King's College. With a liber- 
.ality beyond the age, his wish was that the institution should be free 
from sectarian bias ; in this expectation funds were easily collected by 
lotteries, and a yearly grant was promised by the Legislature. In 
November, 175 1, trustees were appointed, composed, ex-officio, of 
Civil Magistrates, and James and William Livingston and Benjamin 
Nicoll. Presently it became apparent that the Court party purposed 
to divert the control of the college to the Episcopalians. The people 
took alarm, the press clamored in vain. Although the popular party 
represented nine-tenths of the population, they were overruled. Mr. 
De Lancey gained his point, but lost his popularity. There was 
no redress, except for the Assembly to withdraw a moiety of the 
funds collected, but this to the College was of little moment. Party 
spirit had been aroused. Trinity Church made a magnificent gift 
of real estate ; wealthy Episcopalians, at home and abroad, furnished 
ready money. What at this time appears to be of little or no moment 
was at that period an absorbing political question. Well might the 



268 WILLIAM SMITH 

Presbyterians dread the power of the Church of England, and 
resist what in their estimation became an entering wedge against 
their dearly won privileges. Their hard experience in England and 
Scotland was fresh in men's minds. The immense number of Scottish 
emigrants from the north of Ireland, driven out by persecution, mor- 
ally and physically a splendid race, could not forget their sufferings ; 
most of all, could not forget the prelatist taunt that their offspring were 
bastards. As the Romanists denied the validity of Episcopal orders in 
the Church of England, so, in turn, the Irish Church establishment 
proclaimed that no apostolic power existed in a Presbyterian ministry 
to legally bind in wedlock. Unhappily they possessed the temporal 
authority to enforce their doctrine, and at times the home government 
lent their sanction to the monstrous claim. In Ireland, for many years, 
in the eye of the law the Romanist and Presbyterian stood on the same 
ground; neither were acknowledged, both were permitted to exist. 
The dominant Church, however, conceded to a foreign priesthood the 
miraculous gift to bind, if not to loose, but denied that the power could 
exist in a Presbyterian ministry. The pauper, peasant, perhaps disso- 
lute priest, in virtue of his office possessed what the learned, pious, 
perhaps nobly born Presbyterian divine could never attain to. The 
lowest of the one was more exalted by the Anglo-Irish Church than 
the highest of , the other. In Great Britain, Presbyterian honor had 
asserted itself with the sword ; their rights were secured by Parliament. 
In Ireland their congregations were at the mercy of an intolerant clergy. 
Priestly folly, the curse of the lovely isle, forced her hardy population 
to seek refuge in America. The Presbyterian refugees certainly pre- 
cipitated, perhaps turned the tide of war which gave freedom to a 
continent. 

In former days many of the great nobles, with some few of the 
clergy — Knox, Bishop of Rappo ; Dr. Usher, Primate of Armagh, who 
is styled in Wadrow's Biographies " not only ane learned, but ane 
godly man, although ane bishop," with some others, had protected the 
Presbyterians against the hostility of the Church. Old friends removed 
by death were not replaced by new ones, or the sympathy which 
is accompanied by active aid was withheld, because of the Jacobite 
principles attributed to the Scotch and Irish Presbyterians. The 
refuge America extended was more and more availed of. Each vessel 
that arrived at New York added strength to the national party, and 
rendered the Court clique more impotent of harm ; the brief " Golden 
Age " of the Tories was passing away. Presently, as the High 



WILLIAM SMITH 269 

Church Tories, with increasing wealth, increased their pretensions, 
prominent men in neighboring Connecticut were heard to say in 
public, that "another Oliver might arise," and soon after, as Dr. Peters 
records, the fame of Governor Tryon was increased, because he was 
reported to have recommended to the British Ministry the Presbyterian 
Livingstons and Smiths, with the Dutch Schuylers, as the best subjects 
in New York. These were men who could neither be bought, flat- 
tered nor terrified. As Englishmen, they would have their rights, and 
in the end were justified and honored both at home and in England ; 
and this too, whether in the approaching struggle they adhered to the 
mother country or to the colonies. 

In 1754 Messrs. Smith, Philip Livingston, William Alexander (Lord 
Stirling), Robert R. Livingston (the Chancellor), William Livingston 
(Governor of New Jersey), John Morin Scott and others, assembled at 
the residence of one of their number, believed to have been that of 
William Smith, arranged a plan for a public library, and collected for 
the purpose £600, with which to make a beginning. Under Governor 
Tryon a charter was obtained. The library then founded is now repre- 
sented by the New York Society Library. 

In 1 75 1 William Smith was appointed by Clinton, Governor of the 
province, without solicitation on his part and in most flattering terms, 
Attorney General and Advocate General, and was sworn in 31st 
August, 1752. The same year he was recommended to the seat in the 
Council made vacant by the death of Sir Peter Warren. The Gover- 
nor's letter, addressed to the Lords of Trade, and dated 24th October, 
1752, adds the significant testimony, that Mr. Smith was "the only 
lawyer who would and did consent to prosecute Mr. Oliver De Lancey, 
brother of the Chief Justice." That the " Golden Age " was then at its 
prime is shown by the fact that the recommendation of Governor 
Clinton to remove Chief Justice De Lancey from his office was not 
complied with by the home government. Pursuant to a mandamus of 
the King, William Smith was sworn in on the 30th day of April, 1753. 
Singularly enough, among his unsuccessful competitors for the office 
is found this same Mr. Oliver De Lancey. Mr. Smith remained a 
member of the Council until shortly before his death, when he was 
succeeded by his eldest son. 

In 1754 Mr. Smith was appointed one of the four representatives 
from the Province of New York to the General Congress which met at 
Albany, and was the representative of the province to propose and 
receive plans for the Union of the colonies under one Government. 



270 WILLIAM SMITH 

A few years later, 1760, he was offered by Lieutenant-Governor Colden, 
and declined, the office of Chief Justice, made vacant by the death of 
Mr. De Lancey. The offer was the more complimentary as it was made 
over the heads of three existing justices, Messrs. Chambers, Hors- 
manden and Jones. 

In 1763 Mr. Smith accepted the appointment of Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the Province, and retained the office until his 
death. 

Judge Smith was all his life a hard student. His learning and accom- 
plishments were as thorough as they were varied. He was an excel- 
lent linguist, a theologian, a good mathematician and possessed some 
scientific knowledge. As a lawyer he stood among the highest in the 
provinces, and both as lawyer and judge was conscientious and pains- 
taking. In every sense an Englishman, he possessed in an eminent 
degree that best of English qualities, an inbred determination to resist 
oppression and tyranny, whether exerted against himself or against his 
neighbor. Too late Great Britain acknowledged that men like him 
were, in the colonies, equally as at home her most desirable subjects. 
His person was commanding, his countenance full of intelligence ; he 
possessed a strong constitution and uninterrupted good health. With 
unusual natural and acquired advantages, he was also endowed with a 
rare fluency of speech, a lively imagination, a most retentive memory 
and real eloquence. An obituary notice in the New York Gazette of 
27th November, 1769, admits him to have been the most eloquent 
speaker in the province ; in all of the provinces would have been equally 
correct. Whatever work Judge Smith undertook it became to him a 
pleasure, as well as a duty, to perform it thoroughly. But one portrait 
of the Judge is known to the writer to be in existence ; this, painted 
by Wollaston in 1751, is preserved among his descendants in Quebec, 
Canada. From it the etching which accompanies this sketch has been 
taken. 

Judge William Smith was twice married ; first by the Rev. Mr. 
David de Bonrepos, minister of the French congregation on Staten 
Island, the service being performed in the French language, on the nth 
of May, 1727, to Mary, daughter of Rene and Blanche (Du Bois) Het 
(see N. Y. G. and B. Record, 1880, p. 144, and Hist. Mag., 1868, p. 266, 
for some particulars of the Het family), by whom he had fifteen chil- 
dren. Mrs. Smith was born in the city of New York, 24th May, 17 10, 
died 22d August, 1754, and was buried in the aisle of the Old South 
Church. Judge Smith married secondly on the 12th May, 1761, Mrs. 



WILLIAM SMITH 2J I 

Elizabeth Williams, widow of Colonel Elisha Williams of England, and 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Thomas Scott of Nithern, Herefordshire, 
England, and later of Norwich, where he died about 1747. Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Smith was born 17th October, 1708, and came to America with her 
husband, Colonel Williams, in 175 1. The Historical Magazine, 1868, p. 
267, states that, after the death of Judge Smith, his widow "returned 
to Wethersfield, and died there in the sixty-eighth year of her age." 
She had no issue by Judge Smith. 

The children of Judge and Mary Smith were all well educated. 
They were proficient in French and Dutch, and possessed for the period 
and city in which they lived an unusual knowledge of English litera- 
ture. The sons were familiar with the Greek and Latin classics; two, 
if not more of them, were good Hebrew scholars. They were edu- 
cated in the Presbyterian faith, and were prominent members of that 
church. All adhered to the Republican party, and held to their father's 
conviction that as Englishmen, although born in the provinces, they 
were entitled to all and every one of the privileges and immunities 
enjoyed by their cousins at home. They were among and well repre- 
sented the descendants of those who had curbed the tyranny of Charles 
the First. 

As a family they were, by birth and training, tolerant of the 
religious convictions of others, and for this very reason were the more 
prone to take alarm at the very shadow of Tory and priestly practices 
as they spread over the new England and were fostered by some of the 
Governors. In opposition to the Court party of the several local govern- 
ments, they warmly supported their father's views, to strengthen the 
country by the union of the colonies under one general government. 
Faithful to the British Constitution, they were aware of its faults, and 
believed that upon its model one more just and sound might be 
devised for the new English country. In this they anticipated some of 
the reforms which the people of England in after years added to their 
liberties, 

MATURIN L. DELAFIELD 



I. William Smith, known as " Port Royal Smith," and also as the " Uncle," 
to distinguish him from his nephew, Judge William Smith. Of his life and issue 
an account is given in the N. Y. G. and B. Record, Vol. X., p. 32. He died in 
New York City, 15th October, 1736, of apoplexy, cet. 74, leaving a grandson and 
heir William Peartree Smith. 



2/2 WILLIAM SMITH 

II. James remained and died in England ; residing at Passenham, near 
Stoney Stratford, Buckinghamshire. He married and left sons and daughters. 

III. John emigrated to New York, where he married and lived many years. 
About the year 17 14, he returned to England and died there, leaving a family in 
New York. Nothing is ascertained with certainty in regard to his issue. William t 
Smith, a " cousin" of the judge and of the Rev. John Smith, whose death is re- 
corded as having occurred 7th February, 1728, aged 30 years, may have been a 
son of his. 

IV. Samuel settled in Jamaica, West Indies, probably moving there at the 
same time with his eldest brother, " Port Royal " Smith. He married in the Island, 
and died there soon afterwards, cet. twenty-seven years. 

V. Thomas, the youngest son, was born at Newport Pagnell, 18th Septem- 
ber, 1675. He survived all of his brothers and his sister, and died in New York 
14th November, 1745, and was buried at the plantation of his son Thomas, in 
Smith's Clove, Orange County, New York. Thomas married in England, 13th 
May, 1696, Susanna, second daughter of Thomas and Christiana Odell, of North- 
field Meadows, Buckinghamshire, in which parish Mr. Odell owned a large estate, 
besides other landed property elsewhere. Thomas Odell died 13th May, 1698, 
aged 47 years ; his wife, Christiana, died 7th July of the same year. Besides 
Susanna, married to Thomas Smith, they had a daughter Mary, who died unmar- 
ried, and two sons — John, who died in infancy at Newport Pagnell, and Thomas, 
who when of age inherited the Odell estates. This gentleman, "falling into grand 
company, and being a very agreeable person of wit and humor, was much solicited 
by the nobility and gentry, which took off his attention from his own affairs. He 
soon spent his estate and afterwards obtained a small office under the Duke of 
Grafton, the Lord Chamberlain, of ^200 a year. He married the daughter of Sir 
Richard Everitt, and died, as I have heard, in 1749, leaving a daughter Penelope. 
Thomas Odell, the father, was buried under his seat in the church at Simpson ; 
Christiana, his wife, John their son, Mary their eldest daughter, and Odell Smith, 
the youngest son of Thomas Smith and Susanna, his wife, lie buried in the church 
yard, before the South Porch of the same church and thereabouts, and in the 
church lie the dust of a train of ancestors, who have died in succession through 
many years." (From a note prepared by Chief Justice Wm. Smith, dated 9th De- 
cember, 1796.) 

Christiana, the wife of Thomas Odell, was a daughter of John Goodman, of 
Simpson, four miles from Newport Pagnell. Mr. Goodman possessed an immense 
estate in Buckinghamshire, transmitted, as was claimed, from the time of William 
the Conqueror, from father to son, the heirs with rare exceptions bearing alter- 
nately the names of Richard and John. 

Thomas Smith also emigrated from England, but at a much more advanced 
age than his brothers. He sailed from London on the 24th May, 17 15, with his 
wife and three sons, arriving in New York on the 17th of August following, bring- 



WILLIAM SMITH 273 

ing with him if not wealth, at least a considerable fortune ; a fortune sufficient to 
place him immediately among the substantial citizens of New York. His new 
home offered many attractions ; still two things, in his opinion of vital importance, 
were wanting : schools or teachers to educate his sons, and the Communion of the 
Presbyterian faith. The first want Mrs. Smith and himself did in part replace, 
with the occasional aid, as is believed, of a tutor from New England ; the second 
he resolved should not be of long continuance. Almost immediately upon his ar- 
rival, Mr. Smith employed himself in gathering together the members of his church, 
many of whom had previously, as they continued to do when absent from New 
York, worshipped with the Dutch congregation. He has the honor of being one 
of the founders of the First Presbyterian Church in New York. As early as 
October, 17 16, a congregation, presided over by a resident minister, was assembled 
in the City Hall, and after 17 19 in their own building in Wall street, a church built 
upon ground purchased and held in the names of Dr. John Nicoll, Patrick 
M'Knight, Gilbert Livingston and Thomas Smith. In 1722 a part of the congre- 
gation, under the leadership of Thomas Smith, withdrew for a short period from 
the Wall Street congregation, and called the excellent Jonathan Edwards as their 
pastor. During the eight months of his ministry, his home was at the house of 
Thomas Smith; of his intimacy with the family, some account is given in 
Edwards' own words, in the sketch of the life of the Rev. John Smith, which 
appears in the appendix to this article. 

As old age approached Mr. and Mrs. Smith appear to have longed to return 
to the mother country and the bright fields of old England. With this in view, and 
intending to purchase an estate near Guilford, Mrs. Smith sailed in the Rebecca, 
Captain Banks, 7th December, 1728, and landed in England on the 15th of Janu- 
ary following. At London she was taken ill and died there on the 9th of March, 
1729, in the fifty-second year of her age. She was buried in the Church of St. 
Botolph, Aldersgate. 

Thomas and Susanna Smith had issue four sons and several daughters. 1, 
William (the judge) ; 2, Thomas ; 3, John ; 4, Odell ; Elizabeth and Martha, of 
whom some account appears in the appendix. 

Note — In the possession of the Penn. Hist. Society there is a bound volume 
of the New York Weekly Post, 1744 to 1746, in which is found the book plate of 
William Peartree Smith. The arms and crest are the same as those upon the seal 
and book plate of Chief Justice Smith, the latter of which is here reproduced, but 
it has for motto Deus Nobis Haec Otia Fecit ; a worthy device for an expatriated 
family which had served in the army of the Parliament. Beneath is the name, 
William P. Smith, A. M. This Mr. Smith was the only grandson and surviving 
issue of William (Port Royal) Smith, and inherited the estate of his grandfather. 
His father, also William, who died probably 7th February, 1728 (?) was first cousin 
to the Colonial Judge William Smith. According to the excellent genealogy of 



274 



WILLIAM SMITH 



this branch of the family by T. H. Montgomery, Esq., in the N. Y. Genea- 
logical and Biographical Record, 1879, page 32, William P. Smith was born 
in 1723, and died 20th November, 1801, and on the same authority, this 
the eldest branch of the American Smiths appears to be now extinct in the 
male line. 




ARMS OF SMITH 



APPENDIX 



275 



APPENDIX 

IMMEDIATE FAMILY OF JUDGE 
WILLIAM SMITH 

Thomas Smith, the second son of Thomas 
and Susanna Smith, was a farmer. But little 
authentic information has been obtained of him. 
He is said to have been a man of education, as 
indeed could hardly have been otherwise, con- 
sidering the surroundings of his youth ; and is 
believed to have entered Yale College, but his 
name does not appear in the catalogue of gradu- 
ates. He owned property in or near New York 
City, and a large tract of land, which, or a part 
of which, appears to have originally belonged to 
his father, in what was then, from this family, 
known as Smith's Clove, the present town of 
Monroe, Orange County. It is recorded in the 
handwriting of his brother, the judge, under 
date of 25th January, 1725, that on that day 
Thomas announced his engagement to Miss 
Hannah Hooker, and another note states that 
Thomas' daughter Sadie, died 14th September, 
1729, aged 25 months. Miss Hooker, the in- 
tended bride of Thomas, is called cousin by the 
judge, and may have been a sister of Mehetabel 
Hooker, who had married the Rev. John Smith, 
and possibly a grandchild of the John Smith, 
who in 1714 returned to England, leaving his 
family in New York. During the Revolution 
descendants of Thomas Smith are mentioned as 
living in Smith's Clove. 

John Smith (Rev'd), the third son of Thomas 
and Susanna Smith, born 5th May, 1702, at New- 
port Pagnell ; died at White Plains, Westchester 
County, 26th February, 1771. He was graduated 
at Yale College 1727, where in addition to his 
other duties, he occupied himself with the study 
of divinity and of the healing art, then or at a later 
period receiving the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine. Among the papers of his brother, the judge, 
is found the statement, that while still an under- 
graduate, brother John married at Guilford, 
Conn., 6th May, 1724 ; we are left in doubt as 
to the name of the lady ; but of his family, we 
find that a son was born to him 22d March, 1725, 
that his daughter Molly, aged 17 months, died 
3d September, 1729, and that a son John died 
24th September of the same year, at Guilford. 



At this place he appears to have chiefly resided, 
for several years practicing there as a physician, 
but also at times in New York occupied with his 
profession. From this period his life and labors 
are traced by the Rev. Dr. Charles W. Baird, in 
his admirable History of Rye, from which the [ 
following is condensed. On the 13th December, 
1742, Dr. Smith was ordained by a council of 
the Eastern Consociation of Fairfield County, 
which met at Rye. as minister of that place ; 
here he removed his family and purchased a 
house, to the no small chagrin and displeasure of 
the Church of England missionary, who plain- 
tively records the thoroughness with which the 
new minister entered upon his labors and in- 
creased his following. At a later period the 
churches at White Plains and also at Sing Sing 
were put under his pastoral care ; he removed to 
the former village and continued, as he had 
done at Rye, to practice, when occasion required, 
as a physician to the suffering body as well as to 
the troubled soul. The authority already quoted 
gives Dr. Smith high rank as an " able, earnest 
and influential minister of the Gospel," as "a 
man of eminent piety, and of a very high order 
of intellectual capacity." His father, Thomas 
Smith, as previously stated, had been one of the 
founders of the Wall Street or First Presbyterian 
Church in New York City, and was among those 
who in the trouble of 1722 withdrew from the 
congregation and called Jonathan Edwards to 
preside over the flock. The famous preacher 
made his home in the house and with the family 
of Thomas Smith. " Edwards was then barely 
nineteen years of age, and John Smith but a 
little over twenty, and between those two young 
men there sprang up a friendship the most inti- 
mate and ardent ; which we have reason to be- 
lieve lasted for years and perhaps through life. 
They used often, Mr. Edwards tells us, to walk 
together on the banks of the Hudson, to con- 
verse on the things of God, ' and our conversa- 
tion used to turn on the advancement of Christ's 
kingdom in the world and the glorious things 
that God would accomplish for his church in the 
latter days.' He speaks of his separation from 
his endeared friend and companion as one of the 
most bitter trials of his life " (History of Rye by 
Rev. Dr. Baird, p. 331). After nearly thirty 



2j6 



APPENDIX 



years of labor in the ministry Dr. Smith fell 
asleep among his people at White Plains, and 
was buried in the grave-yard of his church. 

During the recent enlargement of the church, 
the rear of the building was extended over the 
grave and the upright slab removed further 
back ; the inscription kindly copied by the 
present incumbent, the Rev. Mr. Heermance, is 
as follows : 

Here Lies the Remains of the Revd 

John Smith the First ordained Minister 

Of the Presbyterian Persuasion in Rye 

& the White Plains. Who was born in 

England May 5 : 1702 : Wore out with 

Various Labors & Fell asleep In Jesus 

Deceased Feby. 26, 1771 : Aged 68 Years : 9 Months & 

22 days. 

By Faith He Lived In Faith He Died & Faith 

Forsees a Rising Day when Jesus Comes While 

Hope Assumes & Boasts His Joy Among the 

Tombs O Death O Grave Where Is Thy Victory 

Thanks be to God which Giveth us the 

Victory Through our Lord Jesus Christ 

Near by are tombstones to the memory of his 
wife and of two daughters. 

The History of Rye so freely used in prepar- 
ing the above sketch gives the marriage of the 
Rev. John Smith as obtained from papers in the 
possession of his descendants. He married 6th 
May, 1724 (the same date as given in Judge 
Smith's memorandum) Mehetabel, daughter of 
James and Mary Hooker, of Guilford — her 
father being " a son of the Rev. Samuel Hooker 
and grandson of the famous Thomas Hooker." 
They had issue four sons and eight daughters, 
whose descendants are said to be numerous. 
Mrs. Smith died as appears from her tombstone 
Sept. 5, 1775, aged 71 years, 4 months and 5 
days. One of the daughters, Susanna, married 
the Rev. Mr. Benjamin Tallmadge, of Brook- 
haven, L. L, and was the mother of Colonel 
Benjamin Tallmadge. 

Odell Smith died young and was buried at 
Simpson as already stated. 

The daughters of Thomas Smith and Susanna 
Smith all remained and died in England. 

Elizabeth, the third daughter, married 
Thomas Herbert, of Acton, Buckinghamshire, 
and had Thomas and others. 

Martha, the fourth daughter, married Ed- 
mund Roberts, of Elrington, near Leighton 



Buzzard, Bucks and had Edmund, Thomas, 
John and perhaps others. 

DESCENDANTS OF JUDGE WILLIAM 
AND MARY SMITH 

William Smith, Chief Justice of New York 
and of Canada (known as the Historian), born 
18th June, 1728. His life will make the subject 
of a separate paper. 

Susanna Smith, born 24th December, 1729 ; 
died 20th March, 1791 ; married 14th Septem- 
ber, 1747, Robert James Livingston, merchant 
of New York (born 15th February, 1725 ; died 
25th January, 1771), the eldest son of James and 
Maria (Kierstedt) Livingston, the feudal head or 
chief in descent of that family in America ; and 
had ten children. As doubly first cousins to the 
children of Chief Justice Smith, a short account 
of their lives is given. 

Mary Livingston, born 7th June, 1748, in New York 
City ; died in London 6th January, 1830. She married, 
first, license dated 29th October, 1765, Captain Gabriel 
Maturin, who died in Boston, about 1774-6. Captain 
Maturin entered the British service 12th April, 1756, as a 
Lieutenant in the 35th Regiment, was promoted Captain 
1764, and in 1768 transferred to the 31st Foot. He was 
appointed military and private Secretary to Sir Guy 
Carleton, Governor of Canada. Sir Guy returning to 
England, Captain Maturin, then in New York, was sum- 
moned to Canada and ordered to replace his chief in im- 
portant military duties. His wife and a younger sister, 
Susanna, afterwards Mrs. Armstrong, accompanied him 
in his northern journey. Mrs. Maturin married, secondly, 
Dr. Jonathan Mallet, an Englishman, who had settled in 
New York, sometime prior to the revolution. His first 
wife, Miss Catherine Kennedy, whom he had married 
about June, 1765, license dated 13th of that month, died 
in New York 3d September, 1777 (N. Y. Gazette, 8th 
September, 1777), leaving three children. 

Dr. Mallet's residence, which he had built adjoining 
the Kennedy house in Broadway, is reported as having 
been occupied by the British troops at the commencement 
of the war. (Note 1.) He appears to have been the 
fashionable and one of the most successful of the 
physicians of the period, and is described as an educated 
and very agreeable man. During the war, 1776, to 1782, 
he was Surgeon, for part of the time Chief Surgeon, and 
Purveyor to the hospitals for his Majesty's forces in 
America. In 1783 his name appears in the army lists as 
Chief Purveyor only, and the following year is omitted. 

A letter from Mrs. Mallet, dated 1st July, 1784, now be- 
fore the writer, tells of her arrival two days before, at 
London, with her husband and servants. After a passage 
of six weeks from New York, the Mallets, Mrs. Jauncey 
and another lady landed at Dover, where they met Lieut 
Mallet, a brother of the Doctor, who had also served in 



APPENDIX 



277 



America. At London, the Americans flocked to see 
them. Mention is made of Chief Justice Smith, of 
Thomas and Doctor James Smith, the latter in ill health, 
of Mrs. Plinderleith and her children ; of Mrs. Kennedy, 
probably her husband's mother-in-law, who was very 
kind ; of Miss Kemble, who was about returning to 
New York and would take letters. London was made 
very pleasant to Mrs. Mallet ; her husband's social 
position was excellent, old friends numerous, new ones 
very attentive. Her extraordinary beauty, which she 
retained until far advanced in life, is not only a matter 
of tradition, but is eulogized in more than one letter now 
faded and yellow with age. A portrait by Copley, taken 
about the time of her marriage with Captain Maturin and 
now in the possession of one of her nieces, justifies the 
admiration expressed by her friends for her loveliness. 
Two of her nieces, celebrated for their personal attractions 
are said to resemble her. 

In 1806 Mrs. Mallet became for the second time a 
widow, and although her thoughts turned towards her 
native land, and her letters overflow with affection for her 
kinspeople she could not separate herself from the new 
associations and her late husband's home ; there she con- 
tinued to reside until her death, which occurred 6th Jan- 
uary, 1830. Except among her immediate family who 
were a long lived race, she had survived most of her con- 
temporaries, but her interest in their children continued 
until the last. 

Mrs. Mallet had issue by neither marriage. Her step 
children, the son and two daughters of Dr. Mallet by his 
marriage with Miss Kennedy, formed her family. 

James Livingston, also called James Kierstedt Livings- 
ton, born 29th December, 1749, died unmarried 8th Feb- 
ruary, 1777, aged 27, and was interred in the burial ground 
at Princeton, N. J. Owing to an accident received in 
boyhood, he was an invalid and sufferer all his life. 

Elizabeth Livingston, born 14th September, 1751, died 
28th November, 1752. 

Elizabeth Livingston, second of the name, born 6th 
October, 1753, died 15th October, 1756. 

Colonel William Smith Livingston, born 27th August, 
1755, died 25th June, 1794, and was buried in the family 
vault of Abraham Lott, N. Y. City. Colonel Livingston 
was graduated at the College of New Jersey, 1772. At 
the commencement of the revolution he entered the army 
and held a command at the battle of Long Island, where 
he was taken prisoner. Confined for a short time in the 
Sugar House, he was paroled and soon afterwards ex- 
changed. He served throughout the war, and as Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel of Colonel Webb's regiment, greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in Rhode Island under General 
Greene. His gallantry and reckless daring gained for 
him the soubriquet of " fighting Bill," a name preserved 
in a doggerel verse of the period. Colonel Livingston 
possessed great physical strength, and shared with 
Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge the reputation of being the 
handsomest officer in the service. He married in 1774 
Catherine, daughter of Abraham and Gertrude (Cojeman) 
Lott, merchant of New York, but during the war a resi- 
dent of Beverwyck, near Morristown, N. J. Mrs. Livings- 
ton died 29th September, 1823, and was interred in the 



Livingston family vault of the Dutch Reformed Church, 
Rhinebeck. They had eleven children, of whom seven 
died in infancy. One son, William Mallet, entered the 
navy and was lost at sea, unmarried ; another son, 
Francis Armstrong, and two daughters, married and have 
left issue. To an agent from Europe who wished to 
induce them to take steps for the revival of family 
honors, now dormant, both the Colonel and his son de- 
clined taking any action ; the former making the charac- 
teristic reply, " that he preferred being an American 
citizen to being a Scotch Lord." 

Robert Livingston, born 29th August, 1757, died 8th 
September, 1757. 

Susanna Livingston, born 30th July, 1758, died at 
Trenton, N. J., 13th February, i8sr. Married by Dr. 
John Witherspoon, at Princeton, 22d August, 1782, the 
Rev. James Francis Armstrong. Dr. Armstrong was 
born 3d April, 1750 ; died 19th January, 1816. Graduated 
at College of New Jersey 1773. Trustee of the college 
from 1790 until his death. Studied divinity under Dr. 
Witherspoon, and was ordained by the Presbytery of 
New Castle January, 1778. Chaplain of the Second Mary- 
land Brigade during the revolution. Secretary of the 
Society of the Cincinnati, 1790 to 1797. Pastor of the 
First Presbyterian Church at Trenton for 30 years. His 
useful and honorable life was spent in the service of his 
Maker and of his country, ably seconded by a most 
worthy wife. Their good works, the love and respect they 
inspired in both young and old, are cherished traditions 
throughout southern New Jersey, and their memories are 
held in honorable remembrance as among the worthies of 
the revolution. They had issue six children. 

Robert James Livingston, born 5th November, 1760 ; 
died unmarried 12th April, 1827, at Grasmere, Rhinebeck, 
the residence of his brother, Peter R., and was buried in 
the family vault at Rhinebeck. He had prepared him- 
self for and had probably matriculated at the College of 
New Jersey, when the British troops overran the State. 
Young Livingston, but sixteen years of age, accidentally 
learned that the American army was in motion and was 
secretly moving upon the enemy. He left home to join 
the vanguard of the Americans, and fell severely 
wounded at the victory of Trenton. Tradition states 
that he was wounded in the first onslaught and that for a 
few moments he was in the power of the Hessians, by 
whom he was roughly used. A lady, whose name unfor- 
tunately has not been preserved, had the lad removed to 
her house, sent for his mother and kept them until he 
could be carried in safety to his home at Princeton. 
Some years later an accident caused the loss of an eye. 
He went abroad and travelled in England and France. 
In New York he and his brother the Colonel were 
among the gayest of the men of fashion of the period ; 
if somewhat wild, none the less popular, unless perhaps 
among the partisans and friends of Mayor Varick. But 
the life wearied him and he retired to his brother's seat at 
Grasmere. Fine natural abilities were sacrificed to the 
care of a farm, to his horses and gun. 

Hon. Peter R. Livingston, born 3d October, 1766 ; died 
19th January, 1847, at his residence, Grasmere, and was 
buried in the family vault of the Dutch Reformed 



278 



APPENDIX 



Church, Rhinebeck. Peter R. graduated at the College 
of New Jersey, 1784. For many years he represented 
Dutchess County in the Senate of New York, and was 
elected Speaker 7th January, 1823, and President 5th Jan- 
uary, 1828. He was a member of the Council of Appoint- 
ment under the first Constitution of the State and a 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1821. He 
married Joanna (born 14th September, 1759 ; died 1st 
March, 1829, and buried by the side of her husband), 
daughter of Judge Robert R. and Margaret (Beekman) 
Livingston. They had no issue. 

Judge Maturin Livingston, of Staatsburgh, born 10th 
April, 1769 ; died 7th November, 1847, at the residence of 
his son-in-law, Major Joseph Delafield, N. Y. City, and 
was buried in the Livingston vault of St. James' Church, 
Hyde Park. Judge Livingston graduated with the highest 
honors at the College of New Jersey, 1786 ; studied law 
and was admitted attorney ; was one of the members from 
New York to the Constitutional Convention of October, 
1801; was appointed 10th October, 1804, Recorder of the 
City of New York ; and 3d February, 1823, Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas for Dutchess County, being the 
first appointment for the county under the Constitution 
of 1821. He married 30th May, 1798, Margaret (born at 
Clermont 5th February, 1780 ; died at Staatsburgh 28th 
September, i860, and buried by the side of her husband), 
only child of Major General Morgan Lewis and his wife 
Gertrude, daughter of Judge Robert R. and Margaret 
(Beekman) Livingston. They had twelve children, all of 
whom survived their father, married, and with one ex- 
ception had ^ssue. 

Smith, still born 24th February, 1730. 

Mary Smith, born 26th March, 1732 ; mar- 
ried 13th April, 1749, J orm » son of William 
Smith, and died 12th October, 1750, leaving an 
only child, Mary, born 17th July, 1750. John 
Smith does not appear to have been any relative 
of his wife ; his father William is described in 
the N. Y. G. and B. Record, 1880, p. 145, as a 
mariner and merchant, and is styled Captain ; 
he married first Gertrude, daughter of Justus 
Bosch, by whom he had the above John and 
others, and secondly Sarah, youngest daughter of 
Joshua and Blanche Het, and hence a sister of 
Mrs. Judge William Smith. 

Sarah Smith, born 3d August, 1733 ; died 
12th October, 1815 ; married 31st October, 1755, 
Abraham Keteltas, minister of the Presbyterian 
Church at Jamaica, Long Island, and had issue. 
Thompson's History of Long Island, Vol. II., 
pp. in, 113, contains an interesting account of 
the Rev. Mr. Keteltas, and states that he had 
eleven children, of whom only one survived at 
the date of that publication. 

Thomas Smith, born nth March, 1734, gradu- 



ated at the College of New Jersey, Princeton, 
1754. Licensed attorney 4th May, 1756 (Hist. 
Mag., 1868, p. 267). He was a member of the 
Whig Club, and prominent in his opposition to 
the illegal measures of Great Britain (Note 2) ; 
was a member of the Committee of Safety of 1st 
May, 1775, and of the Provincial Congress of the 
same year. He stood well as a lawyer, and en- 
joyed a large practice, both at the bar and in the 
management of estates. He married in New 
York, 22d November, 1758, Elizabeth Leinsen, 
or Lynsen, as spelled in the Baptismal Register 
of the First Presbyterian Church, and left a 
large family (Note 3). 

Elizabeth Blanche Smith, born 13th De- 
cember, 1736 ; died nth December, 18 17 ; mar- 
ried John Torrans, a merchant, from Ireland, 
who had settled in South Carolina, and had issue. 
Mrs. Torrans' tombstone in the graveyard of the 
Circular Church, Charleston, S. C, gives her 
name as Elizabeth B. Hatter Torrans (N. Y. G. 
and B. Record, Vol. VIII. , p. 44). 

James Smith, M. D., born 13th February, 
1738; died in New York, 1812. Graduated at 
the College of New Jersey, 1757. He received 
his medical education chiefly in Europe, and 
was graduated Doctor of Medicine at Leyden. 
His published thesis for the doctorate, dated 22d 
August, 1764, was de Febribu^ Intermittentibus ; 
the only copy known to be in America is found 
in a private library in the city of New York, and 
bears the impress of Theodore Haak, 1764, Ley- 
den. "He is admitted (Dr. James Thatcher's 
Am. Medical Biog., Vol. L, p. 95) by all to have 
been eminently learned, though too theoretical 
and fanciful both as a practitioner of the healing 
art and in his course of public instruction. " Dr. 
Smith was interested in the organization of the 
medical department of King's, now Columbia, 
College, and in 1768 was appointed to the Chair of 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, but resigned his 
professorship in 1770. Although an active and 
efficient member of the Whig party, at the com- 
mencement of the revolution, Dr. Smith removed 
to London, and there continued the practice of 
his profession. Among his patients, under date 
of 6th October, 1785, we find his brother, the 
Chief Justice. A few years after the peace he 
returned to New York. The Political Maga- 



APPENDIX 



279 



zine, quoted in Smith's "Andre," is authority for 
the assertion that in London Dr. Smith was 
prominent in his devotion to his country. Jones' 
History of New York states, on the same author- 
ity, but a search has failed to identify with cer- 
tainty the passage quoted, ' ' that he was known 
in all the debating clubs for arguing against 
Great Britain in favor of America." Dr. Smith 
married (Hist. Mag., second series, Vol. IV., p. 
266), about 1765-7, Mrs. Atkinson of Kingston, 
Jamaica. 

Anne Smith, born 19th July, 1740, married 
[ ] Bostwick of New York. 

John Smith, born 20th August, 1741. Men- 
tioned in Historical Magazine, 1868, p. 266, as 
an attorney. 

Catharine Smith, born 7th April, 1743 ; died 
8th December, 1776, and was buried in the grave- 
yard of the Circular Church, Charleston, S. C. 
(N. Y. G. and B. Record, Vol. VII., p. 44). She 
married John Gordon, a Scotchman, who from 
London had removed to and settled in South 
Carolina. After Mrs. Gordon's death, and dur- 
ing or at the close of the revolutionary war. Mr. 
Gordon returned to Great Britain with his chil- 
dren, and died shortly afterwards in France, 
where he had accompanied an invalid relative. 
His children resided with and were brought up 
by their father's family. Two of his daughters, 
Mary and Jane Drummond, married brothers, 
James and Edwin Gairdner, and left issue. 

Martha Smith, born 18th June, 1744 ; mar- 
ried — license dated 30th September, 1763 — Col- 
onel Ann Hawkes Hay of the revolutionary 
army. His residence was at Fishkill, N. Y 
She left a large family. 

Samuel Smith, born 24th June, 1745 ; died, 
unmarried, at Charleston, S. C, 12th August, 
177 1, and was buried in the graveyard of the 
Circular Church there, at. 26 (N. Y. G. and B. 
Record, VII., p. 44). His share in his father's 
immense real estate, and which it was supposed 
would become of great value, he bequeathed by 
will to his sisters, Mrs. Livingston and Mrs. Hay. 
This property, for many years after the revolu- 
tion in the hands of trustees and their successors, 
was gradually dissipated, and proved of little or 
no value to the heirs. 
' Margaret Smith, born 19th September, 1747. 



She married, probably at a period subsequent to 
the execution of her father's will (her husband's 
name not appearing in the instrument, which is 
dated 24th May, 1769), Alexander Rose, a Scotch 
merchant, residing in Charleston, S. C, and had 
three sons and three daughters. 

Joshua Hett Smith, born 27th May, 17491 
died (Hist. Mag., 1868, p. 267) in New York, 
18 18. He was twice married ; first, license dated 
13th October, 1770, to Elizabeth Gordon of Bel- 
vedere, South Carolina, who died in New York, 
1st January, 1784, leaving two children. 

Joshua Gordon Smith, born in New York, 7th August, 
1771. 

Sarah Gordon Smith. 

He married secondly in England Anne Mid- 
dleton (Hist. Mag., 1868, p. 267), who survived 
him, but does not appear to have left issue. 

Joshua Hett Smith was bred to the law, and 
was licensed attorney 30th April, 1772. He 
practiced his profession with success, and prior to 
the revolution was regarded as one of the most 
promising young men in the city. In politics he 
espoused the Republican cause, and was among 
the zealous champions of constitutional liberty. 
He was not, however, in favor of a rupture with 
Great Britain, or of an entire colonial indepen- 
dence. As a member of the Fourth Provincial 
Congress, he carried out the views of his Orange 
county constituents, and opposed the ratification 
of the National Declaration of Independence. 
Prior to the battle of Long Island, Smith re- 
moved with his family to his country seat, 
Belmont, near Haverstraw (see Mag. Am. His., 
IV., 21, 1880, for an engraving and admir- 
able article entitled " Smith's House at Haver- 
straw"), a retired situation, famous for its natural 
beauty, and commanding very extensive views of 
the Hudson River ; in the neighborhood was his 
father's estate ; and here also his brothers and 
other members of the family owned immense 
tracts of land. Smith's means were sufficient to 
enable him to indulge in the pleasures of hos- 
pitality. Courteous, personally a favorite, of ex- 
cellent social position, married to an accom- 
plished lady, his house was constantly full of 
guests, and a favorite place of resort for the offi- 
cers of the army, French and American — to the 
former especially attractive, as their host was 



28o 



APPENDIX 



conversant with their language. When the un- 
scrupulous Arnold sought and obtained the com- 
mand of West Point, social intercourse was natu- 
rally established between his family and that of 
Mr. Smith. Arnold employed every means in his 
power to ingratiate himself with Smith. If the 
proprietor of Belmont were found to be tractable, 
his house and its neighborhood would prove of 
great strategic importance in the contemplated 
negotiation and the future movements of the con- 
spirators. The locality was well known to many 
British officers, especially to Major Andre, who 
had resided at Haverstraw as a prisoner after his 
capture by the American troops before the walls 
of Quebec in 1775. Arnold had won and be- 
trayed the esteem of those who had befriended 
his youth and early manhood. Montgomery, 
Gates, Washington, were each in turn the victims 
of his hypocritical arts ; was he likely to fail 
with a country gentleman, whose sympathies 
were with his countrymen, but who did not 
disguise his sympathy with the efforts of the 
peace commissioners, of whom his brother was 
one. The details of Arnold's plot, his failure, 
the part taken by Joshua Hett Smith are matters 
of history ; the vexed question of Smith's inno- 
cence or guilty participation remains unsettled. 
Had West Point fallen, its garrison been taken, 
the momentous consequences to the patriot cause 
could hardly be exaggerated ; necessarily, indis- 
criminate odium fell upon all who had in any 
manner participated in the plot. On Satur- 
day, 23d September, 1780, at Pine Bridge, 
Smith bade farewell to Major Andre, whom he 
knew only as Mr. Anderson, not recognizing in 
him the gentleman whom a few years before he 
had met at the table of Colonel Hay, and took 
the northern road to Fishkill intending to join 
his family then visiting at the house of his 
brother-in-law Colonel Ann Hawkes Hay ; the 
Colonel having married a sister of Mr. Smith. 
On the route he stopped to dine with Arnold, 
and in the evening at Fishkill supped in com- 
pany with General Washington, with whom he 
was well acquainted. The next day, Sunday, he 
rode to Poughkeepsie and back. The day fol- 
lowing, the 25th, was passed pleasantly with his 
family. That night he was arrested and carried 
before General Washington. From this date 



until the 22d May, 1781, seven long months, he 
was held a prisoner, often in want of common 
necessaries, constantly subject to indignities. 
Tried first before a court martial, he was 
presently transferred to the civil authorities ; 
another tedious trial followed. From the little 
contemporaneous authentic data it would appear 
that both the military and civil courts were em- 
barrassed with their prisoner and in doubt what 
to do with him. The more the matter was in- 
quired into, the more probable it appeared that 
Smith had had no knowledge of Arnold's in- 
famous purpose. Smith asserted that he be- 
lieved Arnold to be engaged in a legitimate en- 
terprise from which possibly an honorable peace 
might result. The testimony adduced, and his 
own conduct, bore witness to the truth of his 
assertions. On the other hand, in view of the 
part he had taken, of his intimacy with Arnold, 
how was it possible to believe him innocent ? 
Smith tells us that on numerous occasions he 
was approached by soldiers and others, with 
offers to assist in or bring about his escape, but 
that conscious of innocence and distrusting the 
motives of those who offered their services, he 
forebore to make the attempt. It is not at all 
improbable that the puzzled authorities were the 
authors of the plan to rid themselves of a trouble- 
some case ; if so, their action was not without 
precedent during the revolution in the American 
army. Worn out with suspense, sick at heart, 
his sentence still delayed, Smith finally resolved 
to escape. A devoted wife arranged the details, 
her spirited conduct rendered them successful ; 
throughout the whole sad business she shines 
in the bright, unsullied character of an affec- 
tionate, unwearying wife and comforter. Smith 
reached the British lines in safety, and in New 
York found protection at the house of his brother, 
the Chief Justice, where he was presently joined 
by his family (Note 4). Through Lieutenant- 
General Robertson, some of his own houses and 
others belonging to the family estate, occupied by 
the British as the property of absentees, were re- 
stored to him. In one of these he took up his resi- 
dence and resumed the practice of his profession. 
On the 5th of November, 1783, he sailed in the 
transport Ann for Falmouth, his wife, worn out 
with the anxieties of the past few years, being 



APPENDIX 



28l 



too ill to accompany him. On the first of the 
new year, as her husband sadly records, she died 
of a broken heart. The Royal Gazette of the pre- 
vious month contains an advertisement for sale 
by auction of No. 7 Smith, now William Street, 
in possession of Joshua Hett Smith, and of a lot 
on the west side of Broadway, extending to the 
river. The sale was doubtless ordered to provide 
ready funds for the use of the exile. For several 
years Smith was a wanderer, his health broken 
and by many regarded as a proscribed man. In 
1801 he had returned to America and is found 
travelling in South Carolina and Georgia. His 
work entitled " Smith's narrative of the causes 
which led to the death of Major Andre," was pub- 
lished in London, 1808, and has been severely 
criticised by writers on American history. In it 
the author does not hesitate to plainly express, 
often in an abusive manner, his opinion of those 
by whom he deemed himself wronged. Wash- 
ington, the members of the court martial, and 
especially Lafayette, are accused of having pre- 
judged his case and assumed his guilt. Nothing 
is more probable, and the charge may also be 
brought against the nation ; with the information 
first obtained of the circumstances, it was impos- 
sible to do otherwise. That the English regarded 
Smith as the dupe but not the confederate of 
the astute Arnold is sufficiently proved by the 
miserable pension allowed him. Arnold was re- 
warded with wealth, honors and high military 
rank. Smith's pittance was not sufficient to 
provide for his family, who for a period at least 
were cared for by others. Had Smith been a 
partner in Arnold's infamy, his reward would 
have been proportionate, and wealth, not poverty, 
would have been his lot ; in that case his widow 
would not have supported a precarious existence 
as a school teacher (His. Mag., 1868, p. 267). 
Great Britain is not wont to neglect those who 
venture all in her service. 

NOTES TO APPENDIX 

Note i. Mr. William Kelby, the thorough and con- 
scientious student of the history of old New York, who 
with rare courtesy is always prepared to aid those who 
follow in his footsteps, has furnished the writer with the 
following extract from a letter dated 12th April, 1776, in 
Almon's American Remembrancer, Vol. III., p. 86: M O, 
the houses in New York, if you could but see the inside 



of them ! Occupied by the dirtiest people on the conti- 
nent (for the empty houses are almost all taken up by the 
soldiers). Kennedy's new house, Mallet's, and one next 
to it, had 600 men in them. If the owners ever get pos- 
session again, I am sure they must be years in cleaning 
them, unless they get new floors and new plaster on the 
walls." 

Note 2. Jones' History of New York places the sons of 
Judge Smith among the prominent constitutional leaders 
of the day, and to their credit no one of them finds favor 
in the sight of the Tory writer. Without reproducing 
the characteristic abusive language of that author, he 
states in substance, Vol. II., p. 7, that Alexander Mc- 
Dougal, Isaac Sears, John Lamb, Peter R. Livingston 
and the brothers Thomas, John and Joshua Hett Smith, 
were the principal leaders of the Republican clubs. Again, 
Vol. I., pp. 19 and 20, that Thomas and Doctor James 
Smith, with Judge Robert R. Livingston, his son Robert 
R. Jr. (the Chancellor) and others, gave efficient aid to 
the great triumvirate, William Livingston, William 
Smith and John Morin Scott, in the publication of the 
American Whig and Watchman. The writer regrets that 
he does not find other authority to connect the younger 
brothers of the Chief Justice with the distinguished 
gentlemen, who principally conducted the above publica- 
tion. 

Note 3. The following advertisement from 
Mr. Thomas Smith describing his seat at Haver- 
straw is copied from the New York Packet, 
November 15, 1781 : 

To be Sold or Lett, Immediately, The Farm on which 
the Subscriber now lives, at Haverstraw, in the county of 
Orange, within three miles of King's ferry. There is on 
the premises a new stone house, with six fireplaces, and 
good cellars under the whole ; a compleat large barn, with 
proper hovels for cattle, — a frame house for an overseer, 
and a good garden, inclosed with a stone fence ; 150 acres 
of meadow well ditched, and now in a mowable state, 
and as much more may be made with little trouble and 
expence ; a sufficient quantity of woodland for fencing 
and fuel, and a young bearing orchard : The farm com- 
mands a large out drift for cattle, and a landing on Hud- 
son's river, within three-quarters of a mile from the 
house. The situation in point of prospect, is equal to 
any in the State, and the most frequented public road to 
and from the eastern and western States, runs along the 
front of the farm ; it is an advantageous stand for a 
farmer, merchant or innkeeper, and is an elegant situa- 
tion for a gentleman's country seat : The farm is in 
tolerable repair, and a sufficient quantity of chestnut 
rails are already provided to put it into compleat order. 
The terms of payment will be made easy to the pur- 
chaser, and if rented the farming utensils, hay, grain, 
horses, cattle and hogs, with a quantity of household 
furniture, may be had with the farm on the most reason- 
able terms. 

Wanted immediately by the subscriber, a small house, 
with twenty or thirty acres of land, either in the western 
part of New Jersey, or in the interior part of Connecti- 
cut ; it will be either rented during the present war, or 



282 



APPENDIX 



purchased, or taken in exchange, as may hest suit the 
owner. Thomas Smith. 

November 12, 1781. 

Note 4. With Jones anything which tended to the dis- 
advantage of the Presbyterian Smiths was grist for the 
veracious History of New York ; a history whose pre- 
tended facts are in great part extracted from contem- 
poraneous Tory prints. If the authorities cited failed to 
express themselves with sufficient force, it was not be- 
neath the Honorable Mr. Jones to supply what he 
deemed to be lacking. For instance, compare the follow- 
ing as copied from the Political Magazine, Vol. II., p. 62, 
1781, with Jones' pretended quotations therefrom (he 
citing vol. and page) Vol. I., p. 385, and also p. 20 — the 
latter assigned to the same authority and very possibly 
derived from the same item: 

From the Political Magazine, Vol. II., p. 62. " Cir- 
cumstances respecting the betraying of Major Andre.' 1 '' 
When Major Andre went to consult with General 
Arnold, he was carried to the house of a Mr. Smith, 
brother to the Smith lately appointed Chief Justice of 
New York by Gen. Robertson, and also brother to a Dr. 
Smith, who lately lived in Downing Street, Westminster, 
and who is said to have gone off the morning that the 
soldiers fired on the rioters, and whose negro woman was 
hanged for being concerned in the burnings. While Major 
Andre was communicating with General Arnold, he lived 
at the house of Smith, and wore Smith's clothes, and 
when he set out from Washington's camp Smith attended 
him till within about twelve miles of Kingsbridge, where 
Andre told him he knew his way perfectly well. Just 
after Smith left him, he was taken, and, at that very time 
he had on Smith's clothes. Washington has tried Smith 
for being concerned, in what they call Arnold's con- 
spiracy ; but the trial has turned out a mere farce ; for 
Smith has not suffered any punishment. The people at 
New York therefore believe that Smith betrayed Andre 
to the rebels, and are of opinion he never can clear up his 
character anywhere but at the gallows. 

From Jones' History of New York during the Revo- 
lutionary War— Vol. I., /. 385. " The Political Maga- 
zine, second vol., page, 62, speaks of this affair as fol- 
lows : When Major Andre" went to consult with General 
Arnold, he was carried to the house of a Mr. Smith, 
brother to the Smith who went off the morning the 
soldiers fired upon the rioters ; his negro wench was 
hanged for being concerned in the burnings. While 
Andre was communicating with Arnold, he lived in 
Smith's house and wore Smith's clothes ; upon his return, 
Smith attended him. Just after Smith left him at Tarry- 
town he was taken, and at that very time had on Smith's 
old clothes. He was tried for being concerned in Arnold's 
conspiracy. The trial turned out a farce, Smith was 
never punished. The Loyalists therefore believe that 
Smith betrayed Andre and are of opinion he never can 
clear up his character but under the gallows." 

From Jones' History of New York during the Revo- 
lutionary War, Vol. I., p. 20. " The Political Maga- 



zine, in speaking of William Smith, the late Chief Justice 
of New York and now of Canada, says : ' The Chief 
Justice had a brother, one Dr. Smith, who lived in 
Downing Street ; that he was an intimate of Silas Deane 
and of John the Painter, who set fire to the Dock Yard 
at Portsmouth, for which he was executed ; that he was 
known in all the debating clubs for arguing against Great 
Britain in favor of America.' " 

The Gentleman's Magazine for 1777, pp. 121-124, con- 
tains a " Narrative of the trial of James Aitken, other- 
wise John the Painter, at Winchester Assizes, for setting 
fire to the rope walk in his Majesties Dock Yard at Ports- 
mouth, December 7, 1776." Before his execution on the 
10th of March following, John confessed his crime and 
gave a statement of his life and wanderings. These are 
in part confirmed by other witnesses. The account and 
a comparison of the dates sufficiently dispose of Jones' so- 
called quotation, Vol. I., p. 20. The animus and value of 
the quotation on page 385 is confessed by its departures 
from the original. 

The Gentleman's Magazine of July, 1780, page 343, 
mentions the trial and execution of Charlotte Gardiner, a 
black woman, for active participation in the Lord Gordon 
riots. The Political Magazine, Vol. I., pp. 497 and 500, 
gives other details of Charlotte, mentions the disposal of 
her remains and place of burial, and states that the 
"black woman was almost in rags." No one of these 
notices allude to Dr. Smith. Had the woman been 
a slave of or belonged to a prominent American, resid- 
ing in London, the sensational writers would not have 
failed to have given prominence to the fact. A year 
later the last mentioned periodical asserts that the 
woman belonged to Dr. Smith, and that the Doctor is 
said to have gone off the morning that the soldiers fired 
on the rioters. Jones asserts, Vol. I., pp. 20 and 21, that 
Dr. Smith, " a person of strict Republican principles, a 
professed enemy to monarchy, a strict independent, a 
hater of Episcopacy," etc., etc., " left England and fled 
to Brussels, in Flanders." The writer is without docu- 
mentary evidence to prove where Dr. Smith resided 
immediately after the Lord Gordon riots, which occurred 
in June, 1780, but soon after that time he is mentioned 
and described as living in London and occupied with the 
practice of his profession. 

The baptismal registry of the First Presbyterian 
Church of New York opens with the entries of the dates 
of the births and baptisms of the children of Judge Wil- 
liam and Mary Smith. These, as printed in the New 
York Gen. and Biog. Record, Vol. IV., p. 99, present 
three variations from the copy of the family record in 
possession of the writer. The birth of the eldest 
daughter, Susanna, is entered as on the 24th December, 
1728, in the family bible 24th December, 1729 ; her elder 
brother having been born 18th June, 1728, the latter is 
beyond dispute the correct one. Mary and Elizabeth 
Blanche are entered respectively as born 24th March, 1731, 
and 18th December, 1736 ; the family Bible gives the dates 
as 26th March and 13th December of the same years. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



283 



ORDERLY BOOK 

FOR 

LIEUT. COL. SIR JOHN JOHNSON'S 
COMPANY 



I 776 -I 777 



From the original in the possession of the Rev. 
Marinus Willett 

col. sir john Johnson's command 



II 
Point Clair 

1777, May 26th. Parole, Aberdeen. 
Countersign, Inverness. For Guard to 
Morrow Lt. McKenzie, 1 Sergt. 1. Corpl. 
1 Drum and 12 Private Men. 

Its the Commanding officers orders 
that all the Regt. get their Arms and 
Cloathing Clean and in good order, and 
appear Under Arms to Morrow^ morning 
at Seven o'clock on the field as they are 
to be Reviewed by the Genl — the 
officers commanding Comp's, to give in 
an Exact field Return to the Adjt. to 
Morrow at Seven o'clock. The Officers 
Commanding Companys to give a Re- 
turn of what Camp Kettles they have 
in charge and of what they want to 
Compleat at a Kettle to Six Men — the 
Return to be given in to the Quarter- 
master this Evening at 4 o'clock ; the 
officers will give particular orders to 
their Men to do no Damage to the Barns 
where they are Lodged, and be very 
Carefull of fire, and Particularly not to 
smoke in the Barns ; any of the Soldiers 
that is found Guilty of Meddling with 
any of the Inhabitants Effects may De- 
pend on Being Punished Acording to 
the Martial Law. The sick men that 
are Quartered in the Country are to be 
Removed to the Village that they may 



be Convenient to the Doctor. An Offi- 
cer of Each Compy to Attend this Even 
ing at 4 o'Clock and Receive what Arms 
they want to Compleat their Comp'nys. 

— 27th. P. St. Leger. C Ireland. 
For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Cor- 
poral, 1 Drum, and 11 Private Men. 
Leut. McDonnel Officer of the Day. 

The Commission'd officers and Non 
Commission'd, Drums and Private Men 
of the Kings Royal Regt. of New York 
to be Under arms to Morrow Morning 
at 7 o'clock for Exercise; Jessup's Corps 1 
are to be. at Point Clair to be Exercised 
till Further orders. 

—28th. P. Carleton. C. Burgoyne. 
For Guard to Morrow Lieut. Walker 1 
Sergt. 1 C. 1 D. 12. Pr. 

Its the commanding officers Orders 
that the officers Commanding Companys 
give in a Return this Evening at 4 
o'clock to the Qur Master of what 
Cloathing they want to Compleat thair 
Compys & that the Men Attend to Mor- 
row Morning at 8 o'clock at the Taylors 
Shop to'have their Measures taken. The 
Officers Commanding Compys to give in 
thair Monthly Return to the Command- 
ing officer to Morrow morning at 9 
o'clock. The Regt to be Under Arms 
to Morrow Morning at 7 o'clock for 
Exercise. Its the Commanding [officers] 
orders that Thomas Miller & John Palmer 
be Appointed Corpls in Capt Browns 
Compy, and James Plant Appointed in 
Capt. Daleys Compy. in the room of 
Corporal McGrigar who is transfered to 
Capt Browns Compy. Francis Albrant 
soldier in the Colls Compy to attend the 
Qur Master and Do no Other Duty for 
the future. 

— 29th. P. Phillips. C. Frazer. For 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Guard to Morrow Ens Crothers i S. i 
C. i Drummer and 12 Privat men. 

The Officers Commanding Companys 
to Sec that the taylors keep steady at 
the Cloathing till finished, no Excuse to 
be taken : the Regt to be under Arms 
at 6 o'clock Every morning while the 
weather is Good ; and in the Afternoon 
firing "Rail. 

— 30th. P. Johnson. C. Watts. For 
Guard to Morrow Ens Crawford 1 Sergt 
1 Corpl 1 Drummer &: 12 Private Men. 

The Commanding Officer Desires that 
officers Would be more Particular in 
Giving the Monthly Returns — Field Re- 
turns, Morning Reports, Reports of the 
Sick, or any other Returns that may 
be Wanted Relative to Military Duty — 
& that they Would furnish themselves 
with a Copy of the Different Returns 
that they may have Occasion for : the 
Regt to hold themselves in Readiness 
to March to Lachine at an hours 
Warning. 

—31st. P. Col. McLean. C. Maji 
Small. For Guard to Morrow Ens Phil- 
lips 1 Sergt 1 Corpl 1 Drum & 12 Pri- 
vate Men. 

The Regt to March to La Chine 
to Morrow Morning at o'clock — the 
Officers & Men to carry no more Nec- 
essarys with them than what they want 
for 9 or ten Days to Shift themselves 
with, what Baggage the men Leave be- 
hind to be put in the Store this Even- 
ing at 4 o'clock : fin Every Compy's Bag- 
by itself — the Quarter Master Serg: 
to see that there is Cloathing taken for 
the use of the Recruits which the Taylors 
are to make at Lachine : what Clothing is 
finished to be Given Out to the Recruits: 
,v Sergt Hillyer to pack up what is not 



nnish'd to be Carri'd along to Morrow. 
1 S 1 C & ia Old Men to be left behind 
as Guard for the Stores & to Attend the 
Sick. Surgeons Mate to Remain in 
Point Clair to take Care of the Sick un- 
till further Orders — the Regt not to fire 
Ball this After noon. A Cart will attend 
Each Company to Carry the Officers 
Baggage & the Men's Provisions. Compy 
Duty for Gd. 2 Privates. 



Lachine 

1777 Tune 1st. P. [ ] C. [ ] 

For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Corpl 
12 P men. Lieut. McKenzie Officer of 
the day. 

The Officers to Attend Roll call every 
Evening and morning and make the 
Report to the Commanding Officer. 
They are to take particular Care that 
the men shall not be straying from 
their Quarters : the Regt to be under 
arms at 6 o'clock to Morrow morn- 
ing : the Taylors to begin Directly to 
work at the men's Cloathing and to 
keep Close at them till they are fin- 
ished : they are to work in Mr. Pridones 
Garret. 

—2d. P. New York. 

The guards to be mounted every 
morning at 7 o'clock — rolls to be call'd 
twice every Day ; in the morning after 
guard mounting and in the evening 
after retreat beating at 7 o clock — 
All officers to attend at the head of 
their Company — all beats to be taken 
from the 34th Regt — the troops to be 
exercised 3 times a day for an hour 
each time — the commanding officers will 
observe the kind of Discipline laid down 
by Colonel St. Leger. The kings royal 
regiment of New York to Fire balls by 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



285 



Divisions till Further orders — the hours 
of exercise will be half after 4 in the 
morning, at mid Day and at half past 5 
in the evening — it is understood that the 
mid Day exercise is to be For the guard 
men only for whom some shady place 
will be chosen by the Commanding officer 
— a weekly state of the Different corps to 
be given in every monday morning to 
lieutenant Crofts. For the future a 
subalterns guard to be mounted consist- 
ing of one subaltern one sergeant one 
Corporal 1 Drummer and 18 privates. 
The 34 regt to furnish to morrow 1 
subaltern 1 corporal 1 Drummer and 5 
privates ; the Kings royal regt of New 
York and Jessups Corps to Furnish 1 
sergeant and 13 private men. 

— 3d. P. Johnstown. A Strict and 
Punctual Adherence to all orders Given, 
is the life and soul of Military Opera- 
tions ; without it Troops are but confus'd 
& ungovernable Multitudes ever liable 
to Destruction & sure never to acquire 
honour to themselves or gain advantage 
to their Country : therefore Col. St Le- 
ger Acquaints the Troops he has the 
Honour to Command that the few Nec- 
essary Orders he means to give Must In- 
stantly and Privately [be] attended to 
without Discretionary Interpretations 
whatsoever. A Detail of the Guard for 
to Morrow. 34 Regt, 1 C. 1 Drum. & 
6 Privates : Kings Royal Regt N. York, 
1 Subaltern 1 Sergt & 12 Private. 

Regt orders, for Guard to Morrow 
Ens McKenzie. 

— 4th. P. King George. Detail of 
the Guard for to Morrow ; 34th Regt 1 
Corpl 1 Drumr & 6 Pr. Kings Royal 
Regt of New York 1 Sergt and 12 
privates. 



Regt Orders for Guard to Morrow 
Ens Crawford. 

— 5 tli. P. Burgoyne. Detail of the 
Guard for to Morrow, 34th Regt 1 C. 1 
D. 7 P.; R. Yorkers 1 S. 12 P.; Jessup's 
Corps 1 I, 1 C. 7 P. Total 1 L. 1 S. 2 
C. 1 D. 26 P. 

— 6th June. P. Gray. C. Ancrum. 

Every Soldier off Duty or Regt 
work must be under Arms at the times 
appointed Except those notyfy'd by the 
Surgeon as too ill to appear — the want 
of any part of their Necessarys will not 
be admitted as an Excuse. Coll : St. 
Ledger thinks proper to observe to the 
Kings Royal Regt of New York, That 
the Surest Method of Making the Noble 
& honorable zeal they have Lately mani- 
fested to their King and Countrys Interest 
take the Effect they ardently wish for, as 
well as to Repossess themselves of the 
peace & property which has been most 
illegaly wrested from them, is to give a 
Constant & unwearied attention to the 
learning of Military Discipline which 
will give them Superiority over the Con- 
fused Rabble they have to deal with. 
All orders Relative to the men to be 
read to them at the Evening Parade By 
an officer of each Compy. Detail of the 
Gd. for to morw: 34 Regt 1 C. 1 D. 5 P. ; 
K. R. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 8 P.; Jessup's Corps 
5 P. Total 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 18 P. 
Ens Byrne for Guard to Morrow. 

— 7th. P. Oswegatchie. C. Fort Stan- 
wix. Details of the Guard for to Mor- 
row. 34th Regt 1 C. 8 P.; Kings Royal 
Regt N. York 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 12 P.; 
Jessup's Corps 1 S. 1 C. 6 P. Total 1 L. 
2 S. 2 C. 1 D. 26 P. Ens Wall for the 
Guard to Morrow. 

—8th. P. St. Johns. C. Oneida. A. 



286 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Weekly State[ment] shall be given in to 
Morrow Morning to Lt. Crafts of the 
Strength of each Corps. Detail of the 
Guard for to Morrow. 34th Regt 1 C. 
6 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 1 D. 7 
P.; Jessup's Corps 5 P. 

Genl orders. — the Corps Under the 
Command of Coll St. Leger to be Paid 
Subsistence to the 24th of August. 

— 9th. P. Burgoyne. C. Phillips, 
General Ordes — When any Calash or 
Carts, horses or Men are wanting for the 
service, Application must be Made for an 
Order from Coll St Leger, the officers 
and Non Commiss'd officers being in 
every Sense Responsible for the behav- 
iour of their Men must keep a Strict 
eye Upon their Conduct. By which 
Means a stop will be put to the Frequent 
Complaints Made that are not only Dis- 
honourable to a Soldier but some De- 
serving the Cord. A Patrol must go from 
the Main Guard at Tattoo Beating, which 
is to make Prisoners of all soldiers or 
Non Commiss'd Officers they find in 
them — They are likewise to order to 
their Cantonments all Stragglers. 

Detail of the Guard. 34th Regt 1 S. 
1 D. 9 P.; K. R. Yorkers 2 S. 1 C. 15 P.; 
Jessup's Corps 1 L. 1 C. 4 P. Total 1 L. 
3 S. 2 C 1 D. 28 P. 

Regt Orders — A Regtl Court Martial 
to sit to Morrow Morning at 11 o'clock, 
Lt. Singleton President. Members — Ens 
Burne, Ens McKenzie, Ens McDonell & 
Ens Phillips, to try such Prisoners as 
may be brought before them. 

— 10th. P. Castle Johnson. C. Fort 
Hunter. Detail of the Guard for to 
Morrow, 34th to Give 1 S. 6 P.; K. R. R. 
N. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 9 P.; Jessup's Corps 
1 S. 3 P. Total i L. 3 S. 1 C. 18 P. 



R. O. Its the Commanding Officers 
Positive orders that the Men do Not 
wear their shoes when they go out a fish- 
ing. 

G[eneral] After Orders. At the 
Evening Exercise After the priming and 
loading Motions are over, the 34th and 
K. R. R. N. Y. will be Joined, the 34th 
making the Right Wing, while the others 
form the left. This Body will be Exer- 
cis'd by Lt Crofts of the 34th Regt. 

—nth. P. [ ]. C. [ ]. De- 
tail of the Guard for to Morrow. 34th 
Regt to give 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P.; K. R. 
R. N. Y. 1 L. 2 S. 1 C. 14 P.; Jessup's 
Corps 5 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C, 1 D. 
28 P. 

G. O. A field Return of each Corps 
to be given to Lieut Crofts whenever the 
Men are Under arms for the Information 
of the Commanding officer — Its Lieut 
Coll Sir John Johnsons orders that the 
Commissioned, Non Commissioned offi- 
cers Drummers and Private Men of the 
Kings Royal Regt of New York attend 
Exercise Every Day for the future at the 
hour appointed. Ens Phillips for Guard 
to Morrow. 

— 1 2th. P. Sopees. C. Kenderwhoffe. 
Detail of the Guard for to Morrow 34th 
Regt to give 1 S. 5 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. 2 
S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P. ; Jessup's Corps 1 L 4 P. 
Total 1 L. 2 S. 1 C. 1 D. 18 P. 

— 13th. P. Howe. C. Cornwallis. 
Detail of the Guard for to Morrow 34th 
Regt to give 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P. K. R. 
R. N. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 14 P.; Jessup's 
Corps 1 S. 5 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C. 1 
D. 28 P. 

G[eneral] 0[rders]. As Cleanli- 
ness and a Strict Attention to Duty are 
Indespensable Necessaries in a Soldier, 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



287 



Cclonel St. Leger Desires the troops Un- 
d*r his Command may be Immediately 
furnished with Necessarys & Each a 
black Stock. Officers must Inspect their 
Men Every morning, when they will cor- 
rect any Man that comes Slovenly to 
the Parade ; they will Likewise Remem- 
ber that for the future he will impute to 
their Inattention the Un-Soldier Like 
Parade he Observed this Morning. 



Head Quarters Montreal 

17th June 1777. G. O. Those Reg- 
ments & other Departments who have 
not Rendered Receipts for provisions & 
Rum are desired to send forthwith the 
three Receipts of the same tenor & Date 
According to a form Sent for that pur- 
pose to Compleat a Settlement with the 
Commissary Genii to the 24th of May. 
the troops intended to Remain in Can- 
ada & Stationed in the District of Mont- 
real to Report [to] Brigr Genl Maclean. 2 

8th June 1777. Promotions. His Ex- 
celency the Commander in Chief has 
been pleased to make the following 
Promotions in the Army Under his Com- 
mand : 

Royal R. N. Y. Alex. McDonald to 
be Capt in the Room of Lieut. Brown 
who returned to the 31st Regt — 6th 
June, 1777. 

John McDonald to be Capt Lieut, in 
the Room of Capt Lieut Hewetson — 
19th June, 1777. 

Ens William Byrne to be Lieut in the 
Room of Lieut Grant — 6th June, 1777. 
Volunteer Lipscomp to be Ens vice 
Byrne, Do. 

To Sir John Johnson or officer com- 
mdng the Royal Regt of New York. 
Wm Dtjnbar, Majr of Brigade 3 



Lachine 

1777, June 14th. P. Connecticut. C. 
Philadelphia. 

G. O. The party of Artillery Under 
Lieut Glennie to be Reinforced Imme- 
diately by a Corpl & 20 Men from the 
8th, 34th, & Kings Royal Regt of New 
York — 8th & 34th Regt will give 5 each 
& the New York Regt 10 — the 8th Regt 
will give the Corpl. 

Detail of the Guard for to Morrow 
34 Regt 1 S. 6 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. 
1 S. 2 S. 1 D. 9 P. ; Jessup's Corps 
1 C. 3 P. Ensn Crothers for guard to 
morrow. 

— 15 th. P. Trenton. C. Burlington. 
Details of the Guard for to 'Morrow. 
34th Regt i S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 Privates ; K. 
R. R. N. Y. 1 L. 2 S. 1 C. 1 D. 14 
Privates ; Jessups Corps, 5 Privates. 

G. O. A Corpl and 10 private Men 
with hand hatchets to go to Morrow to 
lower Lachine at 5 o'clock to cut boughs 
to Cover the Batteaux. As Coll St. 
Leger wishes not to take the K. Regt of 
New York from their Exercise the Above 
Party is to be given by the Detachment 
of the 34th Regt. Officer of the Guard 
to Morrow Ens McDonell. CompyDuty 
Gd S. 1CD.4 P. 

After orders. Its Lieut. Colonel 
Sir John Johnsons orders that Capt Lt 
McDonell, Wm Byrnes & Ens Richard 
Lipscom do Duty in this Compy. 

Lieut. Morrison, Lieut. Anderson & 
Ens Phillips in Major Gray's Company. 
Lieut. James McDonell and Ens Allan 
McDonell in Capt Angus McDonells 
Compy, Lt. Kenneth McKenzie, Lt. 
George Singleton and Ens John Mc- 
Kenzie in Capt. Watts' Compy, Lt. 
Richard Walker and Ens Crothers in 



288 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



Capt. Dallys Company, Lt. Gummer- 
folk and Ens Craford in Capt Alexr 
McDonells, Lt. Moure [Moore ?], Lt 
Wilkeson & Ens Walle in Capt 
Duncans compy, till further orders. 

— 1 6th. P. Newark. C\ Boston. 
Capt Ancrum* is appointed to Do the 
Duty of Adjt Genl assisted by Lieut. 
Crofts, Lt. Lundy, Deputy Qr. Mr 
Genl, Mr Piety conductor of artil- 
lery, who are to be obeyed, as 
such ; orders coming thro Lt. Hamelton 
and Ens Clergis 5 are to [be] Looked 
Upon as from the commanding officer 
of the Expedition — the corps of the 
Batteau Guard is to send a written Re- 
port Every morning to the officer of the 
Main Guard which will Report it to the 
commanding officer. 

Detail of the Guard. 34th Regt., L. 
1 S. C. D. 5 P.; Kings R. R. N. Y. 1 
L. 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P. ; Jessup's Corps, 
L. S. C. D. 4 P. Total r L. 2 S. 1 C. 
1. D. 18 P. 

— 17th. P. Fairfield. C. Newhaven. 
G. O. The corps under the command 
of Col St. Leger to hold themselves in 
Readiness to march on the Shortest 
Notice. 

Detail of the Guard. 34th Regt., 1 L. 

1 S. C. 1 D. 13 P.; Ks. R. R. N. Y., L. 

2 S. 2 C. D. 15 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C. 
1 D. 28 P. 

Regtl orders. The Commission'd 
Non Commission'd Officers Drums & 
private men of the Kings Royal Regt of 
New York to be under Arms to Morrow 
Morning at 5 O'clock — the officers will 
be very particular that their mens Arms 
are in Good Order & their Regtls Clean 
so as to appear Decent at the Genl. Re- 
view. Company Duty 4 P. 



—1 8th. P. . Edinburgh. C. Inver- 
ness. 

G. O. 34th Regt takes the Guard to 
Morrow. For Guard to morrow Ens 
Clergis. 

Regtl orders — the Commiss'd Non 
Commiss'd Officers, Drums & Private 
men of the Kings Royal Regt of N. 
York to be Under arms this Evening at 
5 o'clock. 

— 19th. P. Swansey. C. Monmouth. 
Forty eight Batteaux to be Delivered to 
the Royal Regt of New York ; Forty- 
Five Felling axes & 3 broad axes to be 
Delivered to that Regt. Seventy Five 
Felling axes and two broad axes [for] 
the use of the 34th regt which are to be 
distributed amongst the boats at the dis- 
cretion of the respective commanding 
Officers. A number of thole pins to be 
provided for each boat according to the 
patterns given to the carpenter, wooden 
Punches to be made by the boats crews 
— two fishing lines & hooks in propor- 
tion to be delivered to each boat. The 
K. R. R. N. Y. are to take 440 barrels 
of provision allowing 10 barrels each for 
44 Batteaus — the rum or brandy de- 
livered out is to be put into the officers 
boats for security — his excellency the 
commander in chief has pleased to ap- 
point Roville esqr to be captain in a 
comp of Canadians in the room of Capt 
McKay Resigned — he is to be obeyed as 
such — the royal Regt of New York to 
give the guards to morrow. Lieutenant 
Gummerfolk. For guard to morrow. 1 
L. 2 S. 2 C. 1 D. 28 p. 

After orders. The K. R. R. V. York 
to be compleated with t\ days provision 
commencing Saturday the 21 June — 
their boats to be loaded at the Kings 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



289 



stores on Friday, and from thence 
brought up to their quarters the same 
day to be ready to push off at point of 
day on Saturday — their Division is to 
be supplied with three pilots, Le Ca- 
targne the quarter master is to give a 
receipt for the number of barrels and 
the specie the division carries to the 
commissary at Lachine and is to be 
accountable for them. It is expected 
that the several captains have laid in 
necessaries for their men for the cam- 
paign. « 

—20th. P. Hartford. C. Milford. 
The 34th Regt to take the Guards to 
morrow. Ens Phillips 1 Sergt. 1 Corl & 
32 Privates to Be left at Lachine in order 
to go with the baggage of the K. R. R. 
N. Y. over Lake Champlain to Crown 
Point & then proceed after the army 
under the command of General Burgoyne 
with the baggage as far as Albany if he 
should proceed to that place — ten old 
men to Be left at Point Clair. 

— 2 1 st. Forty boats to contain 400 
barrels of provisions & 7 of rum — the 
remainder to be left at Colonel St. Legers 
Quarters — the barrells to be distributed 
in such proportion as to make room for 
the Officers & their baggage. Major 
Gray must see that the companys pro- 
vided according to seniority. The Capt. 
or Officers commanding compys to be 
in the front — the oldest Sublts in the 
rear and the youngest in the center — 34 
precedes ; squads of boats abreast when 
practicable. As Sir John has reason to 
apprehend from the many Companys 
that have been made that there may be 
many [irregularities committed by the 
men [he] recommends it in a particular 
manner to all the officers. 



Buck island* 

1 7 77, July 8th. P. Burgoyne. C. 
Phillips. For Guard Ens Crawford. 1 
S. 1 C. 1 D. & 16 P. the Batteaux to be 
taken up to the store to morrow morning 
at 4 o'clock and Unloaded, & such as 
wants repairing to be drawn up ; the 
Taylors of the Regt begin to work to 
morrow morning to compleat the mens 
cloathing. 

— 9th. P. Fraser. C. Powel, Lieut 
Burnet of the Kings Regt to act as 
Adgt to the Division till further orders. 
A return of the strength of each corps 
to be given in at twelve o'clock. Capt 
Potts will direct liquor to be given to 
the troops when at work as he shall 
think proper according to the service 
they perform. 

Regl Orders. Lt. McDonell, 1 S. 
1 C. 1 D. & 16 P. 

— 10th. Genl Orders, by Brigadier 
Genl St. Leger. Lt. Colonel St. Leger 
is appointed to act as Brigadier Genl ; 7 
Chevalier St. Oaris appointed Lt. in 
Capt. Buvilies Compy of Canadians. 
Two Subalterns and 50 men to attend 
the Deputy Qr Master General to Clear 
Ground sufficient to exercise the army ; 
the party to be furnished with proper 
Utensils for that purpose. The Kings 
Regt and the 34th form one Corps 
[and] will encamp on the right. The 
Hessian Chasseurs on the Left, and the 
R. R. of New York in the center, Lt. 
Collerten will choose out the proposed 
ground on the Right of the Army for 
his party of Artillery and will begin 
Immediately to prepare Bark Huts 
for His Ammunition. The Irregulars 
will be arranged by the Deputy Qr 
Master Genl Colonel Close [Col Daniel 



290 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



ClausJ will take ground for the Indian 
Allies. 

Signed Wm Crofts, Lt 34th Regt. 

For this Duty Ks Regt 1 L. 1 6 P. ; R. 
R. X. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 1 C 34 P. For Guard 
Ens McKenzie. 

It is the Commanding officers Orders 
that Jos. Locks & John Laurancebe ap- 
pointed Sergts in Capt Duvan's Compy ; 
Jacob Shall, Wm. Taylor, Phillip Coach, 
Corpls in said Compy and be obeyed as 
such. 

—nth. /'.Fort St. Ann. C. Xoad- 
willey. 

G. O. Lt. Crofts of the 34th Regt is 
appointed Major of Brigade for this 
expedition. Guards to Mount every 
morning at 8 o'clock, the Retreat to be 
at 7 o'clock in the evening and tattoo at 
9 o'clock. An officer of each Corps to 
attend for Genl Orders at the Major of 
Brigades's tent every Day at 12 o'clock. 
One Sergt and 8 private men of Captain 
Buvelles Company of Canadians to pa- 
rade to Morrow morning to go to Os- 
wegatchie for Provisions and 4 privates 
will parade at the same hour, who will 
receive further orders from Lt. Rudyard 
Engineer. 

Regtl O. For Guard to morrow, 
1 S. 1 C. D. 8 P. men. Ens McKenzie 
is to do [duty] in Capt McDonell's 
Compy, Ens Crothers in Major Grays. 
Cm Ens Crawford in Capt Daly's till fur- 
ther orders. 

The officers commanding compys to 
give in their Monthly Return to morrow 
morning at 6 o clock and be very care- 
full that they are not false. Compy Duty 
Gd 1 D. 3 P. 

— 1 2th. P. Gray. C. Mohock River. 
His Majesty has been Pleased to ap- 



point Coll. Claus to be superintendent 
of the Indian Department on this ex- 
pedition ; A Sub. of the Day is con- 
stantly to remain in Camp who will see 
all publick orders executed and to whom 
all reports of any thing extraordinary will 
be made for the information of the 
Brigadier. All orders relative to the 
Soldiers shall be read to them at the 
Evening Parade by an officer of the 
Company. For fatigue to morrow — K's 
Regt 22' P.: K's R. X. Y., 1 S. 36 P.; 
Canadians, 1 S. 12 P. The Kings Regt 
to Give the Sub. of the Day to mor- 
row. 

— 13th. P. Carleton. C. McClain. 
The state of provisions at this post to be 
given by the D. Commissary general as 
soon as possible this day [to] the Briga- 
dier — no bisquet to be delivered but by 
his particular orders, or small barrels of 
pork to be broke open ; no arrears 
of provisions to be reed at this post ; 
such persons as may have any rations 
due to them to this day and properly 
certified to the D. C. General may re- 
ceive the value of them in cash, the 
usual drawback being made at 6h pds. 
ration, or a certificate from him that 
such Rations are due, which will be de- 
livered from the Kings Stores at a more 
convenient time ; no person to draw more 
than one ration pr day viz : ij lb of 
flour, 1 \ of Beef or 10 oz. of pork, &: 
such troops as choose to draw one pound 
of flour pr. day shall receive from the 
D. Q. master General the value weekly of 
the remainder at i\ lbs.; all public 
store[s] not immediately pertaining to 
any particular corps to be put in charge 
of the Detachments under the orders of 
Capt Potts of the Kings Regt. at this 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



2 9 I 



post ; the Detachment of the King un- 
der the Command of Capt. Lanotts' will 
furnish a relief of 1 Sergt 1 Corpral and 
1 2 private every day to the above Detach- 
ment. The D. Quartermaster General 
will direct a hut to be built imediately 
within the lins of the incampment of 
Capt Potts Detachment to receive all 
publick stores and is to be sufficent to 
protect them from the weather ; each 
Corps shall receive under their charge a 
certain number of Boats ; all the over- 
plus boats for publick stores will come 
under the charge of C. Potts Detach- 
ment and Each Corps will be answerable 
for the particular attention for the safety 
of the boats given unto their charge, and 
to report to the Superintendent any re- 
pairs they may want. Each corps after 
Expending what provisions they have 
reed, to draw weekly their rations, and 
they will sign an order for all provisions 
drawn for such persons on this Expedi- 
tion in his majestys service who do not 
belong to any particular Corps. Colonel 
Claus will ascertain the number of In- 
dians absolutely necessary to be fed at 
this post of which he will give directions 
to the Brigades who will give directions 
that the S. rations be issued dayly to the 
Indians, and Colonel Claus will appoint 
a person from the Indian Department 
who speaks the Missaga language to at- 
tend the delivery of said provisions 
which by him is to be Reed in bulk de- 
livered in Camp to Indian Department 
and the D. Commissary General will de- 
liver no provisions to any person but un- 
der the assignment of Commanding offi- 
cers of Corps and detachments and the 
Deputy Quartermaster General. Lieut 
Burnet of the Kings Regt is appointed 



Superintendent of the Kings Batteaux. 
For Fatigue to morrow. Kings Regt, 16 
P.; 34th Regt, 1 S.i 7 P.; R. Y, 2 L. 1 
S. 27 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. gives the 
Subaltern for the day to morrow. 

Regtl Orders. For guard to mor- 
row Ens Lipscomb, 1 S. 1 C. and 10 
privates. S. Crawford of M. Gray's 
Compy to do duty, [illegible] McDon- 
ells Compy. 

C. Campbell is appointed Sergt in 
major Grays Company in the Room of S. 
Crawford. John Raley is appointed Corpl 
in M. Grays Company in Room of Cor- 
poral Campbell. The officers command- 
ing companys to be very particular that 
the mens arms and accutrements be in 
good order as they are to be reviewed 
to morrow at Guard mounting ; all the 
Boats that want repairing in the dif- 
ferent compys their numbers to be given 
in immediately to the Quartermaster. 
Lieut Anderson officer for the day to 
morrow. 

— 14th. Morning Orders. All leaky 
and damaged batteaux belonging to the 
different corps to be immediately hauled 
on shore and turned up on their own 
ground, ready for repair under the direc- 
tions of Lieut. Burnet, and any boats 
that may have been drawn up before the 
present directions of ground took place 
no.t within the present' line of incamp- 
ment and to be Immediately Launched, 
and brought to the ground of their Reg- 
iment to prevent confusion. Mr. Charles 
Miller is appointed Batteau Master in 
the room of Mr. Kuysak and is to be 
attended as such. 

Signed, W. Ancrum, D. Ajt General. 

A return of the number of caulkers 
and carpenters belonging to the different 



292 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



corps to be given in Immediatly to the 
D. A. G. and they will be ready to at- 
tend Mr. Burnet at one o'clock. 

.Z 3 . Brunswick. C. Kent. No person 
whatsoever to trade rum or any spiritous 
liquors for any thing which the Indians 
may have to dispose of, those people 
will be Informed by their officers that it 
is necessary to have the C. S. to pass the 
centries and guards of the Comp — and 
they will strongly recommend to them 
not to leave their incampment after 
dark lest they should be subjected to 
Inconveniencies from the difficulty of 
pronouncing or Remimbering the pass 
word ; no Soldier or any of the Corps 
Canadians on any account to fire 
their arms unless to discharge them after 
bad weather and then in the presence of 
an Officer — No trader on this Island to 
sell any Rum or spirituous liquor without 
the assignment of Capt Potts of the 
Kings Regt ; any officer wanting such 
things will send their orders to be 
countersigned by him to prevent for- 
geries and Imposition; the guard of 
the camp not to turn out but once a 
day to the Brigadier nor are they to take 
notice of him unless in his Uniform. 
Sergt Killigrew of the 34th Regt is ap- 
pointed provost Martial at 2S-6d pr day 
for the Expedition and to be obeyed as 
such ; his guard to be proportioned to the 
number of prisoners ; a Corporal and 4 
private men from the line to mount at 
the usual time to morrow morning for 
this duty ; all prisoners Except those 
styled officers from the Rebel army to 
go on all fatigues daily, a man of the 
Guard to attend them ; the Rations pr 
day for all Rebel prisoners of whatever 
distinction to be an oz. of pork and 



pound of flower. For duty to morrow 
— K's Regt, 17 P.; 34th Regt, 1 C. 16P.; 
R. R. Regt, 3 L. 1 S. 1 C. 32 P. 

Regt Orders. For Guard to morrow 
Ens Lipscomb. 1. 1. 2. and 20 private 
men. Its Major Grays orders that an 
officer of a Compy shall Read to the 
men the Gen. Orders against trafficking 
with the Indians with Rum, and that the 
officers imployed in seeing the Batteaus 
carried over the long Sault shall give 
in an Exact list of the number of Boats 
brought up by each squad. 

— 15th. P. London. C. Edinburgh. 
The duty of the Provost Marshal. The 
care of all prisoners taken in battle, spies 
and deserters is Intrusted to them forth- 
with ; he will have .a guard strong in pro- 
portion to their number ; all disorders in 
the camp fall under his cognizance ; he 
is to have the control of all settlers and 
traders selling Liquor, and have au- 
thority for Impressing such as he finds 
disobedient to General Orders ; he is to 
regulate all markets that may be formed 
in the Camp, and appoint proper places 
for them, and likewise to protect with 
his authority and guard all persons com- 
ming with provisions to the troops ; he 
is from time to time to send out patroles 
from his guard and when necessary at- 
tend them himself to take prisoners all 
marauders and stragglers; all his reports 
are to be made to the D. Quartermaster 
General — only for the Information of 
the Commander-in-Chief cases relative 
to the economy of the Comp, and to 
the D. A. General all Extraordinary 
matters ; as spies, deserters, &c. &c. 
In cases of Executions he is to the 
Martial law what the Sheriff of a 
County is to the Civil ; he is to be pro- 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



293 



vided with an Executioner when this he 
Requests and when a more honourable 
death by fire arms is granted he will 
give the word of command ; his guard 
is to be near headquarters. 

G. O. Commanding officers of the 
diff'rent Corps will derect that the mens 
tents are struck and the rear turned 
up every fine day at 10 o'clock and 
remain so four hours at least to air them 
perfectly ; their streets must be swept 
every morning ; no washing, cleaning of 
arms or acoutrements or doing any thing 
in them that may Render them filthy 
and Consequently unwholesome must be 
suffered. 

The K. R. R. of New York will Ex- 
pend that part of their ammunition which 
[is] fit for service in firing at marks Every 
morning in presence of their officers. 
For duty— K. R. Regt, 1 L. 1 S. 17 P.; 
34th Regt, 1 L. 2 C. 15 P.; K. R. R. N. 
Y., 1 L. 1 S. 32 P. 34th Regiment to 
give the subaltern of the Day to morrow, 
1 man to be sent [as] orderly over the 
adjt General. 

Regt. Orders. For Guard to morrow 
Lieut. Walker, 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 16 private 
men — all the men of the R. Regt of N. 
Y. to fire two Rounds of Ball Cartridge 
each to morrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

— 1 6th. Morning Orders. The 
Kings Royal Regt of N. York to send 
one Sergt and 12 careful men to the 
artillery at 8 o'clock to examin the Am- 
munition. Signed, 

Wm Crofts, Major Brigade. 

P. Bristol. C. Taunton. For duty to 
morrow K. Regt, 4 P.; 34th Regt, 1 C. 
6 P.; K. R. Regt N. Y., 1 L. 1 C. 5 P. 

Its Sir Johns orders that the officers 
Commanding Companys Settle with their 



men Before to morrow night and pay 
them the Ballance of their accts to the 
24th of August Inclusive. 

Its Major Grays Orders that see that 
the men wash their cloathing and clean 
their arms to Morrow as there are but 
few men for duty ; they will likewise 
Examine their Necessaries of which they 
will give a report in writing to Major 
Gray. 

— 17th. P. Winchester. C. York. 
The brigadier has the satisfaction to 
inform the Corps in this expedition that 
Fort Ticonderoga, a large Quantity of 
provision & artillery & stores with their 
whole stock of live cattle were aban- 
doned by the rebels to the grand army 
the 6th instant ; that many prisoners 
were taken & many killed, and that at 
the moment the advanced corps of In- 
dians were in hot pursuit ; the troops on 
this expedition to hold themselves in 
readiness to embark on an hours notice ; 
40 Days provision for 500 men to be im- 
mediately sorted to be ready to be em- 
barked on boats which the superinten- 
dents will point out. Lieutenant Collor- 
ton will prepare ammunition For two 6 
pounders & 2 Cohorns and 50 rounds 
ball cartridges per man for 500 men and 
make a demand of the number of large 
boats that will be sufficent For their 
transports ; all ovens to be set at work 
to bake 6 Days bread For 500 men ; 
great care must be taken that it will be well 
soakt to keep in that time ; each corps 
to find what bakers they have [and re- 
port] to the Deputy Commissary general 
at 10 o'clock ; the kings regt, the 34, 
Captain Watts Detachment, and Capt 
Reveils corps to be compleated with 
50 rounds of good ammunition Imme- 



294 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



diately. All those corps who have it 
not in their own stores will make a de- 
mand on the artillery and give a receipt 
agreable to the forms they require ; it is 
absolutely necessary that the officers 
commanding Corps should provide their 
men with some sort of cases to keep 
their locks dry through the woods in 
rainy weather ; the master of the Ship 
Colweel and Mr. Miller, the Chief Ship 
Carpenter with any other carpenters or 
seamen they think proper to call For to 
assist or advise with, and to take an 
exact and particular Survey of the State 
and condition of Sloop Charity, and to 
make the report to the brigadier in 
writing this Day, signifiing therein whe- 
ther their works and timber will admit of 
such repair as will enable her to sail the 
lakes again with any probability of safety. 
Lieutenant Barnet of the kings regt 
will preside on this survey. 

For Duty to morrow K regt, 6 P.; 
the 34th, 1 C. 7 P. ; the kings royal 
yorkers, 1 L. 1 C. 10 P. A return to be 
given in immediately by each corps to 
lieutenant Barnet of the kings regt of 
the number of batteaux, painters, oars, 
setting poles and paddles, specifying the 
size of the batteaux. 

—1 8th. P. Onadaga. C. Fort Bull. 
The advance Guards consisting of all 
the officers & 80 rank and file of the 
Kings & 34th Regts, the Tribe of Misi- 
sagey Indians, 8 with what is on the Island 
of the Six Nations, & the officers and 
rangers will move to morrow Morning at 
4 o'clock. 

The Kings & 34th Regts will Receive 
10 Boats Each for their men & twenty 
days provision. The officers will be al- 
lowed a proper portion of Boats for their 



Baggage on their way to Oswego, those 
boats will be man'd by the Supernumer- 
aries of each corps. Capt. Ruvielle's 
corps of Canadians will remove the 
same time & carry 20 Days provisions 
for 500 men. The Corps will be assisted 
by a proper number of men [from] the 
Ks and 34th to mount the Rapids from 
Oswego to Fort Stanwix. The provision 
boats as well as those of the officers bag- 
gage are to be Loaded this Evening 
ready to push [ahead] at a moment's 
warning in the morning. The advance 
Corps to carry 6 Days provision in bread 
& pork to shut out any possibility of 
want of provision from Delays or Dis- 
appointments of the Ks vessels ; the offi- 
cer command'g in chief finds himself 
under the painfull necessity of putting a 
short stop to the currency of Trade by 
ordering that the crews of the boats that 
come to unload on the Island may go 
one trip with provision to Oswego for 
which they will be paid. Every Brigade 
of provision boats, which arrived before 
the return of the vessals from Niagara, 
Capt Potts will push forward to Oswego 
with all Expedition. 

Regtl Orders. For Guard to Mor- 
row Ensign Wall, 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 15 P. 
Each officer Commanding Companys is 
to pay 3 Dollars, Each subaltern 1 Dollar 
to the Quartermaster in order to pay the 
men that carry'd the batteaux over the 
Long Sault, & the officers of the Colo- 
nels Company to pay Three Dollars 
extraordinary [for] the batteau that was 
lost at Point Apaw in place of Five paid 
to the Indians for finding the 5th Bat- 
teau, and for the future whatever Com- 
panys shall lose Batteaux or provisions 
by negligence shall pay the whole value 




ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



2 95 



& be liable to censure besides ; as men 
seem to be careless about their arms & 
Accoutrements it is the Commanding 
officers orders that at Roll Call evening 
& morning the men appear with their 
arms, and whoever loses any of them 
shall be obliged to pay for the same. 

— 19th. P. Hesse Hanau. C. Cas- 
sel. The troop [i. e. Bugle call] will 
assemble the advanced corps, & upon 
the beating the second troop, they will 
embark. Each corps will be allowed 

1 boat to carry such things as will 
be immediately wanted, which will move 
with the Artillery and provisions des- 
tined for Fort Stanwix. The remainder 
will stay at Oswego till a general clear- 
ance of that post. The whole Brigade 
of Canadians that brought up the Hes- 
sians to be employed in carrying pro- 
visions to Oswego after giving Eight 
hands to strengthen Capt Rouvilles Com- 
pany. The Artillery under the conduct 
of Lt Collerton to carry 20 days Pro- 
vision for their own Detachment. Three 
of the Rebel Prisoners now in the Provo 
Guard who have taken the oaths of al- 
legiance to the King are to be employed 
as Batteau men to Lt. Glennies Detach- 
ment to which will be added 10 Men of 
the Royal Yorkers which takes two 
boatsfrom their proper line of trans- 
ports. 

— 19th. After Orders. The sev- 
eral corps to proceed in 2 lines dressing. 
The Leading boats, the officer com- 
manding in chief & the staff to Lead ; 
the lines to be followed by the Artillery, 
Kings Regt, Capt Ruvills Company, & 

2 Merchts boats & 34th Regt. 

Signals to be observ'd by the De- 
tach'mt; the Ensign hoisted a mid ships 



and one musket a Signal for all boats to 
put off. The Ensign hoisted in the bow 
and one musket a signal for all boats to 
put ashore. A Signal to be made by any 
boats in Distress, three successive mus- 
kets ; a signal for a [illegible] any thing 
white in the bow. All signals to be Re- 
peat'd by commanding officers of corps. 
The Detachment of Royal Artillery 
under the command of Lieut. Glennie, 
the R. R. N. Yorkers, the Companies of 
Chasseurs 9 & officers & Rangers 10 of 
the Indian Department & Canadians 
Destined for the transport of provisions 
are to hold themselves in Readiness 
to embark to morrow Morning at 4 
o'clock, for which purpose the officers 
commandn'g the different Corps are to 
see that their Boats are loaded this 
evening; all the ovens to be Imploy'd 
this evening in Bakeing for the Hes- 
sians. Three Canadians out of each of 
the 7 boats to be Imploy'd as Steersmen 
to the Royal Yorkers & Hessians, for 
which in equal Number agreeable to the 
proportion [of] each Corps, Receipts 
must be given for the Provision boats. 
The whole to proceed in the Following 
order. First, The Command'g Officer 
with such of the staff & Indian Depart- 
ment as are on the Ground. 



Oswego Falls 
— 1777 July 31st. P. York. The 
Detachment of the Royal artillery under 
the command of lieut. Glinne, the R. 
R. of N. Y. of Capt. Buvills company 
of Canadians to take in their load- 
ing immediat'ly ; each captains boat in 
the royal Yorkers to carry 4 barrels, 10 
lieut boats 5 each, lieutenant Anderson 
J. Wilkerson to carry 4 Barrels each, the 



296 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 



privates' boats to carry 6 each, & to 
hold themselves in readiness to embark 
at 2 o'clock this afternoon to proceed in 
the Following order. 

Royal artillery. Six Companys of the 
Kings R. R. of N. Y. Capt Bouvills 
Company of Canadians, Lieut Col's 
Company. The officers commanding 
companys not to allow their boats to fall 
back or put ashore without orders or a 
signal for that purpose. 

1 A portion of Jessup's Corps was also with 
Burgoyne's army. The Big Fall on the Hudson 
River, about ten miles above Glen's Falls, where 
the entire volume of water pours over a sheer 
descent of seventy feet, is named Jessup's Falls, 
after the commander of this corps. " Above the 
fall is a gorge in the rocks, where the river finds 
a passage in a cleft about fourteen feet space. 
Here legend says that Jessup jumped across the 
river and made his escape at the outbreak of the 
Revolution from the Sheriff of Albany county." 
— Holden's History of Queensbury. 

2 Allan Maclean of Torloisk, Lieut. Col. 1st 
Battalion Royal Highland Emigrants, afterwards 
84th Foot. 

3 This officer was captured with Gen. Prescott 
on the fleet while attempting to escape from 
Montreal to Quebec in November, 1775. 

4 Major Ancrum was the officer sent by Col. 
St. Leger to Col. Willett to summon the garrison 
of Fort Stanwix to surrender. See Willett's 
Narrative, p. 56. 

5 Lieutenant George Clerges of the 34th Regi- 
ment. He entered the British army as Ensign 
in the 53d, July 10, 1776 ; exchanged into 34th 
January 1, 1777 ; became a Lieutenant therein 
November 5th, 1782, and appears last in army 
lists in 1783. 

6 Bucks' or Carleton Island — called by the 
French Isle aux Chevreuils , from the fact that the 
deer frequented it, as it had good pasturage. In 
passing on the steamboat down the St. Lawrence 
River from Cape St. Vincent, the tourist will ob- 
serve a number of stacks of old stone chimneys 
standing near the shore on the left side, which 
are upon Bucks' Island. Buchette, in his His- 
tory of Canada, published in 181 5, states that 
Carleton Island was converted into a large mag- 
azine or depot for military supplies and general 
rendezvous in 1774-5 by the British Government, 
in anticipation of trouble with her American col- 
onies. Doubtless, as Carleton was then in com- 
mand of Canada, the name of the island was 
at this time changed in honor of that Gen- 



eral. The stacks of chimneys still to be seen 
are probably the remains of those "ovens" 
— to which the Orderly Book refers — in which 
bread for the troops was baked. The English 
Government reserved this island in its sale to 
Macomb ; and in 1796 a corporal and three men 
were in charge. The island, however, had evi- 
dently been fortified by the French many years 
before 1774, the time spoken of by Bouchette ; 
for Count Frontenac mentions it as one of his 
stopping places in 1696 in his expedition against 
the Onondagas, at which time Captain du Luth 
was left on the island with a garrison of forty 
men, masons, etc., with orders to " complete the 
fort. " For a more detailed account of this isl- 
and and its fortifications, see Hough's History of 
Jefferson Co., and Rochefoucault de Liancourt's 
Travels. I am indebted to Messrs. Burt and 
Ames of Oswego, N. Y., for their courtesy in 
giving me information about this island. 

7 The British service recognized a number of 
military commissions which are unknown in 
others, among them "acting," "territorial ' 
and "local" For instance, in the cases of 
Carleton and Clinton, they were full generals in 
America, but only Lieut. Generals elsewhere. 
This explains how Ferguson is variously known 
as Line Major, Brevet Colonel and Territorial 
Brigadier General for the command of militia. — 
J. W. De Peyster. 

8 Col. Claus states that he had under him in 
this expedition 150 Indians of the Misisagey and 
Six Nations. 

9 Col. Claus, however, in his Letter to Secre- 
tary Knox, above referred to, speaks of only one 
company of Chasseurs, and that arrived a day or 
two before the 19th of July. 

10 ' ' The origin of Rangers, since the late Sir 
Wm. Johnson's time, was to intermix them with 
the Indians when on service, and be commanded 
by the Indian officers. Formerly none but those 
acquainted with the Indians and their language 
were admitted, and received half a crown pay ; 
now that distinction, though essentially neces- 
sary, is no more made, which makes his com- 
mission become an additional useless expense, 
though very beneficial to him." — C>1. Claus to 
Secretary Knox, 16th, Oct. 1777. 

Note — The reader should be informed that the 
hiatus which occurs in the Orderly Book between 
the 19th and the 31st of July is due to the fact that 
at that time the troops of General St. Leger and 
Sir John Johnson were passing from Buck's 
(Carleton) Island to Oswego Falls in boats. 

It should also be stated that, while the names 
of towns and places in the Orderly Book have 
been corrected, the variations in spelling of the 
proper names of persons have been in nearly all 
cases preserved. 

William L. Stone 



NOTES 297 

NOTES of the same Metal. A large Quantity of 
Clinton portraits— Miss Booth, in Diamonds, Pearls, and Precious Stones. 
her History of New York City, has made A lar S e Quantity of Gold, &c, &C 
an error in giving to the portraits of ~ The Allowing is an Account of the 
George Clinton, first Governor of the Mone y and other Car g° found on board 
State of New York, and Lady Clinton the South Sea Shl P> called Notre Dame 
his wife, the names of Sir George and de La Deliverance, carried into Louis- 
Lady Clinton. Sir George was Admiral bur g soon after the Acquisition of that 
Clinton, Governor of the New York Place - 
Province from 1743 to 1753. The por- x 4.840 Double Doubloons, at 66^ 

r . .1 r,, tvt 1 • Sterl. each /48Q72: 0:0 

taits given are after the St. Memin ^ „ ** y n 

1,320,500 Dollars at 4^. 9 313618: 15:0 

heads> A - H - 786 Ounces of Gold at 72s. per 

~ T .. , „ 7 Ounce 2829:12:0 

Colonial prizes — Letter front Char- nQn ■& A „ mm „ c ., 

J 283 Found, 3 oz or 4531 oz Silver, 

leston, S. C, December 26, 1744. Since 5J . per oz 1132: 15 : o 

my la,st came in here the brave and ac- 

tive Captain Franklyn, in his Majesty's £367553: 2.0 

Ship the Rose, and brought in with him l8 Lar S e Gold Snuff Boxes - 

.,-r, ioi- 11 j x.i r~> 1 Gold headed Sword, 

a rich French Ship, called the Concep- „ ._ , __ . 

1 r 1 Crucifix and Chain. 

tion, bound from Carthagena to the A small box containing rough Diamonds. 

Havannah, of 400 Tons, 20 Carriage 876 Serons, ) t r 

c. t> 1" ^^ v>OC3. 

Guns, and 326 Men on board. Captain 3 10 ■ Ba S 3 ) 

Franklyn fought her n Glasses, Yard- I f tJ S " 0n5 t °!.. Je5ui ' S ^ ark ; 

J ° . .... 36 Bales of Fine red Wool. 
Arm and Yard-Arm, during which Time 

he killed her 116 Men, and wounded 45, The value of the Whole am <™ ntin g to 

and then she struck; and had himself about ^400,000 Sterling.— A^. F. Weekly 

five men killed, and 13 wounded ; the Post Boy, Dec. 16, 1745 W. K. 
Rose had 175 Men onboard. The Vice 

King's Secretary was made a Prisoner, Progress of boston — Long previous 

and says, she is the richest Ship that has to the revolution in America, I had re- 

ever been taken since the Commence- peatedly visited Boston ; what a strange 

ment of the Spanish War, (except Ad- contrast after an absence of more than 

miral Anson's great Prize.) All the thirty years ! In 1762, 64 and 65, it was 

Passengers on board are very rich ; and the extravagance of fanatic religious 

the Crew of the Rose continually find folly; under the cloak of which, hypocricy 

hidden Treasure. We are informed that and vice prevailed to a high degree. It is 

her Cargoe consists of the following Par- true, there were no public notorious 

ticulars, viz : — 800 Serons of Cocoa, 68 brothels, nor any women of known loose 

Chests of Silver, Gold and Silver Coins, conduct suffered to reside in the town; 

Plate, a large Quantity and very curious, but there was more private debauchery 

A Two-Wheel'd Chaise, with Silver than I ever knew in any other part of the 

Wheels. An Axle-Tree, of the same, all world. I could fill pages with the sin- 



298 



NOTES 



gularly laughable occurrences within my 
own knowledge. In 1794 I found a 
Roman Catholic chapel freely tolerated, 
and was entertained in a handsome, 
crowded theatre; two circumstances, 
which, if I had ventured to predict when 
I first knew the place (daring as I was 
known to be at that time), I should have 
run some risk of being tarred and feath- 
ered. Not a single Jew was able to live 
there sometime previous to the revolu- 
tion ; now there is an abundance, with 
every species of accommodation, bad as 
well as good, that can be found in the 
seaports and cities of Europe. — Lieuten- 
ant John Harriott's Travels, II., 34. 
Petersfield 



The ohio company — Cameron, Febry 
23d, 1748-9. Sir : We the Committee 
of the Ohio Company met here have 
order'd the Hundred pounds Sterling 
from each Member as a Stock for 
goods from London to be paid at or 
before the 15th of Aprill next, we there- 
fore desire you'l send that Sum so Mr. 
Nath'l Chapman or order at or before 
that time who's to give receipts for the 

sum by order of . Sir, 

Y'r humble Servt's. 
Law'r Washington 
James Scott 
Nath'l Chapman 
John Carlyle 
P. S. We have Appointed the 18th 
day of May next for a General Meeting 
at Cameron where Business of Import- 
ance Relating the Comp'y will be Trans- 
acted & we desire your attendance with- 
out fail 

To Maj'r Law'r Washington 

T. A. E. 



The drama in boston — The Theatre 
in this city was opened for the season on 
the Monday evening of last week. We 
do not mention this fact to give informa- 
tion ; — we mention it to excite Christians 
to pray against the wide-spreading pesti- 
lence ; to exhort Christian parents to 
keep their children from the vortex of 
destruction ; to sound an alarm among 
all ranks of society, where a relic of 
morality remains, and beseech them to 
feel that "the hour of temptation is 
come." — Boston Recorder and Telegraph, 
Dec. 1826. Beacon Street 



Rhode island congressmen- — Dr. 
Williamson in a letter to Judge Iredell, 
of North Carolina, dated New York, 
August 23, 1788, describes Chief Justice 
Peleg Arnold and Jonathan Hazard, the 
delegates from " the large, upright, and 
respectable State of Rhode Island," as 
follows : " That State was some days 
ago represented by a Mr. Arnold, who 
keeps a little tavern ten miles out of 
Providence ; and a Mr. Hazard, the il- 
literate ' quondam ' skipper of a small 
coasting vessel, who now, the very leader 
of Know Ye justices, officiates at country 
courts, and receives small fees, not as a 
lawyer, but agent for suitors ." 

Nipmuc 



Niagara falls — The first mention 
in history is in 1648, Relations des 
Jesuites, and the mention is as follows : 
" A Lake called Erie discharges its 
waters par une cheute aTeaux d'une ef- 
froyable hauteur into Lake Ontario. — 
One Hundred Prize Questions in Cana- 
dian History, Montreal, 1880. 

Editor 



QUERIES 



299 



QUERIES 

Colonel tho.mas of the guards — 
In the expedition to Gov. Livingston's 
house, Liberty Hall, in June 1780, 
Lieut. Col. Gordon [a brother of the 
Duchess of Gordon, whom Staats Morris 
married] is alleged to have " got into 
trouble." He was tried ; " and after- 
wards insisted on fighting and killing 
Lieut. Col. Thomas of the 1st Guards, 
who had testified against him.' 

Is this latter officer the same one who 
is mentioned in the following foot-note 
to Boswell's Johnson ? If so, what are 
the facts in the case, and what was the 
nature of the trouble ? "In a clause in 
the will of the late Colonel Thomas, of 
the Guards, written the night before he 
fell in a duel, Sept. 3, 1783, he says, ' In 
the first place I commit my soul to Al- 
mighty God, in hopes of his mercy and 
pardon for the irreligious step I now [in 
compliance with the unwarrantable cus- 
toms of this wicked world] put myself 
under the necessity of taking.' " 

C. A. C. 



Continental army — What regiment 
in the Continental army has been by the 
majority of historians declared the best 
in discipline and length of service ? 

E. S. W., Jr. 

Columbus in Iceland — Irving in his 
Life of Columbus, lib. I., chap. 6, says : 
" While the design of attempting the 
discovery in the west was maturing in 
the mind of Columbus, he made a voy- 
age to the North of Europe. Of this 
we have no other memorial than the fol- 
lowing passage, extracted by his son 
from one of his letters : 



11 In the year 1477, in February, I navi- 
gated one hundred leagues beyond 
Thule, etc' " 

Humboldt [Cosmos, I.] mentions a 
work of Columbus, Tratado de las Cinco 
Zonas Habitables. " Christopher Colum- 
bus," says Humboldt, " in a work ' On 
the Five Habitable Zones of the Earth,' 
which has now become extremely rare, 
states that in the month of February, 
1477, he visited Iceland." 

Is this work and the letter mentioned 
as above, by Irving, both one and the 
same ? If not, then Irving must have 
been unacquainted with the existence of 
the work to which Humboldt alludes. 

Columbus mentions an island to the 
south of Iceland, which he calls Fris- 
landa ; and Humboldt asks the question 
how Columbus, if ignorant of the travels 
of the brothers Zeni, came by this name 
Frislanda. C. A. C. 



C. C. COLTON IN AMERICA It has 

been stated that the author of " Lacon" 
arrived in 1824 in the ship Boy, Captain 
Greene, owned by Governor Collins, at 
Newport, R. I., where he assumed the 
name of Hamilton ; and that he lived 
two years in this country, residing 
part of the time in New York and in 
Charleston, S. C, and that while here he 
contributed to the newspapers. 

Is this statement true ? The question 
has been asked elsewhere. I ask it now 
in the hope that some of the readers of 
this may be able to answer it. 

C. A. C 



A Scottish blade — Col. Edward 
Wyman, of this city, has a very old sword 
[claymore]. On each side of the blade 



joo 



REPLIES 



near the hilt is marked SAHGUM. 
Can any one explain this ? It is sup- 
posed to have been brought from Cape 
Breton. 

Boston A. A. F. 



REPLIES 



The blue bell tavern — [IV. 460, 
V. 142. VI. 64. 223] The following ad- 
additional testimony justifies me in re- 
affirming my former statements, 1st, as 
to the site of the w Blue Bell," and 2d, as 
to the date of its destruction. My orig- 
inal authority in the matter — for of 
course I am only a reporter — Mr. Ryer, 
the oldest and best informed man at 
Fort Washington, locally, having been 
consulted and again questioned with 
special reference to the points in debate, 
has thus written me : 

u Vou wish to be correctly informed 
with reference to the location of the Blue 
Bell tavern. Its location was on the 
east side of the Kingsbridge road, right 
opposite grandmother's house, still stand- 
ing. Her brother. Blazius Moore, 
bought the farm just previous to the yel- 
low fere r in New York, and moved out 
there. It [the Blue Bell] was burnt 
down by an old crazy colored women, 
and what was left of any good, was used 
in a house : he built on the property that 
still stands there. The broken brick 
that was of no use was piled against the 
old road wall and lots of it remain there 
still. The farm is owned b\ his grand- 
son, Mr. Charles S. Chesbrough. The 
location now is just in 181st Street, the 
east side of the Kingsbridge road. The 
building was burnt down the year he 
bought it, and he came in possession the 



year following, moving there during the 
summer. Blazius Ryer" 

In order to procure all the information 
in this matter within my reach. I ad- 
dressed a note of inquiry also to un- 
friend Isaac M. Dyckman, Esq., who 
lives about a mile north of Fort Wash- 
ington on the Kingsbridge road, the pres- 
ent representative of the large Dyckman 
estate on the island, a man of sixty-five, 
familiar from his boyhood with all the 
old landmarks in those parts, and an 
esteemed and intelligent Elder in the 
Presbvterian Church at Inwood, who thus 
replies : "In compliance with your re- 
quest I write you in relation to the 
'Blue Bell' tavern. I saw Mr. Ryer, 
and have compared notes with him. He 
and I agree, viz.: The 'Blue Bell ' 
tavern was located on the east side of 
the road, now at or in 181st St.. and was 
burned down in 181 9 or 1S20. The 
mistake arises from the location of an- 
other old house about one-half a mile 
south of ' Blue Bell,' and this house was 
burned down in or about 1S46, and was 
on the west side of the road." Thus far 
these witnesses, and how they can be 
mistaken in the premises, being as it 
were " to the manner born," and being 
persons so locally well posted, I cannot 
conceive. 

Elizabeth W. H. 



St. memik portrait — [ V. 446] 
There was published in Baltimore in 
1S40 a brief work in pamphlet form, 
called " An Exposiiion of Book-keeping 
by Single or Double Entry." by Henry 
Alexander, which is embellished with a 
portrait of the author engraved by St. 
Memin. It appears in Mr. Dexter's 



REPLIES 



30I 



collection, No. 364. The face is to the 
right. Above the portrait is " Henry- 
Alexander, 1806," and below is — 
" Drawn and engraved by St. Memin, 
Baltimore." M. W. H. 

Baltimore 



John brown, lieut. colonel of the 

MASSACHUSETTS LINE — [V. 376] The 

Rev. G. L. Roof, who delivered the ad- 
dress at the laying of the corner stone of 
Lieut. Col. John Brown's monument, is 
living at Mount Ida, at Troy, New York, 
and might know if any portrait exist of 
him, or possibly the fact may be stated 
in " The Northern Invasion," printed by 
the Bradford Club. 

W. Hudson Stephens 
Lowville, JV. Y. 



Revolutionary characters — Lieut. 
Col. Francis Barber — [VI. 60] A few 
particulars relative to the death and 
burial of this distinguished officer of 
the New Jersey line, have been re- 
ceived from his grandchildren living in 
this city, and are here subjoined. Other 
biographical facts may be found in a 
notice of him by the late Dr. W. W. 
Whitehead, of Elizabeth, published in 
Appleton's Encyclopedia. 

On the day when the news of peace 
were received at Washington's Head- 
quarters at New Windsor, in the vicinity 
of Newburgh, N. Y., the General had 
invited his officers with their wives, to 
dine with him. Col. Barber that day had 
been reviewing troops for a military 
friend, and on his return to meet Mrs. 
Barber — a daughter of the Hon. Robert 
Ogden, of Elizabethtown — awaiting him 
at his brother's house in or near New 



Windsor, rode through a piece of woods 
where some men were felling trees by 
the road side. They called out to him 
to hurry, as one was about to fall, but 
not understanding them, he unfor- 
tunately reined in his horse, and in a 
moment after the tree came down and 
killed both him and his beast. He was 
buried in the grave-yard of the " Good 
Will Presbyterian Meeting House," in 
New Windsor, where a head-stone to his 
memory was either erected or renovated 
a few years ago. 

Elizabeth W. H. 



Robinson's house [IV. 109] — The 
immediate surroundings of the house 
are much changed since the revolution. 
The road which now leads past the place 
was not there then ; the mansion being 
approached by a lane leading westward 
to it from the old Peekskill road which 
lies some distance east of the house. 
This lane may be seen laid down on 
Erskine's map in the Magazine for Dec, 
1879 (III. 756). Faint traces of the 
road which led from the house to the 
dock are still to be found. On the west 
side of the highway, a few rods above 
the house, is a stile ; from this a wind- 
ing path, all that is left of the Beverley 
Dock road, leads down to the river side 
and the remains of the dock itself. 
In the lots west of the old Peekskill 
road may still be seen vestiges of what 
is called the Old Camp Oven, which 
probably stood on or near the lane 
which formerly was the approach to the 
Beverley House. 

The night that Andre was brought 
from South Salem, in Westchester 
County, to Robinson's house, the party 



302 



REPLIES 



took [by orders of Washington] a very 
circuitous route. As far as can be told 
now, they must have taken a road [de- 
lineated on Erskine's map] which leads 
off from the Crumpond road some dis- 
tance east of Somer's Town. Following 
this northward to about the site of the 
present Carmel in Putnam County, they 
then took a road branching off westward 
towards the Hudson River. This would 
take them by Lake Mahopac ; near 
which we catch a glimpse of them. At 
Red Hills, or, as it was then called, 
Robinson's Mills, which is but a short 
distance from the lake, at the house of 
James Cox, Blake, in his History of Put- 
nam County, says they stopped. Pur- 
suing their course by this road their 
route would lay through what is now 
known as Shrub Oaks, and they would 
eventually come out into the New York 
post road at Cortlandtville, two miles 
above Peekskill. That they did so is 
proven by the fact that here again we 
meet with a tradition of them. At the 
fork of the roads near St. Peter's church 
[in the cemetery of which John Pauld- 
ing lies buried] is a very old house. At 
this house, according to a well authenti- 
cated statement, the party halted for a 
short time. [See Potter's Am. Monthly 
for Sept., 1876]. From this point their 
route is clear enough; up the post road, 
over high Gallow's Hill, where Palmer 
was hung three years before, and keep- 
ing to the left above Continental Vil- 
lage, on to their destination. 

M. A. 



page 446, and Major Joseph Strong, 
page 445, should all read Strang, and in 
the last paragraph of my article, " There 
were three logs," should read, there were 
logs there. W. J. C. 

Yorktown, N. Y. 



The bowerie [IV. 224, 468, V. 66] 
In answer to the query as to the true 
spelling of this name, " B. F." of Al- 
bany writes that it is properly spelled 
"Bouwerij." In Sewel's Dutch and 
English Dictionary of 1764, the word is 
spelled " Bouwery" — its meaning a farm. 
The only change in the name of the 
street bearing that name is in dropping 
the. u. 

Port Jervis, N. Y. W. H. N. 



KlSSAM BOOK PLATE [V. 376, VI. 224] 

I have a copy of Locke, published in 
London, 1731. On the inside of the 
cover is the plate referred to, and on the 
fly leaf is written " Benj . Kissam, Bt. of 
Thos. Wilcox, London." 

H. Dawkins was probably an engraver 
in London. 

New York Benj. T. Kissam 



French hill, Westchester county 
— [V. 442] The names of Henry 
Strong, page 443, I. Hazard Strong, 



The chains of columbus — [II. 162] 
In an article on " The Remains of Co- 
lumbus," in the Magazine for March, 
1878, Mr. Brevoort says: " As for 
the chains which Columbus wore on his 
return from his third voyage, and which 
he ordered to be buried with him, they 
are not mentioned elsewhere than in his 
will." 

I do not find any such clause in Col- 
umbus' will. Fernando Columbus ( Hist. 
del Almirante, in Barcia, Hist. Prim, de 
las Ind. Occident., ed. Madrid, 1749), 



REPLIES 



303 



tells us that his father kept the fetters, 
in which he was brought home, hanging 
in his house, and requested that when 
he died they should be buried with him ; 
but I look in vain for any such direc- 
tions set forth by Columbus himself 
either in his will or elsewhere. 

C. A. C. 



Pierre auguste Chouteau — [V. 
204] The family spelling is as above, 
not " Choteau," as given in E. T. 
Lander's article. Scribner's Monthly of 
1874, in an account of St. Louis, gives 
the correct spelling, as also a picture of 
the old " Chouteau Mansion " as it was. 
Tradition assigns to Col. Chouteau the 
honor of having cut the first tree on the 
site of that city. With other descend- 
ants, Mr. Gabriel S. Chouteau, his son, 
a venerable nonagenarian, is still living 
in St. Louis, as we have recently been 
informed. To Mrs. Col. Phinney, of N. 
J., a great grand-daughter of his father, 
its original French patriarch and founder, 
with Liguest, we are indebted for the 
particulars here recorded. 

Elizabeth W. H. 



Washington a polyphemus — [VI. 
142] The Tory printer had his laugh a 
century ago at the slow progress Washing- 
ton made with his impedimenta dragged 
by oxen, but the last word from India 
shows that even great English generals 
are compelled to do the best they can. 

" Of the thirteen thousand bullocks in 
the transport service of the British 
army in Afghanistan, five thousand are 
unfit for work, owing to the effects of 
General Roberts' march last August, 
and the hard work and approximate 



starvation endured under General 
Phayre. It is proposed to substitute 
camels." Iulus 

Fox-hall manor [V. 373] — Thomas 
Chambers, one of the earliest settlers of 
Wittwyck [Kingston], had purchased 
from the Indians considerable tracts of 
land east of Kingston and extending 
southeasterly from the Esopus Kil. The 
English Government confirmed his title 
to these lands, and Gov. Dongan erected 
the same into a manor and lordship with 
right to hold a Court-Leet and a Court- 
Baron on the 28th Oct., 1686. The 
manor was merged into Kingston, March 
12, 1787. B. F. 

Albany 

The randal maps [V. 372, VI. 63] — 
The Randal " Field Notes " of his sur- 
vey of New York Island have been pur- 
chased by the city government and are 
now in the Department of Sewers. 

The Randal map proper is to be seen 
in the Citv Hall. Engineer 



Descendants of sir william John- 
son — [V. 373, VI. 225] The following 
information may be new to some of the 
readers of the Magazine : 

In case of McKinnon vs. Bliss, 21 N. 
Y. Reports, p. 207, it appears that 92,- 
000 acres of land were devised by Sir 
William Johnson to his eight children 
by Molly Brant — Susanna taking 3,000 
acres. Doubtless all reliable existing 
evidence as to the whereabouts of the 
land papers and their reported " burial " 
there appears ; and the case illustrates 
the value of general history as evidence. 
W. Hudson Stephens 

Lowville, N, Y. 



304 



EDITORS CHRONICLE 



EDITOR'S CHRONICLE 

At the February meeting of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, Ralph 
Waldo Emerson read a paper upon 
Thomas Carlyle, who was one of its for- 
eign members. Mr. Emerson introduced 
the works of Carlyle to America, and 
Sartor Resartus first appeared in book 
form in this country. Mr. Robert C. 
Winthrop reported that the amount con- 
tributed by Americans to the Raleigh 
memorial window in St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster, was about ^315 
sterling. Colonel Lee gave a descrip- 
tion of the William Clark house and 
the Hutchinson mansion at the North 
End, as they were in 183 1. A contribu- 
tion was reported of one thousand dollars 
from Mrs. Helen Bigelow Merriman to 
the Erastus B. Bigelow fund of the So- 
ciety. 



The Man-land Historical Society held 
its annual meeting at its rooms, Sara- 
toga and St. Paul streets, Monday even- 
ing, February 14. J. H. B. Latrobe was 
elected President, E. A. Dalrymple, Cor- 
responding Secretary, and John M. W. 
Lee, Librarian, for the ensuing year. 
Large additions to the library were an- 
nounced. The paper of the evening, 
on the origin of the name of Baltimore, 
was read by Joseph Barry of Harper's 
Ferry. Mr. Barry did not claim to settle 
the question, but insisted that, whatever 
the etymology, the name was derived 
from the green isle. 



The Georgia Historical Society held 
its regular annual meeting Monday, Feb- 
ruary 14, at Hodgson Hall. Savannah. 
Henry R. Jackson was elected President, 



and Wm. G. Mann, Recording Secre- 
tary. Efforts are to be made to increase 
the numbers and efficiency of the insti- 
tution. Charles C. Jones of Augusta 
delivered the address, the subject of 
which was the Founders, Patrons and 
Special Friends of the Georgia Histor- 
ical Society. The historic field pre- 
sented by the Southern of the old thir- 
teen States is rich and unexplored. The 
efforts of the Societies at Savannah and 
Charleston are eagerly watched by stu- 
dents of historv. 



The Dauphin County, Penn., Histori- 
cal Society held its annual meeting Feb- 
ruary 10. Officers were elected for the 
ensuing year. A. Boyd Hamilton, Presi- 
dent, Thomas H. Robinson, Correspond- 
ing Secretary, and William H. Egle, Li- 
brarian. Papers from the pen of the 
President on the Early Settlement of the 
Susquehanna, and on Washington's Stat- 
in Harrisburg in 1794, were read. 



The February meeting of the Minne- 
sota Historical Society was held in the 
library of Edward D. Neill, at Macal- 
ester College, Minneapolis. The paper 
of the evening was by the Reverend 
Mr. Neill on the Records of the English 
Province of the Society of Jesus, a vol- 
ume lately published in London, in which 
intolerance is charged upon the govern- 
ment of Maryland, in not permitting the 
Order to hold public worship in 1634, 
and a desire for their expulsion attrib- 
uted to Lord Baltimore. 



The American Numismatic and Anti- 
quarian Society, Philadelphia, met 
Thursday, February 4th. A number of 



EDITOR S CIIKONICLK 



305 



interesting additions to the cabinet were 
announced. Among the papers pre- 
sented was one from the Rev. Horace 
Edwin Hayden of Wilkesbarre, Penn., 
on the Soldiers' Medals issued by the 
State of West Virginia as Tokens of Re- 
spect to those of her citizens who served 
the United States from 1861 to 1865. 
Mr. Westcott Bailey exhibited a silver 
idol from Peru, near Lake Titicaca, 
with a paper in relation to its discovery 
and probable history. 



The Trustees of the Peabody Fund 
met at the Riggs House, Washington, 
on the 2d of February. The address of 
the President, Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, was devoted to a review of the 
services of the late Dr. Barnas Sears, 
general agent of the Fund. 



The American Library Association 
held its fourth general meeting in Wash- 
ington during the second week in Feb- 
ruary. The construction of Library 
Buildings and the Arrangement and Cat- 
aloguing of Books were ably treated in 
papers presented by William F. Poole, 
Justin Winsor and others; and S. S. 
Green presented a Report on the Dis- 
tribution of Public Documents, to the 
suggestions of which our legislators will 
do well to pay heed. How necessary 
some action is may be understood from 
the single fact, that as far back as 1862, 
after weeks of labor and research in 
Washington and elsewhere, and with the 
kind assistance of Mr. Secretary Chase, 
the writer was unable to complete » set 
of the Treasury Reports for one of the 
great commercial corporations of the 
country. 



The Long Island Historical Society 
held a regular meeting on the evening of 
February 2 2d, when Joshua M. Van 
Cott read an appropriate Appeal for Na- 
tional Unity against Sectionalism, and, 
invoked Washington's national spirit as 
the example for the hour. 

Washington's Birthday was celebrated 
throughout the country with unusual 
spirit and zeal. North and South the 
Father of the Nation was remembered 
with appropriate feeling and honor ; and 
in States where this national holiday has 
been long neglected the ancient spirit is 
revived — a sure harbinger of that era of 
good feeling for which every patriotic 
American devoutly prays. 



On the 22d February the official pre- 
sentation of the Egyptian Obelisk to the 
City of New York was made with ap- 
propriate ceremony at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in the Central Park. 
The building was filled by a distinguished 
company, and thousands gathered with- 
out about the ancient monument. Mr. 
Evarts, Secretary of State, made the 
address, and Mayor Grace responded in 
the name of the city. At the conclu- 
sion of the ceremonies silver medals, 
struck for occasion by the Numismatic 
and Archaeological Society, were pre- 
sented to Lieutenant Commander Gor- 
ringe and W. H. Vanderbilt, and one 
hundred medals in bronze were also given 
to boys selected from public schools 
for scholarship and deportment. 



In the evening of the 2 2d February 
the Cooper Union building was thronged. 
Addresses appropriate to the day were 



306 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



delivered, and the interest of the occa- 
sion was heightened by the presentation 
from the students of a series of resolu- 
tions to Peter Cooper, the founder of 
this admirable and useful institution. 



We were mistaken in a statement made 
in the Chronicle for February, in regard 
to Mrs. Ellen Hardin Walworth's book 
on the Saratoga battles. She still retains 
all rights to the work, with the plates of 
original maps ; and has authorized no 
one to act for her in subscriptions, or in 
sales of the book, except through the 
ordinary channels of the book-stores and 
news stands. Mrs. Walworth is, how- 
ever, personally interested in the erection 
bf memorial tablets on the battle-field 
at Bemis Heights ; she is chairman of a 
committee of the Monument Association 
who have that matter in charge. She 
may be addressed at Saratoga Springs. 

The Yorktown Centennial Commission 
consists of one Senator and one Repre- 
sentative from each of the original 
thirteen States. Senators Johnston, Rol- 
lins, Dawes, Anthony, Eaton, Wallace, 
Kiernan, Randolph, Bayard, Whyte, 
Ransom, Butler, Hill. Representatives 
Goode, Hall, Loring, Aldrich, Hawley, 
Dick, Brigham, Muller, Martin, Talbott, 
Davis, Richardson, Parsons. 

The following programme has been 
issued by Senator John W. Johnston, 
Chairman, and John S. Tucker, clerk : 

The Guests of the National Government will 
assemble at Washington October 18th, 1881, and 
be received there with proper ceremonies by the 
Congressional Committee. The Committee will 
proceed, with the invited guests and such govern- 
ment officials as may join them, to Yorktown, to 
arrive there on the morning of the. 19th. Prep- 



aration will be made during the morning of the 
landing of troops, and the Oration and Poem 
will be delivered at two o'clock P. M. with such 
accompanying services as the Committee may 
determine. These services will consist of brief 
addresses of welcome by the Governor of Vir- 
ginia and others, an original ode, the laying of 
the corner-stone, with an address by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, who will be invited 
to preside on the occasion. The exercises will 
be interspersed with music by the military bands 
present, and with salutes by the artillery. On 
the 20th there will be a grand parade of all the 
military organizations on the battle-field, and a 
review by the President of the United States. 
The military exercises will be concluded with a 
Dress Parade. A competent army officer will be 
selected to take command of the parade. It is 
hoped that a Naval Review may be held on the 
21st, in the adjacent waters. The Governors and 
Commissioners of all the States will be invited 
to be present, the former with their military 
staffs and such military organization as may wish 
to accompany them ; and it is particularly de- 
sired that at least the Original Thirteen States 
should provide for as imposing a representation 
as possible, by the presence of their civil officers 
and military organizations. The Committee sug- 
gests, without presuming to give any directions 
in the matter, that each State will provide itself 
with such means of transportation and accommo- 
dation, while present at the celebration, as will 
enable it to take part in any local services which 
may take place. The details of the Celebration 
will be arranged hereafter, and with the list of 
invited guests will be published for general in- 
formation. 

No announcement has as yet been 
made with regard to the design of the 
monument to be erected. 



The Associated Pioneers of the Ter- 
ritorial days of California held their 
sixth annual banquet at Delmonico's on 
the 1 8th January. A vacant chair, 
draped in mourning, reminded the So- 
ciety of its late President, John A. Sut- 



editor's chronicle 



307 



ter. General H. G. Gibson presided. 
Samuel Ward responded to the toast : 
" The day we celebrate and California ; 
the days of old and the days of gold ; 
the days of '49." General John C. Fre- 
mont was elected President for the next 
year. 



Monday the 17th January was the 
anniversary of the battle of the Cow- 
pens, when General Morgan, ably 
seconded by Col. John Eager Howard, 
defeated the British troops under Col. 
Tarleton at M Hannah's Cowpens," in 
Spartanburg County, South Carolina. 
A grand celebration was intended, and a 
column of gray granite, from fifty to 
sixty tons in weight, was ready for erec- 
tion. An ode was written, and all local 
preparations made for a national cele- 
bration, but as the cooperation of the 
thirteen original States had not been se- 
cured in season, the celebration was very 
properly postponed till April. 

The* Weymouth (Mass.) Historical 
Society held its annual meeting at Tuft's 
library on the 3d January. The pro- 
ceedings are reported at length in the 
Weymouth Gazette of the 21st of the 
same month. Elias Richards was re- 
elected President, and the Rev. Anson 
Titus, Jr., Corresponding Secretary. 
The treasury was reported to be in an 
excellent condition. During the year 
papers were read on the Early Physi- 
cians of Weymouth by P. F. Forsarth ; 
History of the Weymouth Light Horse 
Troop, by C. C. Tower; The Land 
Owners of Weymouth prior to 1644, by 
Anson Titus, Jr. ; Roads, Houses and 
Families of East Braintree about 1803, 



by Samuel A. Bates; East Weymouth 
in 1818, by Alvah Raymond ; Old Spain 
in 1793, by Thomas F. Cleverly ; The 
Old North about 1800, and Weymouth 
Landing two and three generations ago, 
by Gilbert Nash. Inscriptions have 
been collected from the burying grounds 
and recorded, and additions have been 
made to the department of genealogy 
in the Early Tirrells of Weymouth, the 
Lovell Genealogy, and Something about 
William Dyer of Weymouth in 1690, and 
his family. The paper of the evening 
was upon The Extinct Families of Wey- 
mouth, by Gilbert Nash. 

The first publication of the Society 
will soon appear, entitled, "Journal of 
General Solomon Lovell, kept during 
the Penobscot Expedition, 1779." Gen- 
eral Lovell was the only Weymouth 
General in the Revolution. 



The Literary and Historical Society 
of Quebec met on the 22d January, 
when a paper was read upon The Wreck 
on the 4th November, 1843, of H. M. 
Transport Premier, conveying a wing of 
the 1st Royals from Quebec to the West 
Indies. The narrative is from the pen 
of Dr. Dartwell, the surgeon of the ill- 
starred vessel. 



The Sagadahoc Historical Society of 
Bath, Maine, has announced its intention 
to unite with the City Council in prepar- 
ations for the Centennial Anniversary 
of the Settlement of Bath, which falls 
on the 19th of March, 1881, that be- 
ing the date of the first town meet- 
ing, and therefore preferred to the 17th 
of February, the date of the incorpora- 
tion of the town. 



3 o8 



editor's chronicle 



It is proposed to celebrate the first 
quarter centennial of the early settle- 
ment of Spirit Lake, Iowa, by erecting 
a suitable monument to the memory of 
the first settlers who were massacred by 
the Sioux in March, 1856. 



The Historic Genealogical Society, 
Boston, Mass., met at its hall February 
2d, when an historical and descriptive 
address upon Dorchester, England, was 
delivered by the Rev. Edward G. Porter, 
of Lexington, Mass. The orator sug- 
gested that the people of Massachusetts 
might well contribute to place a tablet 
in the porch of St. Peters' church in 
Dorchester, Eng., in memory of the Rev. 
John White, who led the emigrants that 
settled the town of the same name in 
Massachusetts, and whose bones lie in 
the English churchyard. 



The New York Historical Society held 
its stated monthly meeting February 
1st. Among the interesting contribu- 
tions to the library was a collection 
of the official papers of the great Fair 
for the benefit of the Sanitary Com- 
mission, known as the Metropolitan Fair, 
presented by Mr. John H. Gourlie, one 
of its managers. With the exception of 
the Union Defence Committee Papers, 
this society now possesses the records of 
all the great Union movements of the 
late war. The society is rich in docu- 
ments of a similar character, including 
the minutes of the Sons of Liberty, 
the Committee of Safety, and the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence of 1774. 
The Hon. Hamilton Fish was elected 
First Vice President. His services as 
President are well remembered. He 



thoroughly represents the Whig element 
of New York. The paper of the even- 
ing was read by Judge George G. Mun- 
ger, late of Rochester, now of New York, 
upon " The Influence of the Epoch 
of Richard II. on American History." 
We are glad to learn that the com- 
mittees are moving to secure suitable en- 
dowments for the Library and Publica- 
tion Fund, and a new building in a more 
central site for the society. 



The Maine Historical Society took 
formal possession of its new rooms in City 
Building, Portland, where its treasures are 
now on exhibition — on the 2d February. 
The proceedings were marked by great 
spirit. Publications are to be issued in 
two series: Collections and Proceedings. 
The address was delivered by Joseph 
Williamson, well known to historical 
students by his History of Belfast. His 
subject was the History of Maine and a 
biographical survey of the contributions 
of the State to historical literature. An 
excellent analysis of the paper appears 
in the Portland Advertiser of the 3d 
February. A paper was also read by 
Rufus K. Sewall, of Wiscasset, on the 
Future Work of the Historians of 
Maine. 

The Wisconsin Historical Society, 
Madison, held its twenty-seventh annual 
meeting on the 3d January. The report 
shows a satisfactory condition of affairs. 
The building fund, which will not be 
touched till it reaches $15,000, is now 
over eight thousand dollars. The li- 
brary contains 43,105 bound volumes, 
and 47,668 pamphlets ; a total of 90,773 
titles. The officers for 1881 are: Presi- 



EDITOR S CHRONICLE 



309 



dent, C. C. Washburn ; Corresponding 
Secretary, Lyman C. Draper. 



A subscription is on foot to obtain 
from the descendants of DeWitt Clinton 
the beautiful half length portrait of the 
famous Governor, by Trumbull, one of 
the most pleasing of his pictures, for 
the gallery of the New York Chamber 
of Commerce, already rich in originals 
and copies from originals of New York 
worthies, and only needing a suitable 
hall for their fitting display. 



The death is recorded of Dr. Joseph 
Clay Habersham of the distinguished 
Georgia family of that name, a gentle- 
man well known in the best circles of 
Northern society, and a surgeon of the 
25 th Georgia regiment in the Confed- 
erate service. He died in Savannah in 
January last, deeply lamented. 



General Fitzhugh Lee has been selected 
as the orator on the unveiling of the 
statue to ''Stonewall" Jackson at New 
Orleans in May next. 



Mr. E. W. Van Voorhis, 129 E. 36th 
Street, New York City, is collecting 
material for a sketch of the Dutchess 
County branch of the family of Van 
Voorhis, and will be thankful for any 
information, such as records of births, 
marriages from family bibles, etc. 



In the columns of the New York 
World there appeared, under date of 
Monday, January 31, an admirable ab- 
stract of all the documents, resolutions, 
letters, etc., of 1781, relating to the York- 
town monument. The paper is entitled 



11 France and America. The recogni- 
tion by the Continental Congress of the 
aid of France in our war of indepen- 
dence." These documents prove be- 
yond possibility of doubt that the 
Congress intended the monument to 
be to the French Alliance. Robert R. 
Livingston, Secretary of Foreign Af- 
fairs, in his letter to Luzerne, the French 
Ambassador, calls it "the monument of 
the allia?ice and of the military virtues 
of the combined forces." 



The bill appropriating thirty thousand 
dollars for the erection of the Saratoga 
monument at Schuylerville, New York, 
passed the House of Representatives at 
Albany on the 25th January. 



The Mason's Lodge of Fredericks- 
burgh, Virginia, in which Washington 
was initiated in 1752, is about to erect 
a Washington Memorial Masonic Tem- 
ple. 



Senator Joseph R. Hawley is the 
orator selected for the Centennial Cele- 
bration of the Massacre at Fort Gris- 
wold, Groton (now Ledyard), Conn., 
which falls in September next. 



The Governors of Illinois, Missouri, 
Arkansas, Tennessee, Nevada and Utah, 
are all natives of Kentucky. Where is 
State pride ? 



A woman by the name of Sally Hun- 
ter is reported to have died at Washing- 
ton, in January, at the age of 115 years. 
She is supposed to be the last of the 
servants of George Washington, by whose 
will she was manumitted. 



PAMPHLETS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY 
RELATING TO THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 

The late John Carter Brown, of Providence, R. I., spared no pains in collecting 
whatever he could find to add to the value of his library as a treasury of every- 
thing pertaining to American history. The writer has been struck with the col- 
lection of pamphlets having reference to matters connected with the war of the 
Revolution. It is his purpose in this article to give some account of those which 
may, perhaps, be regarded as of the highest value, beginning with the year 1774, 
and ending with the year 1781. Of these pamphlets, varying very much in size and 
in interest, there are not far from four hundred. To give even a cursory glance at all 
these, will be impossible. We make the most judicious selection we can, aware, at 
the same time, that the curious reader may regret not to see a notice of some tract 
or pamphlet on a topic which may be of special interest to himself. 

We go back to the year 1774, since it may gratify curiosity to observe what was 
the tone of public sentiment prior to the breaking out of the war. A pamphlet of 
sixteen pages, said to have been written by Dr. Priestly, bears this title, "An Ad- 
dress to the Protestant Dissenters of all Denominations, in the Approaching Election 
of Members of Parliament, with respect to the State of public liberty in general, 
and of American affairs in particular." Chief Justice Allen of Pennsylvania 
expressed his sentiments in a pamphlet of seventy-two pages, entitled " The 
American Crisis, etc." Being a Royalist in sentiment, he left the country not far 
from the commencement of the Revolution, and took up his residence in England, 
where he died in 1780. A pamphlet of thirty- two pages, published by the Tories 
of New York, to throw contempt on the American Congress, bears the title, 
" Americans Roused (The), in a Cure for the Spleen, or Amusement for a Winter's 
evening ; Being the Substance of a Conversation on the Times over a Friendly 
Tankard and Pipe, Between Sharp, a Country Parson ; Bumper, a Country Jus- 
tice ; Fillpot, an Inn Keeper ; Graveairs, a Deacon ; Trim, a Barber ; Brim, a 
Quaker ; Puff, a late Representative. Taken in Short Hand, by Sir Roger de 
Coverly, 1774." We find also, published this year, a letter written from Boston 
to a friend, giving an account of the great sufferings endured by the inhabitants 
of the town, on account of the enforcement of the " Port Bill." A tract of thir- 
ty-one pages, by Pres. Myles Cooper, of King's College, a Tory in Sentiment, has 
written on its title-page these significant words : " This pamphlet, on the 8th of 
September last, was, in full conclave of the Sons of Liberty in New York, com- 
mitted to the flames by the hand of their common executioner ; as it contains 
some queries they cannot, and others they will not answer." Dr. Cooper 
resigned his office in 1778, and returned to England, where he died in 1795. A 
folio of four pages contains " His Majesty's Most Gracious Speech to both Houses 
of Parliament on Wednesday, November 30, 1774." Josiah Quincy, Jr., is repre- 



PAMPHLETS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY 311 

sented in the collection by his " Observations on the Act of Parliament commonly 
called the Boston Port Bill ; with thoughts on Civil Society and Standing Armies." 
There is a London reprint of this pamphlet from the Boston edition. Mr. Bart- 
lett quotes from a writer in the Monthly Review, who, among other things, says : 
" This Shrewd Commentary on the Boston Port Bill will induce us to entertain a 
respectable opinion of these law pleaders." 

Coming now to the year of the war, 1775, we find a large number of valuable 
and important pamphlets. We call attention only to those which at the time must 
have made the deepest impression on the public mind. As the writer has referred 
to several of these in an article recently published in the Magazine of American 
Hisory [V, 427], he will omit mention of those in the library of Brown University 
to which allusion was made in that article. We may form some conception of the 
wrath that must have been awakened in the breasts of the insulted citizens of 
Boston by the oration of Dr. Thomas Bolton, delivered March 15, 1775. We are 
told that " this oration was delivered from the balcony of the British Coffee House 
in Boston to a crowded Audience of Officers, tories, etc., in ridicule of that deliv- 
ered by Dr. Warren." The Orator begins by saying, that he "cannot boast the 
ignorance of Hancock, the insolence of Adams, the absurdity of Rowe, the arro- 
gance of Lee, the turgid bombast of Warren, the treason of Quincy, the hypoc- 
risy of Cooper, nor the principles of Young," etc. Another tract of twenty-four 
pages has this quaint title : " Bull, Patrick — A Wolf in Sheep's Cloathing ; or, An 
Old Jesuit Unmasked, Containing an Account of the wonderful apparition of Father 
Petre's Ghost in the Form of Rev. John Wesley. With some conjectures Con- 
cerning the Secret Causes that moved him to Appear at this very Critical juncture." 
Several original editions of Burke's speeches are among the pamphlets of this 
year, as well as of two of the Earl of Chatham. We find also John Clarke's "An 
impartial and Authentic Narrative of the battle fought on the 17th of June, 1775, 
etc." 2d edit., 36 pp. " Common Sense ; In nine Conferences between a British 
merchant and a Candid merchant of America," with much more in the title. 
The criticism of the Monthly Review on this tract is this : " The Candid merchant 
of America, who is here employed to support Nine tedious Conferences, and to 
be Converted from his opinions, appears to have been a greater booby than even 
the letter-writer, who was brought forward by a reverend Dean." We find also a 
copy of "The Crisis." Folio 2 vols., 91 numbers, 574 pp. This work, we learn, 
is one of great rarity. It contains a remarkable collection of papers attacking the 
Ministry and the British Government in terms of the greatest severity. Dr. John- 
son's famous tract, " Taxation no Tyranny," with numerous replies which it 
called forth, is among the pamphlets. As is well known, this pamphlet was written 
when its author was in the sixty-sixth year of his age, and is an echo of the senti- 
ments which prevailed among those who sustained the government. Another 
small 8vo of 66 pages is said to have been published by Dr. Franklin in London in 
January, 1775 — "Journal of the Proceedings of the Congress held in Philadelphia, 



312 PAMPHLETS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY 

Sept. 15, 1774, etc." We are told that " its effect was startling, for it proclaimed 
to the discriminating British Public, that the English language had acquired new 
vigor and clearness in being transplanted to the Western Shores." We find what 
a writer, at the time of its publication, pronounced to be " A masterly specimen 
of accurate learning," Catharine Macauley's " An Address to the people of Eng- 
land, Ireland and Scotland on the present important Crisis in affairs ;" " Massa- 
chusettensis," a series of letters, numbered i. to xvii., in support of the policy of 
the mother country. For a full notice of these letters, see North American 
Review, Vol. IX., p. 376. "The Parliamentary Register," 14 vols., a thesaurus 
of important matter pertaining to the war of the Revolution. Also the 16 vol- 
umes of "The Remembrancer," said to be "the most important for the period 
it covers of any work extant." We find thirteen pamphlets, varying in size from 
eight to thirty-six pages, including the "Calm Address" of Rev. John Wesley 
and replies to the same. One of these replies has the title, ' ' An old Fox Tarred 
and Feathered," in which the writer charges Wesley of having plagiarized Dr. 
Johnson's "Taxation no Tyranny." "I liken him " — i. e., Wesley — " unto a low 
and puny Tadpole in Divinity which proudly seeks to disembowel an high and 
mighty whale in politics" 

We now reach the year 1776, when the war was fairly inaugurated, and notice, 
as among the most valuable of the works in the library on matters pertaining to the 
Revolution, one which bears the title, " Affairs de l'Angleterre et de l'Amerique 
1776. Anvers MDCCLXXVI." 8vo, 24 cahiers, bound in 19 volumes. Hon. J. R. 
Bartlett says: " This valuable collection of papers, relating to the American Revolu- 
tion, is, from its scarcity, so little known, that no satisfactory account of it exists. It 
is singular that a work so extensive and so important should have escaped the 
notice of Brunet." As a matter of curiosity, one would like to know in what 
other libraries, if any, of the country, this very rare work is found. " An answer 
to the Declaration of the American Congress," in which the author says, that 
" the opinions of the modern Americans on Government, like those of their good 
ancestors on witchcraft, would be too ridiculous to deserve any notice, if, like them 
too, contemptible and extravagant as they be, they had not led to the most serious 
evils." "The Critical Moment, on which the salvation or destruction of the 
British Empire depends. Containing the rise and progress, present state, and 
natural consequences of our American Disputes ; " a pamphlet which attracted 
to itself no inconsiderable attention. This year were published tracts on Amer- 
ican affairs, by Ralph Erskine, Caleb Evans, John Fletcher and other well-known 
divines of Great Britain, editions of which we find in the Library. " Indepen- 
dency, the object of the Congress in America ; or, An Appeal to Facts." Samuel 
Adams and Hancock are severely handled by the writer. The first he calls " the 
would-be Cromwell of America," while Hancock is, to quote Hudibras, 

" A very good and useful tool, 
Which Knaves do work with, called a Fool." 



PAMPHLETS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY 3 1 3 

Another remarkable pamphlet, at one time the property of Jeremy Bentham, is 
worthy of notice: " An Answer to the Declaration of the American Congress." 
The work, we are told, created quite a sensation, and appears to have gone through 
five editions in the year it was published. " Obedience to the best Charter," etc , 
which the writer represents the American, "as the most worthless of manhood, 
as wretches in whose breasts the blackest treason rankles, while devotion shades 
their faces, and rebellion fumes in their hearts ! " We give, for the special benefit 
of the Dutch readers of the Magazine, the title of one of Dr. Price's pamphlets, 
translated and published in Leyden — " Aamerkingen over den aart der Burgerlyhe 
vryheid, over de gronden der Regeering, en over de regtveerdigheid en staatkunde 
van den vorlog met Amerika." Two pamphlets bear the following titles : "The 
Tears of the Foot Guards upon their departure for America," written by an Ensign 
of the Provincial Army ; " " An Answer to the Tears of the Foot Guards, in which 
that respectable Corps are vindicated from the Charges of Puppyism and Cow- 
ardice." The foregoing form but a small part of the pamphlets of 1776. We 
regret we cannot, for want of space, allude to others. 

The same careful collation we must make of the pamphlets for 1777. We 
find a copy of the " Articles of Confederation of the Thirteen States," which was 
once the property of Hon. Henry Laurens, President of Congress. " Double 
Delusion (The) ; or Faction the Cause of all the Confusion. A Joco-Serious 
Review of our American Embroilment." "Essays, Commercial and Political." 
The author favors the independence of New England, and would make the most 
of Southern colonies. " Letter from an Officer in New York to a Friend in 
London." Among other things, the writer says : "Many good families, whom the 
army have moved, have come in shivering to us for protection. Many of the 
ladies have scarce a petticoat to cover them, being stripped of furniture, apparel, 
and every thing that could make a Yankee soldier either a shirt or a pair of 
breeches." 

Passing on to 1778, we find that the writers of several pamphlets, convinced of 
the hopelessness of the struggle, urge the people of the country to give up the une- 
qual strife, and secure the best terms of peace they can obtain. A pamphlet of forty- 
three pages has this title : " Impartial sketch of the various indulgences granted 
by Great Britain to her Colonies, upon which they have founded their presumption 
of soaring towards Independence." He gives his estimate of New England char- 
acter thus : " During the long New England winter months they have nothing to 
do, but cabal with their neighbors, and instruct their children in reading, writing 
and praying; for," adds he, "you'll not meet a New England man but has the 
Bible by heart, and all the laws of his Province." We would be glad to give the 
titles of other pamphlets published this year, but we are limited in the space within 
which this article must be compressed. 

In 1779 the tone of public sentiment in England as to the successful issue of 
the war becomes more discouraging. As an example of the pamphlets of this 



314 PAMPHLETS IN THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY 

year, we find the following : " Observations on American Independency," in which 
the writer advocates a recognition of the Independency of this country. 

Pamphlets relating to the Andre affair, and published in 1780, are numerous in 
the library. The same is true with regard to General Burgoyne, 1779-80, and of 
Joseph Galloway for the same years, and for 1781. A pamphlet of fifty-nine 
pages, published in 1780, has this title, " Nathan to Lord North." The writer 
does not mince his words in this severe attack on his Lordship. " To shew the 
arch-fiend in his proper diabolical shape, to procure your removal from the ear of 
Majesty, where you have been too long squat like a toad, inspiring venom, would 
give me the greatest pleasure." 

The number of pamphlets for 1781 on American affairs is between thirty and 
forty, some of them exceedingly curious. There is a Dutch pamphlet, i2mo, 36 
pp., the translation of the title of which is as follows : " American Bible, dedi- 
cated to Mr. Adams, the Ambassador of the thirteen United States of North 
America, near the States General of the United Netherlands. To be had every- 
where." There are fifteen chapters in the work, among the titles of which are the 
following : " Chapter II. The New Republic must not allow any flesh to stick to 
her arm until she be entirely free ; " " Chapter VI. America must bridle the 
preachers." " Chapter VII. Banish Hypocrites." "Chapter XIV. America must 
guard against Traitors, and banish those suspected of Disloyalty." Several 
pamphlets by M. TAbbe Raynal on " Revolution de l'Amerique," of which we 
can make only a bare mention. 

The writer has thus briefly alluded to the treasures found in the library of Mr. 
Brown upon a single topic of interest in American history. Doubtless some of 
the pamphlets relating to matters pertaining to the Revolutionary war are of very 
little value, and if destroyed the loss would not be felt. But many of these appar- 
ently ephemeral productions contain material which some future American his- 
torian may find of great service in throwing new